Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamily )
        Augaptilidae ( Family )
            Haloptilus ( Genus )
Haloptilus spiniceps  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F,M)
Syn.: Hemicalanus spiniceps Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.384, 399, 773, figs.F,M);
Haloptilus spinipes : Wolfenden, 1911 (p.187: lapsus calami)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.120, Rem. F,M); Wolfenden, 1905 (p.1010, fig.M); A. Scott, 1909 (p.141, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.324); Sars, 1925 (p.249, figs.F); Farran, 1929 (p.209, 268); Rose, 1933 a (p.213, figs.F, Rem.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.112); ? Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.76, figs. juv.M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.92, figs.F); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.37); Grice, 1962 (p.223, figs.F); Tanaka, 1964 b (p.43, Rem. juv.F); Vervoort, 1965 (p.127, Rem.); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.82, figs.F,M); Park, 1968 (p.563); Paiva, 1971 (p.25); Ramirez, 1971 (p.86, figs.F); Tanaka & Omori, 1971 (p.255); Matthews, 1972 (p.54, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.172, figs.F); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.654, 655, figs.F,M); Baessa de Aguiar, 1987 (p.42, figs.F); Park, 1988 (p.14, Redescr.F, figs.F, Rem.); He & al., 1992 (p.249, 250); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.729, Pl.61,62: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.883, 942, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.64, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.173, 190); Conway & al., 2003 (p.87, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.247, figs.F,M, Rem.); Phukham, 2008, p.51, fig.F)
Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.65, Fig.36].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, forehead (lateral left side); C, Mx1; D, Mx2; E, P5.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1988, 47. [p.15, Fig.7];
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, idem (lateral right side); c, forehead (ventral); d, idem (lateral); e, urosome (lateral right side); f, idem (dorsal); h, Md (cutting edge); i, idem showing variation.

Nota: Prosome about 6.5 times length of urosome. Spermatheca of a highly complex structure; in lateral view with a small digitiform process extending dorsally.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1988, 47. [p.16, Fig.8].
Female: a, Mx1; b, Mxp; c, P1 (anterior); d, P2 (anterior); e, P3 (anterior); f, P4 (anterior); g, P5 (anterior).


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Revta Mus. La Plata, Seccion Zool., 1971, XI. [Lam.II, figs.1, 10].
Female (from off Brazil): 1, habitus (dorsal); 10, forehead (lateral).
Scale bar: 1.5 mm.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.50, fig.5].
Female (from Canarias Is.): 5, forehead (lateral).


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.LXXIII, figs.6-10].
Female: 6, habitus (dorsal); 7, forehead (lateral); 8, Md; 9, Mx1; 10, Mx2.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.27, Figs.5, 40]. As Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Male: 5, distal portion of grasping A1; 40, P5 (anterior view). Ps = left leg; Pd = right leg; Ri = endopod; Si = inner spine; Se = outer spine; St = terminal spine.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.27, Fig.20]. As Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Female: 20, P1 (posterior view).


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.224, Pl.25, Figs.17-20].
Female (from equatorial Pacific): 17, habitus (dorsal); 18, forehead (lateral); 19, Md (mandibular palp); 20, Md (biting edge).
Nota: Short pointed forehead curved downward in lateral view.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.225, Pl.26, Figs.1-5].
Female: 1-5, P1 to P5, respectively.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.42 , Figs.3, 10].
Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Female: 3, habitus (dorsal); 10, urosome (ventral).
Ab 1-2 = genital double-somite.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.42 , Fig.21].
Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Female: 21, endopd of A2.
Ri1 = endopodal segment 1.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.42 , Fig.8].
Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Male: 8, habitus (dorsal).


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.42 , Fig.25].
Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Male: 25, endopod of A2.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.27, Fig.35]. As Hemicalanus spiniceps.
Female: 35, exopodite 3 of P2.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.82, Fig.547].
Female: 547, Md (gnathobase).


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.18, Fig.60].
Female: 60, P5.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.137, Fig.11].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula) : a, habitus (dorsal); b, Md; c, forehead; d, urosome (dorsal); e, P5.

Body length after the drawings: F = 1.768 mm.


Species Haloptilus spiniceps - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva & C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, Edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999. Vol.2. Copepoda. [p.1044, Fig. 7.279].
Female: Mx1.

Nota: Exopodite of Mx1 with 8 setae.

Compl. Ref.:
Rose, 1924 d (p.481); Wilson, 1942 a (p.189, Rem.); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.111); Sewell, 1948 (p.350, 496, 504, 509, 514, 548, 558, 559, 567, 568); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.237); Hoenigman, 1955 (p.49); Chiba & al., 1957 a (p.11); Fagetti, 1962 (p.31); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Ahlstrom & Thrailkill, 1963 (p.57, Table 5, abundance); Grice, 1963 a (p.496); Björnberg, 1963 (p.54, Rem.); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Mazza, 1966 (p.72); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Björnberg, 1973 (p.348, 386); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Vives & al., 1975 (p.50, tab.II); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.84); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1043); De Decker, 1984 (p.317); Longhurst, 1985 (tab.2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Ambler & Miller, 1987 (tab.2, 3); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.60); Heinrich, 1990 (p.19); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Pancucci-Papadopoulou & al., 1990 (p.199); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1991 (p.271); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.101); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Shih & Young,1995 (p.68); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.3); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p108); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Madhupratap & al., 2001 (figs.4, 5); Holmes, 2001 (p.13); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Prusova & Smith, 2005 (p.75); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (Tab.2, 4, Rem.); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.424); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2), Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.)
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Haloptilus spiniceps by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), Argentina-Brazil, off Guyane, G. of Guinea, off S Ascension Is., off E Sao Tomé Is., Cape Verde Is., Canary Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, off Madeira, off Portugal, S Azores, off Amazon, Caribbean Colombia, Caribbean Sea, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), off SW Ireland, Medit. (Alboran Sea, W Basin, Monaco, Naples, Strait of Messina, Adriatic Sea, Mljet Is., Ionian Sea, Lebanon Basin), Arabian Sea, Natal, Madagascar, Indian, Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW, E, N: Mienhua Canyon), NW), Japan (Izu), off S Japan, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (Great Barrier, New South Wales), New Zealand (NW North Island), N Tasman Sea, off NE New Zealand , Pacif. (tropical, equatorial), California, W Baja California, off W Guatemala, E Tuamotu Is., Hawaii, off NE Hawaii, Fidji Is., SW Galapagos, Pacif. (SE tropical), Chile
N: 96
Lg.:
(1) F: 4,1; (16) F: 5,45-3,95; (34) F: 4,02; (35) [N-Z] F: 4,56; (46) F: 4,3-3,8; M: 2,55; (69) juv.F: 2,29; (72) F: 4,99-4,12; (90) 4,07; (91) juv.M: 2,3; (101) F: 3,99-3,7; (104) F: 4,8; (199) F: 5,17-4,48; M: 2,81; (237) F: 4,5; 3,0; (310) F: 5-4,22; (909) F: 4,3-4,5; (991) F: 3,7-5045; M: 2,3-2,55; {F: 3,00-5,45; M: 2,55-2,81}
Rem.: mesopelagic. Recorded once at 700 m depth but otherwise the known depth range is in the uppermost 200-300 m (Matthews, 1972). Sargasso Sea: 0-1000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
Concerning the males of H. fertilis Giesbrecht, 1892 and H. spiniceps, see remarks in Park (1988, p.14).
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is a piercing and sucking carnivorous.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 21/04/2014
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