Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Pontellidae ( Family )
            Pontella ( Genus )
Pontella securifer  Brady, 1883   (F,M)
Syn.: Pontellina (Ivellina) securifer : Claus,1893;
Pontella spinipes (M) : Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1020, 1021, Rem.M);
Pontella meadi (M) : Chiba, 1956 (p.52, figs.M, Rem.);
Ref.:
Brady, 1883 (p.96, figs.F,M,); Thompson, 1888 d (p.143); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.461, 477, 774, figs.F,M); 1895 c (p.260); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.142, Rem. F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.236, 252); Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1021); A. Scott, 1909 (p.160, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.361); Sewell, 1912 (p.354, 372, Rem.M); 1914 a (p.238); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 277); Rose, 1929 (p.45); Sewell, 1932 (p.384); Wilson, 1932 a (p.151, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.117); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.99, figs.M); Sewell, 1947 (p.250); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.297, figs.F,M); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.308); Grice, 1962 (p.239, figs.M); Voronina, 1962 a (p.68, fig.5); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.55, 56, figs.F,M); Paiva, 1963 (p.70); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.259, figs.F,M, Rem.); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.102, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.186, Rem.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.83); Weikert, 1975 (p.142); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.777, 822, figs.M, Rem.M); Pillai, 1975 (p.133, figs.M, Rem.); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.660, figs.F,M); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.75, figs.F,M); Baessa-de-Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.95, figs.F,M); Ohtsuka & al., 1991 (p.214); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.870, Pl.154,155: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 960, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.200, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.185, 194); Jeong & al., 2008 (p.92, figs.F,M, Rem.).
Species Pontella securifer - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (3). [p.260, Fig.234].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (right lateral side); c,last thoracic segment and urosome right lateral side); d, P5.
Nota: A1reaches back to the 3rd thoracic segment.

Male: e, A1 (portion with clasping); f, P5. Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 27:13:18:7:5:30 = 100.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.44, 1-9].
Female (from E China Sea): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forehead (lateral); 3, urosome (another specimen), dorsal: 4, idem (lateralleft side); 5, right P5 (posterior).

Male: 6, habitus (dorsal); 7, forehead (lateral); 8, distal part of right A1; 9, P5 (posterior).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : E.G. Silas & P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1973 (1976), 15 (2). [p.824, e].
Male (from Indian Ocean): e, right A1.
Scale as in Calanopia minor.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : E.G. Silas & P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1973 (1976), 15 (2). [p.823, Fig.21, i-j, n].
Male: i, habitus (dorsal); j, P5; n, forehead (lateral).
Scale as in Calanopia minor.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.6].
Female: 6, habitus (dorsal).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Figs.14, 21].
Female: 14, urosome (ventral); 21, idem (dorsal).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.34].
Female: 34, forehead (lateral).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.43].
Female: 43P5 (anterior view).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.9].
Male: right A1 (distal part).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Figs.37, 41].
Male: 37, left P5 (distal part); 41, right P5 (posterior view).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.32].
Male: 32, Th5 and urosome (dorsal).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon, I.H. Choi & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (2). [p.92, Fig.2].
Female Type I (from SE Korea): A, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); C, A1; D, urosome (lateral, right side); E, urosome (ventral);


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon, I.H. Choi & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (2). [p.94, Fig.3].
Female Type I: A, A2; B, Md (mandibular gnathobase); C, Md (mandibular palp); D, Mx1; E, Mx2; F, Mxp.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon, I.H. Choi & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (2). [p.95, Fig.4].
Female Type I: A-D, P1 to P4 (left legs).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon, I.H. Choi & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (2). [p.96, Fig.5].
Female Type II (from SE Korea): A, habitus (dorsal); B, forehead (lateral); C, Md (cutting edge); D, urosome (ventral); E, idem (lateral, left side); F, P5.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon, I.H. Choi & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (2). [p.97, Fig.6].
Male: A, habitus (dorsal); B, forehead (lateral); C, right A1; D, P5.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.76, Fig.44-1].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, urosome (lateral, right side); d, idem (dorsal, form A); e, idem (dorsal, form B); f, P5; g, P5 (form A).


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.77, Fig.44-2].
Female: h, habitus (dorsal); i, urosome (lateral, left side); j, P5.

Male: k, habitus (dorsal); l, forehead (lateral); m, A1; n, P5; o, distal segments of right P5.

Scale bars in mm.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Wilson in Bull. U.S. natn Mus., 100, 14 (4). [Pl.17, Figs.207-214].
Female (from Pacific): 207-208, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively): 209,posterior prosome and urosome (dorsal); 210, urosome (ventral); 211, P5.

Male: 212, habitus (dorsal); 213, right A1; 214, P5.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Wilson in Bull. U.S. natn Mus., 100, 14 (4). [Pl.28, Figs.421-425].
Female: 421, posterior prosome and urosome (dorsal); 422, idem (dorsal; another specimen); 423, idem (dorsal; another specimen); 424, P5.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.238, Pl.34, Fig.1-3].
Male (from equatorial Pacific): 1, forehead (lateral); 2, distal end of right A1; 3, P5.

Remarks: Both sexes have a large lens situated at the base of the rostrum.


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.S. Brady in Rep. Scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23). [Pl. XLV, Figs.1-9].


Species Pontella securifer - Plate 23 of morphological figuresissued from : P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1975, 17 (2). [p.132, Fig.1, J-L].
Male (from Indian Ocean): J, cephalon (lateral); K, right A1; L, P5.

Scale bar : 0.3 mm.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.195); Wilson, 1942 a (p.203); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.323, 451, 465); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.136); Kott, 1957 (p.6); Sherman, 1963 (p.216: fig.2, p.220: fig.9, p.223: fig.13, p.224: fig.14); Heinrich, 1964 (p.86: fig.4); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Heinrich, 1974 (p.44, fig.2); Patel, 1975 (p.660); Weikert, 1975 (p.142, carte); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.9, 16); Sherman & Schaner, 1968 (p.583, fig.1); Brodsky, 1972 (p.256); Grice & Gibson, 1978 (p.23, tab.8); Dessier, 1979 (p.206, as securifrons); Turner & al., 1979 (p.289, Tab.3); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Vives, 1982 (p.295); De Decker, 1984 (p.317); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Brenning, 1987 (p.30, Rem.); Diouf & Diallo, 1987 (p.260); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.1); 1989 a (tab.1); Mizushima, 1990 (fig.2, 3, tab.2); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.107); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Tiwari & Nair, 1993 (p.67); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1994 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.72); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.2,4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Kazmi, 2004 (p.229); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, seasonal distribution)
NZ: 15

Distribution map of Pontella securifer by geographical zones
Species Pontella securifer - Distribution map 3Issued from : A.K. Heinrich inTrudy Inst. Okeanol., 1974, 98 [p.44, Fig.2].
Distibution of four species of Pontellidae from SW Atlantic (Cruise of the R/V 'Akademik Kurchatov' 1971 and 1972).
Points = stations; square= Pontella atlantica ; asterisk= Pontella marplatensis ; triangle= Pontella securifer; circle = Pontellopsis perspicax.
Species Pontella securifer - Distribution map 4issued from : H.G. Jeong, H-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon, I.H. Choi & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (2). [p.99, Fig.8].
Distribution of Pontella securifer based on previous records and on the present study.
Species Pontella securifer - Distribution map 5issued from : P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1975, 17 (2). [p.140, Fig.5].
Occurrence of Pontella diagonalis and Pontella securifer collected from 54 stations in the Indian Ocean (See in: Hand Book to the International Zooplankton Collections, volume I, 1969).
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), off Angola, G. of Guinea, off NE St. Paul Is., Roxo Cap, Casamance, Dakar, off Cape Verde Is., off Mauritania, off W Azores, ? Patagonia, off N Brazil, off Amazon, Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, Yucatan, Yucatan (Ascension Bay), G. of Mexico, Florida, Woods Hole, Georges Bank, ? off SE Nova Scotia, Medit. (off Malta Is.), G. of Aden, G. of Oman, Arabian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Laccadive Is., Is. Maldives Is., Sri Lanka, Natal, Indian, India (Saurashtra coast, Bombay, Madras, GUlf of Mannar, Palk Bay, Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is., Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, Gulf of Tonkin, Hong Kong, China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW), S Korea, Japan (Bungo Channel), Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, SE, Great Barrier, New South Wales), off Hawaii, ? Puget Sound, W Baja California, G. of California, W Colombia, off Peru, S Galapagos
N: 95
Lg.:
(16) F: 4,55-3,8; M: 4,2-3,65; (34) F: 4,14; (35) F: 4,2-4,02; M: 4,08-3,6; (45) F: 4,5-4,25; M: 4,1-3,85; (46) F: 4,4; M: 4,1; (73) M: 4,1; (101) F: 4,46; 4,4; M: 4,4; (104) M: 4,3; (120) F: 4,38-4,07; M: 4-3,62; (137) F: 4,5-4,25; M: 4,1; (256) M: 4,02-3,62; (290) F: 3,9-4; M: 3,4-3,65; (530) F: 3,6; M: 3,4; (807) F: 4,3-3,87; M: 4-3,7; (1021) F: 3,73-4,07; 3,61-3,67; M: 3,2-3,51; (1023) F: 3,89-4,26; M: 4,04-4,63; (1110) M: 4,64; (1115) M: 3,7-4,45; {F: 3,60-4,55; M: 3,20-4,64}
Rem.: epiplagic.
According to Silas & Pillai (1973, p.823) the records of this species from Puget Sound (Sewell, 1947, p.250) and from Woods Hole (Wilson, 1932) are doubtful, because for Vervoort (1965) the distribution range of this species in Pacific and Atlantic is between 35°N to 35°S.
P. securifer, P. diagonalis and P. spinipes are closely allied belonging to a "species group".
Jeong & al (2008 b, p.95) point to the occurrence of two morphological types of female in China Sea (female type I and 2 illustrated in figures 2-5). For the authors, in the female originally described from Mid-Pacific Ocean some meaningful morphological variations were found in the genital compound somite (Brady, 1883; Wilson, 1950; Chen & Zhang, 1965); however, Wilson (1950) suggested that P. secirifer is a single species because the male has no inclination toward variation. Zheng & al. (1982) divided females from the East China Sea into two types by characteristic features in their habitus, genital compound somite and P5. There is a little difference between Korean and Chinese individuals: last pedigerous somite of type I from Korean waters is asymmetrical while that of Chinese waters almost symmetrical; P5 type II from Korean waters is asymmetrical while that of Chinese waters almost symmetrical. Although these differences might be in a species level, the authors retain two types as in Zheng & al.'s suggestion, in that male of only single type is found. It is necessary to reexamine by such methods as molecular analysis to verify ist taxonomic position. Meanwhile, type I is identical with illustrations of P. securifer provided by Tanaka (1964) and Brady (1883) and type II is similar to figures of Gisebrecht (1892).
Last update : 13/08/2014
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