Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Megacalanidae ( Family )
            Megacalanus ( Genus )
Megacalanus princeps  Wolfenden, 1904   (F,M)
Syn.: Macrocalanus longicornis Sars, 1905 b (p.7);
Megacalanus longicornis Pearson, 1906 (p.6, Rem.); Van Breemen, 1908 a (p.13, fig.F); Farran, 1908 b (p.21); Sars, 1912; 1925 (p.11, figs.F,M); Sewell, 1929 (p.27, Rem.); Rose, 1929; 1933 a (p.64, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.45); Wilson, 1936 c (p.89); Wilson, 1942 a (p.193); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.7); Vervoort, 1946 (p.49); C.B. 1950 (p.262); Tanaka, 1953 (p.129); Mazza, 1966 (p.69); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.268); Shih & al., 1971 (p.37); Lee & al., 1971 (p.1151); Morioka, 1972 a (p.314); Vives & al., 1975 (p.35, tab.II); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); Baessia de Aguiar, 1987 (p.40, fig.F, Rem.F,M); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.57); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.102); Miller, 2002 (p.129, figs.F,M, Rem.: variability);
Ref. compl.: Pearson, 1906 (p.6, Rem.); Van Breemen, 1908 a (p.13, fig.F); Farran, 1908 b (p.21); Sars, 1912; 1925 (p.11, figs.F,M); Sewell, 1929 (p.27, Rem.); Rose, 1929; 1933 a (p.64, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.45); Wilson, 1936 c (p.89); Wilson, 1942 a (p.193); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.7); Vervoort, 1946 (p.49); C.B. 1950 (p.262); Tanaka, 1953 (p.129); Mazza, 1966 (p.69); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.268); Shih & al., 1971 (p.37); Lee & al., 1971 (p.1151); Morioka, 1972 a (p.314); Macdonald & al., 1972 (p.213, fig.4, hydrostatic pressure effect); Vives & al., 1975 (p.35, tab.II); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); Baessia de Aguiar, 1987 (p.40, fig.F, Rem.F,M); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.57); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.102); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.426)
Ref.:
Wolfenden, 1904 (p.112, Descr.F, figs.F); A. Scott, 1909 (p.13, figs.F, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.196, figs.F,M); With, 1915 (p.41, figs.F, Rem.); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.8); Farran, 1926 (p.230); Jespersen, 1934 (p.45); Farran, 1939 (p.360); Jespersen, 1940 (p.9); Vervoort, 1946 (p.49, figs. juv., Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.25, Rem.: abnormality, fig.F); 1948 (p.555, Rem.); Tanaka, 1956 (p.262, figs.F); Vervoort, 1957 (p.32, Rem.); 1963 b (p.86, Rem.); Paiva, 1963 (p.16, figs.F); Grice, 1963 a (p.495); Mazza, 1966 (p.69); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.241); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.34, figs.F,M); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.268); Guérédrat, 1969 (p.65, Rem.); Lee & al., 1971 (p.1151); Silas, 1972 (p.645); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.191, figs.F, M, Rem.F); Roe, 1984 (p.356); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4, Rem.); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Fleminger, 1985 (p.276, 284, Table 1, fig.M)); Michel, 1994 (p.177, Rem.); Bradfod-Grieve, 1994 (fig.98); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.834, Pl.126: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.877, 905, figs.F,M); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.141: figs.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.912, figs.F,M, Rem.);
Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : N.R. Wolfenden in J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., n. ser. 7, 1904. [Pl. IX, Figs. 1, 2].
Female (from 59-60°N, 8°42'-80'W): 1, P1 (basal segments); 2, P3.
Nota: Head and 1st pedigerous segment separate, 4th and 5th separate.
A1 25-segmented, much longer than the body.
P1 with an extraordinary double-hooked process on the dorsal surface of the basipod 2, an upper and lower hook placed vertically, the latter very strong and prominent.
Genital segment well-developed symmetrical.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.19, Fig.4].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, idem (right lateral side); C, A1; D, A2; E, Md (mandibular palp); F, Md (mandibular blade); G, Mx1; H, Mx2; I, Mxp.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.20, Fig.4 (overleaf)].
Female: J, P1; K, P2; L, P3; M, P4; N, P5.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.21, Fig.5].
Male: A, habitus (dorsal); B, idem (left lateral side); C, C', right A1; D, left A1; E, A2; F, Md; G, Mx1; H, Mx2; I, Mxp.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.22, Fig.5 (overleaf)].
Male: J, P1; K, P2; L, P3; M, P4; N, right P5; O, left P5.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1956, V (2). [p.263, Fig.3]. As Megacalanus longicornis
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral right side); d, basipods and endopod of P1.
Rostrum consists of two strong spines. Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 41:20:15:7:17 = 100. A1 (25-segmented) exceeds end of the furca by 9 segments.Mxp is furnished with stiff hairs on the middle part of the basipod 1. Proeminent hook on the basipod 2 of P1 at the junction with the endopod., and on the proximal half on the basipod 2


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from: G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.I, figs. 1-12].As Megacalanus longicornis.
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side); 3, anterior part of the head (lateral); 4, rostrum; 5, dorsal prominence with sensory hairs; 6, distal partion of A1; 7, A2; 8, labrum (ventral view); 9, labium; 10, Md; 11, Mx1; 12, Mx2.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from: G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.II, figs. 1-11]. As megacalabus longicornis
Female: 1, Mxp; 2, P1; P3; 4, P5.

Male: 5, habitus (lateral left side); 6, forehead (lateral); 7, rostrum; 8, spermatophore; 9, segment of A1 showing two aesthetascs; 10, P5; 11, exopod of P5 (enlarged).


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in The John Murray Expedition, 1933-34, Scientific Reports, VIII (1), 1947. [p.26, Fig.2]. As Megacalanus princeps var. inermis.
Female (fromArabian Sea): A, habitus (lateral right side); B, Mx1; C, mx2; D, Mxp; E, P1; F, basal part of P2; G, P5.
Nota: Proportional lengths of prosome and abdomen as 75 to 25. The posterior thoracic margin on each side is produced backwards and ends in a blunty rounded prominence, that on the left side being more acutely than on the right. Urosome 4-segmented, having the proportional lengths 41:17:13:12, caudal rami 17. Mxp with a line of simple spines along the base of this patch, and the remainder of the spinules all bifurcate (With, 1915, p.42, has called attention to the hairs (spinules) on the 2nd basal segment as bifurcate or divided into three branches). The P1 differs from that of the typical form by the absence of the characteristic spine on the anterior aspect of the 2nd basal segment. A single specimen among a majotity of normal forms.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued frm : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate I, Figs.12-18].
Female (from Indonesia-Malaysia): 12, habitus (dorsal); 13, last thoracic and genital segments (left side); 14, Mx2; 15, P1; 16, P2; 17, P3; 18, P5.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.132, Fig.2]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Female: A, habitus (lateral) and dorsal view of cephalic crest of specimen collected offshore from California (34°50'N, 123°E; B, same for an uncrested specimen collected near Hawaiian Islands.
Scale bar: 4,0 mm.
Nota: A1 symmetrical, 25-segmented, estend past the caudal furcae by 5-6 segments. Detailed examination of A2 and Md showed no distinctions between specimens with and without crests. Mx1 of author's specimens have setal counts agreeing with Sars (1924), not with those of Sewell's (1947); however, the two maculae cribrosae shown by Sewell are present. Since Sewell was describing a variant form (inermis) without hooks on the basis of P1, possibly his slightly variant counts are part of a character complex. P1 are armed with a stout, antero-dorsally directed spine at the anterior, medial, distal corner of the basis; they appear to be suitable to assist wit holding prey against the mouthparts; a central lumen passes through each spine, emerging at the side just short of the tip. For the author this canal does not deliver toxin into impaled prey. A simple, singly curved seta with 2 rows of short setules arises from the base of the spine and extends along the anterior, medial edge of the endopod. It does not resemble the doubly curved seta with bottle-brush setules common at this position in a number of Calanoid families. In many calanoids (for example , this seta lies adjacent to a row of long, flexible denticles along the distal, anterior edge of dendopdal segment 1. Ferrari & Steinberg (1993) have described this structure in Scolecitrichidae, terming it Von Vaupel Klein's organ (because Vaupel Klein, 1972) discussed its value as a character in Euchirella. Neither denticles nor pores were observed at the distal end of endopodal segment 1 in M. longicornis.
The articulation between the cephalosome and 1st pedigerous segment is deep and flexible. In fact, these copepods are so large that it is possible to place a blunt needle into the arthropodial fold of this joint and show that it runs right around the body from the ventral edge of the pleuron to the prominence at the dorsal midline.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.135, Fig.4]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Female: left picture, anterior surface of basis, exopodite 1 and endopodite 1 of P1, illustrating the position and form of the basis spine and seta, a macula cribrosa is located on the basis beside the articulation of exopodite 1 (little circle). Right picture, lateral view of P1 basis hook.
Scale bars: left picture = 0.1 mm; right picture = 0.2 mm.
Nota: The small, presumably sensory, organs termed laminae cribrosae, or maculae cribrosae, by With (1915) were found on the anterior surface of P1 at the positions (one each on basipodite 1, endopodite 2, exopodites 1 and 2) by Sewell (1947); the term translates as 'sieve plates' or 'sieve spots', but the actual structure is an oval neural nexus (clearly the swollen end of a nerve, visible proximally) in the epidermis, attached by thin tubules (axons, dendrites ?) to a ring of spherules embedded at the surface of the chitin (fig.5, b,-c); the patterns are not consistently different between crested and uncrested forms (maculae cribrosae are also reported for Bathycalanus by Sewell, 1947).


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.136, Fig.5]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Female: A, neural nexis that is the interior section of a macula cribrosa on the proximal surface of the mandibular gnathobase: B, surface spherules of the same macula cribrosa.
Male: C, macula cribrosa with fewer spherules, one of them located centrally, on exopodite 3 of P5


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.139, Fig.8]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Male P5 (posterior: left legs are on the left sides). A, crested forms from California; B, uncrested forms from North Atlantic. Note : Maculae cribrosae indicated by little circles of dots (only on the posterior surface surface, not the anterior).
Scale bar : 0.4 mm.
Nota: The male P5 is somewhat assymetrical, the right exopodal segment 3 being longer and somewhat different in shape from the left. Exopodal segment 2 left bears a medial, domed projection emerging from an attachment collar and terminating in a hair-covered filament. This is possibly a modified seta; it is located a little proximal to the position of the medial seta on exopodal segment 3 in the female. The collar could derive from the setular arthropodial membrane


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.137, Fig.6]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Male: Left picture, left A1 (dorsal aspect; left divided, repeating segment 15); Right picture, right A1 (arrow indicates seta flattened against segment 17. Segments 12 and 13 from each picture are also shown in ventral aspect where they bear patches of acuminate denticles (20 to 30 per segment).
Scale bar: 1.0 mm.
Nota: The A1 are slightly asymmetrical, the right 24-segmented, the left 25-segmented. On both sides, segments 7-9 are fused, but with remnants of articulation, and there is similar stiffening between 12 and 13. Segment 9 on both sides bears a clavate seta, the bulb (unusually elongate) of which shows an internal structure of droplets.
In most male specimens the right A1 is prserved with segments 15-21 in a tight semicircle with one or more segments in that sequence bending sharply, reminiscent of the geniculate male antennules of the 'heterarthrandria' and of Bathycalanus. However, the position of this bend was no consistent. It was between segments 17 and 18 in most specimens, but between 20 and 21 in one specimen. None of these bends has a obvious special segment, special musculature, the teeth typical of male geniculate antennae or the blade-like setae seen in Bathycalanus, although as noted , the setae of segments 17 and 18 are modified.
Dorsal antennular surfaces show two maculosae cribrosae on segment 2; the ventral surfaces have maculae cribrosae very close to or on the bases of all or most aesthetascs on segments 1 through 12


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.138, Fig.7]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Male: Segments 7, 8 and 9 of right A1 (segment 9 bearing a clavate seta: indicated by an arrow).
Scale bar: 0.4 mm.
Nota: The clavate setae are absent in females, they are likely to have a part in the male sexual function.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.141, Fig.10]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Female: Left picture, large gland with external opening just below the lateral spine og exopodal segment 3 of P2; right picture, similar gland on exopodal segment 1 of P2.
Scale bars: 0.2 mm.
Nota: With (1915) noted the very large glands in the exopodite segments of the swimming legs, glands which open at external pores. The product of the gland is secreted externally. In collected specimens the vase-shaped reservoirs of these glands are filled with very large secretion granules (similar glands are found on the thoracic legs of may calanoids). No function has been identified for this secretion. The function of swimming legs of all free-living copepod is propulsion during predator escape dashes (kerfoot & al., 1980; Verity & Smetacek, 1996). It seems likely that these glands have some role in that general function. A large copepod dashing away from a fish (at speeds of order 1 m/sec) might leave behind some distracting odor, or like the ink decoy left by a squid. The gland pores are at the ideal spot for dropping such a misleading signal, being posterior and posteriorly directed at the end of the power stroke. The secretion could also be toxic. It is also possible the secretion has a hydrodynamic function. In some way the lateral spines adjacent to and down-stream from these glands are part of the adaptation for escape propulsion; they may modify the shedding of wake vortices, which are probably important to approaching predators as a cue to prey location (Yen & Strickler, 1996). Perhaps the secretion acts to increase viscosity in the eddies, reducing their longevity. Perhaps it is a surfactant reducing surface tension between water and the spines, thus modifying the eddies.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mauchline in J. mar. biol. Ass, U.K., 1977, 57 (4). [p.979, Fig.3].
Female: A, General distribution of normal pores (dots) and groups of pores (small dots) in treated integuments; B, a group of glands openings, responsible for a group of pores in a treated integument, with the associated gland; C, the peculiar structure of the group of gland openings at the site indicated in the 5th thoracic segment; the heavy line is the posterior border of the segment.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mauchline in J. mar. biol. Ass, U.K., 1977, 57 (4). [p.980, Fig.4, H].
Integumental organs. H, compound seta.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky, N. V. Vyshkvartzeva, M.S. Kos & E.L. Markhaseva in Opred. Faune SSSR, 1983, 135 (1). [p.192, Fig.84].
Female & Male.
Ce = cephalon; bP1 = basis of P1; l = left leg; r = right leg.
Ce, Mx1 and Mx2 after Sars, 1924); remaining figures: Pacific specimens.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Barthélémy in These Doct. Univ. Provence (Aix-Marseille I), 1999. [Fig.20, B]. As Megacalanus longicornis.Female (from 41°47'S, 175°01'E): B, external ventral view genital double-somite.
go = genital operculum.
Scale bar: 0.200 mm.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Mar. Biol., 1985, 88. [p.284, Fig.6, E ].
Male: Left A1 proximal segments (ventral view);
Nota: see remarks in Calanus s.l. pacificus californicus (Fleminger, 1985, p.275) concerning the dimorphism in the female A1.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 23 of morphological figuresissued from : G. A. Boxshall & S. H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, N° 166. [p.141, Fig.29, E].
Female: E, P1.
Nota: Large hook-like process present on anterior surface of basis of P1.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 24 of morphological figuresissued from : G; Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.10].
Female (lateral view)


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.10].
Female: A, P1 (non P5 as indicated by error); B, Mx2.


Species Megacalanus princeps - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1967, 1, Part 1: Copepoda. [p.33, Figs.162-164].
Female (from Florida Current): 162, P1; 163, spine on basis of P1; 164, P5.

Compl. Ref.:
Wickstead, 1962 (p.551, food & feeding); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Mazza, 1966 (p.69); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.13); 1968 (tab.2); Gueredrat & Friess, 1971 (p.187, fig.2); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Björnberg, 1973 (p.303, ); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, Station "S"); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Petipa & Borichenko, 1985 (tab.2); Heinrich, 1990 (p.16); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.10); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 5, Appendix); Holmes, 2001 (p.35); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); G. Harding, 2004 (p.10, figs.F); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.1791,Table 2); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 4, Appendix 1, biogeography); Drira & al., 2010 (p.145, Tanl.2); Teuber & al., 2013 (p.1, Table 1, 2, 3, fig.5, abundance vs oxygen minimum zone, respiration rates, enzyme activity);
NZ: 22

Distribution map of Megacalanus princeps by geographical zones
Species Megacalanus princeps - Distribution map 4issued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Reports - Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.7].
Chart showing the geographical distribution (white circle) in the seas surrounding the Antarctic continent.
Nota: In this chart the area frequented by whaling vessels has been hatched. The Antarctic circle (66°.5 S) has been drawn as a broken line. The numbers I to VI refer to the sectors into which the Antarctic seas are divided according to Mackintosh (1942) (after Vervoort, 1951).

Nota: After vervoort (1957, p.32) this species preferably inhabits the intermediate water layers, occasionally penetrating into very deep water. It may be carried to the North and South in the intermediate water mass; its occurrence at Antarctic localities is certainly accidental and may be explained as the result of transportation in Atlantic water masses.
Species Megacalanus princeps - Distribution map 5issued from : C.B. Miller in Hydrobiologia, 2002, 480. [p.131, Fig.1]. As Megacalanus longicornis.
Collection sites for specimens examined in the study. Sites producing crested specimens shown as circles aroud crosses, sites specimens with rounded heads shown as open circles.
Nota: Pending development of molecular genetic analyses of observed morphotypes, the author has declined to apply a new name to the crested form.
Loc:
Antarct. (Indian, Pacif. SE), sub-Antarct. (Pacif. SW, SE), South Africa (E), off S Ste Hélène Is., Angola, off E St. Paul Is., off E Sao Tomé Is., Cape Verde Is., off Mauritania-NW Cape Verde Is., Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Bay of Biscay, Caribbean Sea, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), , off W Cap Finisterre, Woods Hole, off E Newfoundland, Greenland, W Iceland, Ireland (S & W), Faroe, Baie Ibéro-marocaine, Medit. (Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, G. of Gabès, Ionian Sea, Alexandrie), Arabian Sea, indian (equatorial), SW Indian, Bay of Bengal, Indonésie-Malaisie, Philippines, Pacif. W (équatorial), mers de Chine (East China Sea, South China Sea), E Taiwan, Japan, off SE Hokkaido, G. of Alaska, British Columbia, off California, New Zealand, Pacif. (tropical), Hawaii, off E Easter Is., off Peru, Pacif. (SE tropical), off Juan Fernandez Is., N & S Chile, Drake passage
N: 69
Lg.:
(1) F: 10- 9,5; (5) F: 9,5; (7) F: 10,5; M: 10,6; (10) F: 10; (14) F: 11,5-8,7; M: 12-9; (28) F: 11,5-8,75; M: 10,15-7,9; (29) M: 9,5; (38) F: 9,2-9; (49) F: 10,3-9,8; (70) F: 11,9-10,2; M: 10,8-10; (73) F: 10,68-10; (125) F: 10,34; (131) F: 11,9-8,7; M: 10,8-7,9; (140) F: 11-9,2; M: 9,5-9,3; (199) F: 9,92-9,44; (787) F: 13-10; M: 10; (865) F: 10,6; (904) M: 10,9-11,2; (1089) F: 12-13,5; M: 9,3-9,5; {F: 8,70-13,50; M: 7,90-12,00}
Rem.: Meso-bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 2000 m. Sargasso Sea: 500-1500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S").
For A. Scott (1909, p.14) there is no difference between the Indonesian-Malaysian forms and the original description given by Wolfenden (1904) from the North Atlantic specimen.
According to Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.18) the present specimens seem to differ from the descriptions of other authors in some respects. The Southwest Pacific females do not have the head produced as far anteriorly as that figured by Sars (1924-1925), the terminal spine on exopod segment 3 of at least legs 3 and 5 are long relative to the length of exopod segment 3. The inner-edge seta on exopod segment 2 of male left P5 is short and very bulbous at its base unlike that figured by Sars and Wolfenden (1905 b).
For Park & Ferrari (2009, p.175) Megacalanus princeps Wolfenden, 1904 (p.49, fig.4) and Vervoort (1957, p.47 & al., fig.7: Antarctic chart) is a valid species and no a synonym. This position is contested by Damkaer (2000), followed by Miller (2002, p.129), however the name of Megacalanus princeps is maintened by Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.140).
The length of A1 can be in relation with the water salinity as showed by Gaudy (1971a, for Centropages typicus at Marseille), and for Oithona similis by Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky (2009) showing the relation with the temperature and salinity.

R. Stephen, 2007 : Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line).
Last update : 04/06/2014
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