Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Oithonidae ( Family )
        Oithona ( Genus )
Oithona frigida  Giesbrecht, 1902   (F,M)
Syn.: no Oithona frigida var. pseudofrigida Rosendorn, 1917 a (p.19, figs.F,M); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.107, figs.F); Wellershaus, 1970 (p.482, Rem.F);
no O. frigida : Razouls & Durand, 1991 (p.75)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1902 (p.29, Descr.F, figs.F); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.363); Rosendorn, 1917 a (p.16, figs.F,M); Brady, 1918 (p.28, figs.F); Kiefer, 1929 g (p.6, Rem.F,M); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 283); Vervoort, 1951 (p.149, Rem.); 1957 (p.145, Rem.); Tanaka, 1960 (p.58, figs.F); Wellershaus, 1970 (p.480, 481, Rem.F); Bradford, 1971 b (p.28, Rem.); Shuvalov, 1980 (p.104, figs.F,M, Rem.M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.663, 665, figs.F, Rem.); Nishida, 1985 a (p.45, 48, Redescr.F, figs.F, Rem., p.133); Razouls, 1995 (p.182, figs.F,M); Menshenina & Melnikov, 1995 (p.129); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.886, 966, figs.F)
Species Oithona frigida - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.47, Fig.22].
Female (S Indian Ocean): a, thoracic segment 5 and genital segment partial (lateral right side); b, P5; c, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal); d, idem (ventral); e, Mx2; f, Mxp; g, P1; h, P2; i, P3; j, P4.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.46, Fig.21].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, A1; d, A2; e, Md (mandibular palp); f, Md (biting edge); g, Mx1.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosome and caudal ramus 10:30:16:15:15:14. Mx1: inner lobe 1 with 3 thick distal marginal setae about equal in length; outer lobe 1 and outer lobe 2 each with 1 seta; inner lobe 3 with 1 thick spinulose seta, 1 longer seta and 1 fine seta; endopodite oval, with 1 seta about twice as long as endopod itself; exopodite with 3 setae.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.17, Fig.7].
Female: a, P4.
Nota: Proportion of lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 64.1, Urosome : 56.09 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 6: 12: 6: 6: 7: 6.5. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae ; Si = inner setae), P1 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 4 Si ; P2 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P3 : 1, 0, 1 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P4 : 0, 0, 1 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si . Distal outer seta of exopod 3 of P4 long (compare with O. pseudofrigida).

Male: b, habitus (dorsal); c, urosome; d, left A1; e, Md (mandibular palp).
Nota: Proportion of total lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 65.48, Urosome : 34.52 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 10: 16: 11: 9: 7: 7: 10.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.18, Fig.8].
Male: a, P1; b, P2; c, P3; d, P4.
Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae), P1 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; P2: 1, 1, 3 Se ; P3 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; P4 : 1, 1, 2 Se.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Copepoden. Res. voyage du S. Y. Belgica. Rapports scientifiques, Zoologie, 1902. [Taf. VI, Figs.10-16].
Female (from Antarctic): 10, forehead (lateral); 11, idem (dorsal); 12, Mx1: 13, P1; 14, P2; 15, exopod of P3; 16, P4.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : V.S. Shuvalov in Opred. Faune SSSR, Nauka, Leningrad, 1980, 125. [p.105, Fig.19].
Female: 1-2, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3, A1; 4-5, forehead (lateral and dorsal, respectively); 6, Md (masticatory edge); 7, A2; 8, Mx2; 9-10, thoracic segments 4 and 5, genital segment (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 11, Mx1; 12, Mxp; 13, posterior part of urosome (dorsal); 14, P1; 15, P2; 16, P4.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [Pl. XXV, 8-10].
Female (from 66°59'S-67°03'E, 41°08'E-40°44'E): 8, habitus (dorsal); 9, P1; 10, P4.
figs.9 and 10 at the same scale.

Nota: Prosome and urosome in the proportional lengths 54 to 46.
Urosomal segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 9 : 32 : 15 : 16 : 13 : 15 = 100.
A1 13-segmented, extends to the middle of the genital segment.
The outer marginal spine on the 3rd exopodal segment of P4 is 1.3 times as long as the segments of the exopod taken together; the coxa is furnished with hairs on the proximal outer margin
The carmin-red colour remained around the oral parts and in the cephalothorax.


Species Oithona frigida - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p.59].
Female: Number of outer marginal spine and inner marginal seta on the exopodal segments of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Compl. Ref.:
Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (1936) (p.185, distribution charts); ? Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Fukuchi & Tanimura, 1981 (p.37); ? Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents); Kawaguchi & al., 1986 (tab.2); Zmijewska, 1987 (tab.2a); Hopkins & Torres, 1988 (tab.1); Freire & al., 1993 (tab.3); Gonzalez & al., 1994 (p.331); Metz, 1995 (p.190); 1996 (p.34, 87); Atkinson & al., 1996 (p.1387, diel periodicity, feeding); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Atkinson, 1998 (p.289, Table 1, biological data); Elwers & Dahms, 1998 (p.150, 151); Ansorge & al., 1999 (p.135, Table 2, abundance v.s. TS diagram); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, 5, Appendix); Chiba & al., 2001 (p.95, tab.4, 7); Hunt & al., 2001 (p.374, tab.1, 2); Dubischar & al., 2002 (p.3871, abundance); Ward & al., 2003 (p.121, tab.4); Hunt, 2004 (p.1, 47, 74, Table 3.2, 4.4, fig.4.7, 4.11); Bielecka & Zmijewska, 2005 (p.96); Hunt & Hosie, 2006 (p.1203, tab.2); Tsujimoto & al., 2006 (p.140, Table1); Deibel & Daly, 2007 (p.271, Table 6b, Rem.: Antarctic polynyas); Fielding & al., 2007 (p.2106, tab.1); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2008 (p.1056, Table 1, 2); Swadling & al., 2010 (p.887, abundance, indicator species); Magris & al., 2011 (p.260, abundance, interannual variability); Yang & al., 2011 a (p.921, Table 2, inter-annual variation 1999-2006); Ward & al., 2012 (p.78, Table A1, B1, abundance, weight); Ojima & al., 2013 (p.1293, Table 2, 3, abundance); Ward & al., 2014 (p.305, Table 4, 6, 7, seasonal and abundance in the ''Discovery'' Investigations in the 1930s)
NZ: 5

Distribution map of Oithona frigida by geographical zones
Species Oithona frigida - Distribution map 3Issued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.133, Fig.82].
Indo-Pacific geographical distribution of Oithona frigida. Dotted line: Antarctic Convergence.
Species Oithona frigida - Distribution map 4issued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [Taf. I].
The genus Oithona: Distribution of species sampled during the Deutsche Tiefsee Expedition 1898-99.
The size of symbols indicates the relative quantitty of the species.
Species Oithona frigida - Distribution map 5Issued from : K.M. Swadling, So. Kawaguchi & G.W. Hosie in Deep-Sea Research II, 2010, 57. [p.898, Fig.6 (continued)].
Distribution of indicator species Oithona frigida from the BROKE-West survey (southwest Indian Ocean) during January-February 2006.
Sampling with a RMT1 net (mesh aperture: 315 µm), oblque tow from the surface to 200 m.
The survey area was located predominantly within the seasonal ice zone, and in the month prior to the survey there was considerable ice coverage over the western section but none over the east.

See map showing sampling sites in Calanus propinquus.
Species Oithona frigida - Distribution map 6Issued from : A.C. Hardy & E.R. Gunther in Discovery Reports, 1935 (1936), 11. [p.184, Fig.84].
Charts showing the distribution of Oithona frigida) in the upper layers of waters at stations in the 1926-7 surveys around South Georgia.
The squares represent the average numbers per 50 m vertical haul from 250 m (or less at shallow-water stations) to the surface with N 70 V nets.
Loc:
Antarct. (Croker Passage, Drake Passage, Scotia Sea, King George Is., Potter Cove, Peninsula, Weddell Sea, Atlant. SW, SE, Syowa station, Indian, Lützow-Holm Bay, Pacif. SW, SE, Ross Sea, Prydz Bay), sub-Antarct. ( N South Georgia, Atlant. SW, off Prince Edward Is., Crozet Is., Indian, Pacif. SW, Ross Sea), S Indian, off S Tasmania, Atlant. SW (in Björnberg & al., 1981), Brazil (Mucuri estuary), ? [ Aegean Sea (in Pavlova, 1966, p.44), Barbada Is. (in Sander & Moore, 1978, p.233), Yucatan (in Suarez & Gasca, 1989, p.200)]
N: 56
Lg.:
(25) F: 1,4-1,13; (31) F: 1,23; (33) F: 1,35-1,25; (35) F: 1,28-1,25; (66) F: 1,35-1,19; (247) F: 1,3; (627) F: 1,24-1,23; (649) F: 1,20; M: 0,84; (880) F: 1,19-1,35; {F: 1,13-1,40; M: 0,84}
Rem.: epi-bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-1000 m.
Certain locality records in the subtropical Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea result from a confusion with O. pseudofrigida. For Vervvort (1951, p.149) a closely related form, differing from the typical O. frigida in the spinulation of the swimming legs (the number of outer edge spines on the P3 and P4) has been described as O. frigida var. pseudofrigida Rosendorn (1917 a, p.19) from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
Nishida (1985, p.48) points to this species and closely allied O. pseudofrigida possess 2 setae on the free segment of P5, but are closely related to O. plumifera and O. setigera and quite different from those species placed in Dioithona by Kiefer (1935). This suggests that the present subgenus Dioithona, as presently defined, does not represent a monophyletic group.
Last update : 19/06/2014
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