Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Calanus ( Genus )
Calanus finmarchicus  (Gunnerus, 1770)   (F,M)
Syn.: Monoculus finmarchicus Gunnerus,1770;
Cyclops finmarchicus Müller, 1776;
? Cetochilus australis Roussel de Vauzème, 1834;
Calanus spitsbergensis (F) Kröyer,1842-45;
Calanus quinqueannulatus (M) Kröyer, 1842-45 (in Damkaer & Damkaer, 1979, p.21);
Calanus affinis Kröyer, 1842-45 (in Damkaer & Damkaer, 1979 (p.21);
? Cetochilus septentrionalis Goodsir, 1843;
Temora finmarchica Claus, 1863 (p.195);
Cetochilus helgolandicus Claus, 1866;
no C. finmarchicus pontica : Karavaev, 1893 (p.3); 1894 (p.5);
no Calanus finmarchicus : Brady, 1883 (p.32); Esterly, 1905 (p.125); 1924 (p.83); Farran, 1908 b (p.20, Rem.); 1929 (part., p.207, 212); Campbell, 1929 (p.307); 1930 (p.177); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.13, figs.F); Sewell, 1947 (p.13); 1948 (p.513, 522, 526, 544, 548, 555, 559, 565); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.87, figs.19); Vervoort, 1957 (p.24); Kos, 1960 (p.656); De Decker, 1964 (p.14, 18, 30); Marques, 1966 (p.2, fig.M); Park, 1968 (p.530, Rem.); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); De Decker, 1984 (p.320, Rem.); Shih & Young,1995 (p.68)
Calanus finmarchicus s.l. : Brodsky, 1964 (p.105, 107)
Ref.:
Brady, 1878 (p.38, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (part. p.89, figs.M, no F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (part., p.14); Wheeler, 1901 (p.164, figs.F, Rem.); Sars, 1901 a (1903) (p.9, figs.F,M); Mràzek, 1902 (p.502, figs.F, Rem.); Sharpe, 1910 (p.409); Lysholm, 1913 (p.5); With, 1915 (p.10, 12, Rem.); Brady, 1918 (p.13); Sars, 1925 (p.5); Farran, 1929 (part., 207, 212); Rose, 1929 (p.5); Jespersen, 1934 (p.10, fig.F, Rem.); 1940 (p.4); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.6); Sewell, 1948 (p.331, 495); Rees, 1949 (p.219, figs.F, M, IV, V); Farran & Vervoort, 1951 (n°32, p.3, fig.F); Marshall & Orr, 1953 (p.1, egg production); Wiborg, 1954 (p.79); 1955 (p.29); Jaschnov, 1957 (p.191, figs.); Woodhead & Riley, 1959 (p.465, Rem., 5, figs.F,M); Grainger, 1961 (p.663, figs.F,M, Rem.); Jaschnov, 1961 a (p.1323, biogéo); Brodsky, 1961 (p.14, figs.F,M); Harding, 1963 (p.81, karyotype); Grice, 1963 a (p.497, fig.F, Rem.); Manwell & al., 1967 (p.145, biochimy); Matthews, 1966 (p.479, Rem.); Matthews, 1967 a (p.159, Rev.); Koga, 1968 (p.16, fig.: egg); Vidal, 1971 a (p.12, 21,figs.F,M); Frost, 1971 (p.23, figs.M, Rem.); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.2, 9, 65, 81,118, figs.); Williams, 1972 (p.53, figs.F, carte); Marshall & Orr, 1972 (p.4 & suiv., figs.F,M, juv.); Frost, 1974 (p.77, figs.,F,M, Rev.); Raymont & al., 1974 (p.409, ultrastucture); Fleminger & Hülsemann, 1977 (p.233, figs.F,M, geographical range-taxonomic divergence); Tande & Hopkins, 1981 (p.159, genital system); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.155, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall, 1983 (p.121, Rem.); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.155, figs.F,M); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, cell nucleus); Roe, 1984 (p.356); Sazhina, 1985 (p.21, figs.N) ; Fleminger, 1985 (p.274, 285, Table 1, 4, Rem.: A1); Grigg & al., 1987 (p.254, Rem. st.5); Bradford, 1988 (p.76); Schnack, 1989 (p.137, fig.7: Md);Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.60, 461, figs.F,M); Hulsemann, 1991 (p.620); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.31); Karlson & Bamstedt, 1994 (p.79, fig.2: Md, F,M, juv.1-5); Bucklin & al., 1995 (p.658); Bucklin & al., 1996 (p.29, population genetics); Aksnes & Blindheim, 1996 (p.7); Gaard, 1996 (p.50); Harris, 1996 (p.85, 95, 98); Hirche, 1996 (p.111); 1996 a (p.129: diapause); Kann & Wishner, 1996 (p.65, genetic analysis); Bucklin & Kocher, 1996 (p.1665); Bucklin & Wiebe, 1998 (p.383, Rem.: diversité génétique moléculaire); Sundt & Melle, 1998 (p.207, fig.2, 3, Rem.: mitochondrial sequence); Melle & Skjoldal, 1998 (p.211, Rem.); Lindeque & al., 1999 (p.91, Biomol.); Bucklin & al., 1999 (p.239, systématique moléculaire); Braga & al., 1999 (p.79, tab.1, Biomol.); Bucklin & al., 2000 (p.1237, Rem: analyse génétique moléculaire); Ferrari & Markhaseva, 2000 (p.84, fig.); Bucklin & al., 2000 (p.1592); Hill & al., 2001 (p.279, fig.2: phylogénie); G. Harding, 2004 (p.8, figs.F,M); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.79: figs.F,M); Arnkvaern & al., 2005 (p.528, dynamic); Conway, 2006 (p.6, 25, copepodite stages 1-6, Rem.); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.13, figs.A2: N, Rem.: p.15, 29, 31, 33, 35, 62, 63, 64, 65), 78, Table XI, XII, XIII; Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.893, figs.F,M, Rem.); Dalpadado & al., 2008 (p.2266, Fig.2: Md, Table 2, 3); Gabrielsen & al., 2012 (p.1621, identification problem)
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl. I].
Female.
R: rostrum; or: oral parts (labrum, labium and Md blade (part.); Urs: urosome; c: cephalosome.

Nota: forehead regulary rounded in lateral view.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl. II].
Female.
C: cephalosome; M: Md; m, Mx1; mp1: Mx2; mp2: Mxp.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl. III].
Male.
Urs: urosome; mp2: Mxp.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : S.M. Marshall & A.P. Orr in The Biology of a Marine Copepod, Springer-Verlag (Ed.), 1972. [Fig.2].
Above drawings: Female (from North Sea): Coxa of the left P5; Proximal teeth of the coxa of the right P5; Forehead (lateral view).

Middle drawings: Female (from Tromsö): Coxa of the left P5; Proximal teeth of the coxa of the right P5; Forehead (lateral view).

Below drawings: Calanus helgolandicus Female (from North Sea): Coxa of the left P5; Proximal teeth of the coxa of the right P5; Forehead (lateral view).


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J.E.G. Raymont, S. Krishnaswamy, M.A. Woodhouse & R.L. Griffin in Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 1974, B. 185. [Fig.27].
Reconstruction of spermatophore.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1477, Fig.28, C].
Female: C, urosome (left: ventral); right: dorsal). Pore signature schematic by pooled samples (symbols are considerably larger than pores): Filled circle: 100 % presence; open circle: 95-99 % presence; triangle: 50-89 % presence. n =50.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [p.56, Fig.2].
Female (from N Atlantic): Lateral view (i) and ventral view (ii) of three urosomes showing the variation in shape of the spermathecae.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [Plate XVII].
Female (from N Atlantic): lateral view of the urosome of the three species C. helgolandicus, C.finmarchicus and C. glacialis showing the differences in shape of their spemathecae. The edge of the operculum is easily seen in C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [Plate XVIII, XIX].
Female (from N Atlantic):
Above: Ventral view of the urosomes of the three species showing the obvious differences in shape of the spermathecae. The genital pore is in a more posterior position in C. glacialis than in the other two species.
Below: A dorsal view of the spermathecae still attached to the basal plate. The spermatophore sac secretion which precedes the extrusion of the spermatozoa, is clearly seen in the spermathecae of C. finmarchicus. The lobed appearance of the spermathecal sacs of C. helgolandicus is also shown.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : S.M. Marshall & A.P. Orr in The Biology of a Marine Copepod, Springer-Verlag (Ed.), 1972. [p.12, Fig.2].
The mouthparts of adult: a, A1; b, Md; c, Mx1; d, Mx2; e, Mxp.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : S.M. Marshall & A.P. Orr in The Biology of a Marine Copepod, Springer-Verlag (Ed.), 1972. [p.14, Fig.4].
Female & Male: a, P1; b, P4.
Female: c, P5.
Male: d, P5.

C. helgolandicus male: e, P5.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.80, Fig.5].
limits for measurements of curvature (déviation D) of medial margin of basipodites 1 and 2 of female P6 (anterior view).
C. finmarchicus (left drawings) compared to C. glacialis.
Scale bar a = 0.05 mm; b = 0.02 mm.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.81, Fig.6].
Basipod, exopodite 1 and endopodite 1 of right P5 (anteerior view) illustrating differences between members of species groups C. finmarchicus and .
A: C. finmarchicus female.
B: C. helgolandicus female.
C: C. finmarchicus male.
D: C. helgolandicus male.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.83, Fig.7].
Posterolateral margin of 5th thoracic segment and genital segment (right lateral view) for adult female C. finmarchicus (upper two rows) and C. glacialis (lower two rows).
Length of prosome (measurred laterally) indicated par numbers.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.86, Table 2].
Range and variation of prosome length (measured laterally, in mm) of adult females from two regions of allopatry (western North Atlantic Ocean and Central Arctic Ocean), three regions of sympatry.
r: range; m: mean length of specimens; cv: coefficient of variation of length measurements; n: number of specimens.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.90, Table 4].
Range of prosome length (measured laterally) of adult females in allopatric populations.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, 1991, 159. [p.60, Fig.2.2.7, A-C].
Female (from Canada: Ungava Bay): B, right A1; C, detail of tip of A1.

Male: A, right A1.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, 1991, 159. [p.65, Fig.2.2.12, E].
E, A2.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, 1991, 159. [p.72, Fig.2.2.19, B].
B, Mx1.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, 1991, 159. [p.75, Fig.2.2.22, C].
C, Mx2.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.8].
Female: forehead (lateral).


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : S.B. Schnack in Crustacean Issue, 1989, 6. [p.144, Fig.7: 3].
3, Calanus finmarchicus (from Norwegian fjord): Cutting edge of Md.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.7, Fig.33].
Male: 33, urosome (dorsal).


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 24 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.8, Figs.31, 33]. .
Male: 31, P5 (anterior view); 33, inner margin of basipodite (: coxa) of P5 (posterior view).


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky in Zool. Zh., 1959, 38, 10. [p.1541, Fig.3].
Comparison of coxopodite inner edge of P5 female for Calanus glacialis (1), Calanus finmarchicus (2) and Calanus helgolandicus (3).

Nota:
Calanus glacialis : Dentate plate on coxopodite has very short, blunt teeth and is sligh curved in central position. Teeth are close together, without spaces, numbering 30-34.
Calanus finmarchicus : Dentate plate on coxopodite has short, blunt teeth, with small spacings. Teeth-line not curved. Number of teeth 29-30.
Calanus helgolandicus : Dentate plate on coxopodite very characteristic; teeth have more or less parallel edges, are relatively small, strongly marked curve in middle of line; distal part of plate has closely set, elongated teeth; spaces between teeth only in central part of line, teeth here are rounded, not flat. Number of teeth 28 (according to Jaschnov most specimens from the North Sea had 28-33 teeth).


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky in Zool. Zh., 1959, 38, 10. [p.1542, Fig.4].
Comparison of left leg of P5 for Calanus glacialis (1), Calanus finmarchicus (2) and Calanus helgolandicus (3).

Nota:
Calanus glacialis : In segments of exopodite of left leg, the relation of width of 1st and 2nd segments to length of corresponding segments is 1 : 3. Left endopodite reaches almost half the length of the 2nd segment of the exopodite of the same leg.
Calanus finmarchicus : Relation of width to length of 1st and 2nd segments of exopodite of left leg is 1 : 2.5. Left endopodite extends beyond middle of 2nd segment of exopodite.
Calanus helgolandicus : Relation od width to length of 1st and 2nd segments of exopodite of left leg is 1 : 2.5. left endopodite reaches distal limit of first third of 2nd segment of exopodite of same leg.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 27 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Anraku & M. Omori in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1963, 8. [p.122, Fig. 7, A]
Calanus finmarchicus (from Woods Hole): Cutting edge of Md.

Nota: The toothed grinding surface has 9 teeth and one margnal denticulate spine. Each tooth has a few small processes.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 28 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.E. Arendt in PhD Thesis, Univ. of Copenhagen, 2011. [p.24, Fig.10].
Lugol fixed fecal pellets of Calanus finmarchicus (from Godthabsfjord, Southwest Greenland) when feeding on a diatom diet A) without suspended sediments and B) with suspended sediments. Photo K.E. Arendt.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 29 of morphological figuresIssued from : B.H. Hansen, D. Altin, A.J. Olsen & T. Nordtug in Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2012, 86. [p.43, Fig.4, D].
Oil droplets in fecal pellet (higher magnification).
For interpretation of the references to color, the reader is referred to the web version http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.09.009.


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 30 of morphological figuresIssued from : B.J. Hansen, K. Degnes, I.B. Øverjordet, D. Altin & T.R. Størseth in Polar Biol., 2013, 36. [p.1578, Fig.1, C].
Calanus finmarchicus Stage V from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79°N, 12°E)


Species Calanus finmarchicus - Plate 31 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.243, Fig.6 b].
Pore signature patterns of female urosome (ventral view shown below, dorsal view of genital segment and segment 2 (above).
Specimens (n = 50) from North Atlantic localities.
Filled circles: integumental pore present in all specimens examined; open circles: pore present in from 90 to 99% of specimens examined. Symbols used to indicate pores are not proportionate to actual pore size (latter range from 1 to 3 µm in diameter).

Nota: The distribution of integumental organs on the urosome of adult females was determined in specimens selected at random from samples representing a variety of localities within the North Atlantic distribution.
Calanus helgolandicus is most distinctive in lacking the 2 pairs of pores found in C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis on the ventral side of urosomal segments 2 and 3 and in having only 3 pores on the dorsal side of the genital segment. C. finmarchicus is distinguished from C. glacialis chiefly by the presence of 4 pairs of pores on the ventral side of the genital segment anterior to the genital operculum.

Compl. Ref.:
Gadeau de Kerville, 1894 (p.81); Damas & Koefoed, 1907 (part., p.382, tab.II, III); Sars, 1909 b (p.16); Farran, 1926 (? part., p.226); Cannon, 1928 (p.131, feeding mechanism); Wilson, 1932 (p.21); W.H. Johnson, 1933 (p.1, vertical distribution vs. light); Orr, 1934 (p.613, chemical composition); Sømme, 1934 (p.1, production); Fish, 1936 (p.118, biology); Jespersen, 1939 (p.8, Rem., Table 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30); Clarke & Bonnet, 1939 (p.371, survival, respiration vs. temperature); Raymont & Gross, 1942 (p.267, feeding & breeding); Wilson, 1942 a (part., p.172); Barnes, 1949 (p.429, statistical variations); Wilson C.B., 1950 (part., p.177, non st. Pacif.); Fleury, 1950 (p.47, fig.2); Raymont & Gauld, 1951 (p.681, respiratory rate); Marshall & Orr, 1952 (p.527, Table I: egg sizes, egg production); 1953 (p. 1, fig.1: egg, egg production, rate of sinking, time of egg laying, development time); Gundersen, 1953 (p.1, 9, Table 1-8, seasonal abundance, Fjords distribution); Marshall & Orr, 1954 (p.393, hatching); 1955 (p.495, nutrition, excretion); 1955 a (p.110, feeding); 1956 (p.587, feeding, young stages); Østvedt, 1955 (p.14: Table 3, p.17, 29); Deevey, 1956 (p.127, Table IV); Marshall & Orr, 1958 (p.459, oxygen consumption); Jaschnov, 1958 (p.838, fig.2); Woodhead & Riley, 1959 (p.465, stage 5 M & F, sex ratio); Cushing, 1959 (p.455, Rem.: p.459); Lacroix, 1960 (p.11, 25); Conover, 1960 (p.399, Table I, respiratory rate); Deevey, 1960 (p.5, Table II, fig.8: annual abundance, Rem.: p.31, fig.18, 19); Wiborg, 1960 (p.1, fig.10, 15, abundance distribution); Grainger, 1961 (p.663, fig.); Carlisle & Pitman, 1961 (p.827, neurosecretion -diapause); Cowey & Corner, 1961 (p.124, amino acids); Raymont & Conover, 1961 (p.154, carbohydrate content); Wickstead, 1962 (p.546, food & feeding); Grice, 1962 a (p.101, 103); Fischer, 1962 (p.129, % lipids); Curl, 1962 (p.183, Table I, CNP composition); 1962 a (p.181, Table II, C composition); Lacroix & Bergeron, 1963 (p.59, Tableau III, IV); Anraku & Omori, 1963 (p.117, figs. juv.); Halcrow, 1963 (p.1, temperature v.s. respiration, acclimation); McLaren, 1963 (p.685, 691, fig.1b, hatching v.s. temperature); Cowey & Corner, 1963 (p.485, amino acid composition); Cushing & Vucetic, 1963 (p.349, grazing); Grainger, 1963 (p.66, Table I, II, fig.5, 6, 7, 8, chart, size); Zeiss, 1963 (p.110, oxygen consumption vs. animal concentrations); M.W. Johnson, 1963 (p.89, Table 1, 2); Anraku, 1964 a (p.221, grazing, predation); 1964 b (p.195, respiration-grazing vs. temperature); Martin, 1965 (p.188); Grice Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223); Corner & al., 1965 (p.429, feeding-excretion); [Mazza, 1966 (p.69)]; Cowey & Corner, 1966 (p.225, amino acids, diet, faecal pellets); Comita & al., 1966 (p.1, Table 1-6, figs.1-6, weight-calorific value-organic matter); Manwell & al., 1967 (p.145, electrophoresis-enzymes); Corner & al., 1967 (p.259, feeding efficiency); Glover, 1967 (p.189, fig.5, annual abundance); Matthews, 1967 (p.159, Table 1, Rem.); Robertson, 1968 (p.185, Text-Fig.5, abundance); Conover & Corner, 1968 (p.49, 57, respiration & nitrogen excretion); Corner & Cowey, 1968 (p.393, Table 6, 7, 8, fatty acid composition, respiration, assimilation); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.44, 61, 62, 63, 65, 87, 90, 94, 105, 106, 110, 234, 278); Mullin, 1969 (p.308, Table I: estimates of production); Strömgren, 1969 (p.5); Keegan, 1969 (p.137, abundance); Butler & al., 1969 (p.977, nutrition/metabolism); 1970 (p.525, N/P excretion); Jaschnov, 1970 (p.202, chart); Itoh, 1970 a (p.1, tab.1, 2, fig.Md); Shih & al., 1971 (p.32, 201); Corkett, 1972 (p.171, eggs: development rate); Gaudy, 1972 (p.175, Rem.: p.223-4); Matthews & Sands, 1973 (p.19, Table 4); Conover & Francis, 1973 (p.272, Table 3, grazing rate measured by isotope); Arndt & Heidecke, 1973 (p.599, 603); Beaudouin J., 1973 (p.69); Grice & al., 1973 (p.45, Table 2, mortality vs pH); Eriksson, 1973 (p.37, fig.6, 7, 9, annual cycle); 1973 b (p.113, 117); Harding, 1973 (p.670, decomposition, bacteria); 1974 (p.141, Table 2, 3, gut contents); Raymont & al., 1974 (p.409, ultrastucture); Raymont & al., 1974 (p.409, structure); Corner & al., 1974 (p.319, feeding, nauplii diet); Landry, 1975 a (p.434, Rem.: p.437, fig.3);nBousfield & al., 1975 (p.1, estuary); Mayzaud & Martin, 1975 (p.297, chemical composition); Mayzaud, 1976 (p.47, respiration/nitrogen excretion); Davis C.C., 1976 (p.37, fig.2, reproductive characteristics); Gruzov & Voloshina, 1976 (p.498, feeding); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, Station "S"); Skjoldal & Bamstedt, 1977 (p.197, adenosides); Beers & al., 1977 (p.66, Rem.: p.77, Cu pollution); Harding & Vass, 1977 (p.177, clearance-DDT); Sameoto, 1977 (p.1, fig.9, abundance); Colebrook, 1978 (tab.1); Honjo & Roman, 1978 (p.45, fecal pellet, sinking rate); Matthews & al., 1978 (p.277, annual cycles); McLaren, 1978 (p.1330, 1335: life history); Gamble, 1978 (p.303, grazing rates); Hopkins & al., 1978 (p.261, Table 3, Rem.: DSL); Hernroth, 1978 (p.1, Rem.: p.7); O'Hara & al., 1979 (p.331, sex hormone); Longhurst & Williams, 1979 (p.1, Table IVb, V, fig.5, 8a, vertical distribution/North Atlantic Drift); Poulet & Marsot, 1980 (p.198, Table 1, 4, feeding); Hallberg & Hirche, 1980 (p.283, gut ultrastructure, enzymes); Williams & Lindley, 1980 a (p.47, vertical distribution, population dynamic, production); Herman & Dauphinee, 1980 (p.79, Table 2, 3, length-volume); Bamstedt & Skjoldal, 1980 (p.304, weight-RNA); Herman & Mitchell, 1981 (p.739, Table 1, length-volume); Herman & al., 1981 (p.1065, front effect- chlorophyll production); Huntley, 1981 (p.831, ingestion rate v.s. food concentration); Hirche, 1981 (p.174, enzymes); Gagnon & Lacroix, 1981 (p.401, fig.5, Table 1, tidal effect); Tande & Hopkins, 1981 (p.159, gonad development); Grigg & al., 1981 (p.885, variation prosome length); Grigg & Bardwell, 1982 (p.62, moulting-maturation stage 5); Harding G.C. & al., 1981 (p.101, diet contaminated); [Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82) ]; Citarella, 1982 (p.791, 798: listing, frequency, Tableau II, V); Buchanan & Sekerak, 1982 (p.41, vertical distribution, Rem.: p.47); Tande, 1982 (p.129, generation cycles); Tande & Slagstad, 1982 (p.63, enzyme activity); Gagnon & Lacroix, 1982 (p.9, fig.4); 1983 (p.289, fig.2, tidal estuary); Maranda & Lacroix, 1983 (p.247, estuary); Aksnes & Magnesen, 1983 (p.195, development, production); Turner & Dagg, 1983 (p.14, fig.8), Haury & al., 1983 (p.65, internal wave effect); van der Spoel & Heyman, 1983 (p.62); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, body size vs. nucleus counts); Hirche, 1983 (p.281); Huntley & al., 1983 (p.143, Table 2, 3); Hernroth, 1983 (p.835, Rem.: p.840); Hassel, 1983 (p. 1, fig.3, 4, abundance, distribution); Sameoto, 1984 (p.213, Table 1, fig.3, 5, 8); 1984 a (p.767, vertical migration); Bamstedt & Ervik, 1984 (p.843, size, enzymes, chemical composition); Norrbin & Bamstedt, 1984 (p;47, Table 2: calorific value); Davis C.S., 1984 (p.31, population dynamic, predation); Hirche, 1984 (p.233, seasonal distribution); Baars & Fransz, 1984 (p.120, Table 1, grazing); De Ladurantaye & al., 1984 (p.21, fig.5, advective processes in fjord); Hopkins C. & al., 1984 (p.77, life history); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4); Baars & Helling, 1985 (p.81, Table 2: comparison gut fluorescence-gut clearance rate); Baars & Oosterhuis, 1985 (p.71, grazing, gut passage time); Colebrook, 1985 (p.261, tab.1, fig.2); Bamstedt, 1985 (p.607, excretion rate); Helling & Baars, 1985 (p.41, grazing); Smith & al., 1985 (p.693); Simard & al., 1985 (p.598, grazing rhythm); Runge, 1985 a (p.33, egg production); Williams R., 1985 (p.145, vertical distribution); Hargrave & al., 1985 (p.221, annual abundance); Williams & Collins, 1985 (p.28); Bamstedt & Tande, 1985 (p.259, Table 2: literature data respiration & excretion); Wishner & Allison, 1986 (tab.2); Harding & al., 1986 (p.952, Table 1 2, 3, 4, 6, fig.7, diel vertical movements); Anderson & Gardner, 1986 (p.1111, abundance distribution); Diel & Klein Breteler, 1986 (p.85, growth, development rate); Hassel, 1986 (p.329, spatial distribution); Mikhailovsky, 1986 (p.83, Table 1, ecological modelling); Runge, 1987 (p.2009, egg production); Williams R. & al., 1987 (p.248: Rem.); Grigg & al., 1987 (p.253, biometry, development); Davis C.S., 1987 (p.947, production); Bathmann & al., 1987 (p.45, Rem.: p.47, fecal pellets); Falk-Petersen & al., 1987 (p.115, lipid composition); Hirche, 1987 (p.347, activity, respiration vs. temperature); 1987 a (p.431, spatial distribution, dogestive enzymes, nutrition); Huntley, 1988 (p.83, Table 1, feeding history); Tiselius, 1988 (p.215, grazing); S.L. Smith, 1988 (p.145, feeding, respiration, ammonium, excretion ice-edge effect); Tande, 1988 (p.51, development); McLaren & al., 1988 (p.275, DNA content, development rate: egg-nauplius); Aksnes & Magnesen, 1988 (p.57, Rem.: p.67: productivity); Bamstedt, 1988 (p.15, protein content); Bamstedt & Tande, 1988 (p.31, respiration, excretion); Grigg & al., 1989 (p.101, stage 5/body size/weight); McLaren & al., 1989 (p.560, life history, annual production); Kattner & Krause, 1989 (p.261, table 1, 2, 5, lipids); Ikeda & Skjoldal, 1989 (p.173, oxygen consumption, N & P excretion, O:N vs. body weight); Citarella, 1989 (p.123, abundance); Kattner & al., 1989 (p.473, Table 1, 2, 5, dry weight, lipids); Hirche, 1989 (p.431, spatial distribution, enzyme activity); Kosobokova, 1989 (p.26); Meise-Munns & al., 1990 (p.225, long-term change abundance); Andeson J.T., 1990 (p.127, abundance, stratification, interannual variation); Hansen B. & al., 1990 (p.5, grazing); Estep & al., 1990 (p.235, grazing); Hirche, 1990 (p.53, egg production); Bathmann & al., 1990 (p.117, fecal pellets, sedimentation); S.L. Smith, 1990 (p.59, egg production, lipid, gut content); Sameoto & Herman, 1990 (p.225, life history, distribution); Fransz & al., 1991 (p.4 & suiv.); Hirche, 1991 (p.351); Miller & Grigg, 1991 (p.479); Hirche & al., 1991 (p.477, Fig.3, 6, 7, 8, Table 2); Hay & al., 1991 (p.1453, Table 2); Morales C.E. & al., 1991 (p.455, Table I, grazing); Conover & Huntley, 1991 (p.1, Table 2, 6, 9, 10, 11, polar seas comparison); Pedersen & Tande, 1992 (p.183, acclimatation); Head, 1992 (p.583, gut pigment destruction); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table 1, A1, eggs, egg-adult weight, temperature-dependent production); Urban & al., 1992 (p.255, fecal pellet contents); Hirche & Mumm, 1992 (p.S485, geographic distribution, egg production); Herman, 1992 (p.395, fig.7, size distribution by OPC); Diel & Tande, 1992 (p.21, egg production, spawning periods); Tande & Slagstad, 1992 (p.309, interannual variations, production model); Mumm, 1993 (tab.1, fig.2); Plourde & Runge, 1993 (p.217, reproduction); Turner & al., 1993 (p.255, feeding behavior); Urban & al., 1993 (p.607, fecal pellet production); Morales C.E. & al., 1993 (p.185, Rem.: p.199); Ashjian & Wishner, 1993 (p.483, abundance, species group distributions); Urban & al., 1993 (p.607, seasonal variations in fecal pellets); Hays & al., 1994 (tab.1); Pasternak, 1994 (p.241); Richter, 1994 (tab.4.1a); Hansen & al., 1994 (p.395, Table 1, selectivity); Ohman & Runge, 1994 (p.21, lipid content, egg production); Munk & Nielsen, 1994 (p.1225, fig.4, Table III: egg production, predation); Ashjian & al., 1995 (p.4371, Fig.4, 5, 6, Table 4); Southward & al., 1995 (p.127, fig.3); Hays, 1995 (p.301, Table 1, vertical migration); 1995 a (p.650, vertical distribution vs. herring stock variations, 1960-1990); Pedersen & al., 1995 (p.266, tabl.II); Krause & al., 1995 (p.81, Rem.: p.127); Meise & O'Reilly, 1996 (p.1473, long-term abundance change/climate); Fromentin & Planque, 1996 (p.111, distribution vs NAO); Albers & al., 1996 (p.347, lipids vs. diet); Hays & al., 1996 (p.159, Rem.: Herring correlation); Hirche, 1996 (p.129, Rem.: diapause); Niehoff & Hirche, 1996 (p.601, oogenesis, gonad maturation, egg production); Slagstad & Tande, 1996 (p.189, vertical migration); DFO, 1996 (p.1, fig.6, interannual abundance); Zauke & al., 1996 (p.141, Table 7, metal bioaccumulation); Hanssen, 1997 (tab.3.1); Falkenhaug & al., 1997 (p.449, spatio-temporal pattern); Hirche & Kwasniewski, 1997 (p.299, Table 1, 2, 4, 5, Fig.4, 12); Ashjian & al., 1997 (p.279, Table 1, 2, Figs. 2, 3, 4E,F); Nejstgaard & al., 1997 (feeding, reproduction); Carlotti & Hirche, 1997 (p.91, egg production); Mauchline, 1998 (p.508: Rem.); Kosobokova & al., 1998 (tab.2); Sameoto & al., 1998 (p.1, 7, figs. 8, 9, 12, spatial distribution, interannual variation); Weslawski & Legezynska, 1998 (p.1238); Titelmann & Tiselius, 1998 (343, table 1, 2, 3); Reid & Hunt, 1998 (p.310, figs.2, 3, Rem.); Mumm & al., 1998 (p.189, Figs.3, 4); Melle & Skjoldal, 1998 (p.211, egg production, development); Planque & Reid, 1998 (p.1015, abunance vs climate); Starr & al., 1999 (p.379, figs.: egg, N, egg production); Thibault & al., 1999 (p.1391); Beare & McKenzie, 1999 (p.241, fig.4, 5); Corten, 1999 (p.191, Table 1); Meyer-Harms & al., 1999 (p.154, selective feeding); B.W. Hansen & al., 1999 (p.233, seasonal abundance & biomass); Harvey & al., 1999 (p.1, 49: Appendix 5, in ballast water vessel); DFO, 2000 (p.1, Rem.: p.4, fig.2, interannual variations); 2000 a (p.1, Rem.: p.6, fig., interannual variations); Pepin & Maillet, 2000 (p.1, Rem.: p.8, table 2, interannual variations); Kaartvedt, 2000 (p.1819, relationship with planktivorous fishes); Miller & al., 2000 (p.1786, oil storage); Heath & al., 2000 (p.628, abundance distribution); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2000 (p.2029, tab.2); Beare & al., 2000 (p.1545, Atlantic index indicatot); Campbell & Head, 2000 (p.518, egg production); 2000 a (p.1780, egg viability); Gislason & al., 2000 (p.1619, life history); Gislason & Astthorson, 2000 (p.1727, distribution, ontogenic migration, egg production); Fiksen, 2000 (p.1825, adaptative timing of diapause); Helle, 2000 (p.1636, regional distribution); Musaeva & Suntsov, 2001 (p.511); Irigoien & al., 2000 (p.1752, sex ratio vs. diet); Holmes, 2001 (p.36, Rem.); Fransz & Gonzalez, 2001 (p.255, tab.1); Lischka & al., 2001 (p.186); Ashjian & al., 2001 (p.245); Beare & al., 2002 (p.917, fig.2); Sameoto, 2001 (p.749, Table 4, Rem.: decadal changes); Madsen & al., 2001 (p.75, development & production vs. annual); Beare & al., 2002 (p.29, Rem.); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.1692); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Pasternak & al., 2002 (p.147, fig.8, Table 4, feeding activity vs. egg production, faecal pellets); Ringuette & al., 2002 (p.5081, Table 1, 2, Fig.6, population dynamic); Auel & Hagen, 2002 (p.1013, tab. 2, 3); Arashkevich & al., 2002 (p.125, seasonal & regional variations); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Kosobokova, 2003 (p.118: fig.2); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2003 (p.769, 3, 4, 5, Table 2, 3); Reid al., 2003 (p.260, figs.3, 5); Astthorsson & Gislason, 2003 (p.843); Heath & al., al., 2004 (p.698, Rem: life-cycle patterns); Gislason & Astthorsson, 2004 (p.472, tab.1, fig.4); Lindeque & al., 2004 (p.121, fig.2); Bonnet & Frid, 2004 (p.485, fig.5); Ohman & al., 2004 (p.687); Eiane & Ohman, 2004 (p.183, stage-specific mortality); CPR, 2004 (p.50, fig.137); Beaugrand, 2004 (p.3, fig.7); Vallet Dauvin, 2004 (p.539, tab.2); Dmoch & Walczowski, 2005 (p.102 + poster); Jonasdottir & al., 2005 (p.1239, egg production & hatching success); Thor & al., 2005 (p.341); Bonnet & al., 2005 (p.41-45, tab.2); Manning & Bucklin, 2005 (p.233, Table 1, fig.5); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2006 (p.101, tab.1); Lindeque & al., 2006 (p.221); Basedow & al., 2006 (p.1181, fig.3, Table II); Durbin & Casas, 2006 (p.2537, Table 2a, 2b, Fig.4); Runge & al., 2006 (p.2618, egg production); Neverdal & al., 2006 (p., oil effect); Johnson C. & al., 2006 (p.2520, diapause vs transport & retention); Deibel & Daly; 2007 (p.271, Table 1, 2, 3, Rem.: Arctic polynyas); Hop & al., 2006 (p.182, Table 4, 5: inter-annual variability, fig.17); Cook & al., 2007 (p.757, Naupliar development times); Bonnet & al., 2007 (p.313); Walkusz & al., 2007 (p.43); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p. 64, Rem.: diapause; p.107); B.H. Hansen & al., 2007 (p.250, biol. mol.); Magnusson & al., 2007 (p.67, bioaccumulation of PCB); Helaouët & Beaugrand, 2007 (climate change sffects); Orlova & al., 2007 (p.145, climate effects); Falk-Petersen & al., 2007 (p.147, Table 9.1); Daase & al., 2007 (p.903, abundance/T°S); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2007 (p.2716, Table 2); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2007 (p.2729, geographic distribution, expatriation); Mayor & al., 2007 (p.91, hatcing vs pH); Christie & al., 2008 (p.526, genetic); Hansen B.H. & al., 2008 (p.115, endocrinology); Teegarden & al., 2008 (p.33, Rem.: feeding and toxicity); Saage & al., 2008 (p.162, nutrition); Yen & al., 2008 (p.283, Rem.: kinematic); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Heath & al., 2008 (p.39, Rem.: spatial demography); Pasternak & al., 2008 (p.2245, Table 1, 2, 3, grazing); Jensen & al., 2008 (p.99, pyrene effect); Søreide & al., 2008 (p.2225, feeding strategy); Hansen & al., 2008 (p.157, naphthalene effect, mol. biol.); Jonasdottir & al., 2008 (p.471, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, Tables 1, 2, 3; Rem.: production); Hansen B.H. & al., 2008 (p.115, lipid/reproduction); Madsen & al., 2008 (p.177, egg production); Madsen & al., 2008 (p.63, development, production); Falk-Petersen & al., 2008 (p.2275, depth distribution); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2008 (p.2210, Table 2, 3, 5, fig.4, biomass, composition vs climatic regimes); Kimmel & Sultan, 2008 (p.111, NAO effect); Pepin & al., 2008 (p.1, 9, figs. 21, 23, 24, 26, 30, 31, 32, interannual variations); DFO, 2008 (p.1, fig.4: interannual variations); Harvey & Devine, 2009 (p.3, interannual variation); Helaouët & Beaugrand, 2009 (p.1235, fig.3, 4, 5); Telesh & al., 2009 (p.18: Table 2.1); Mayor & al., 2009 (p.511, egg production); Calliari & Tiselius, 2009 (p.111); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2009 (p.265, Table 4, fig.11: chart, biomass); Hansen B.H. & al., 2009 (p.131, genetic expression); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2009 a (p.11, Table 2, abundance); DFO, 2009 (p.1, Rem. p.9, figs.11, 12, 13, seasonal change, interannual variation); Mackas & Beaugrand, 2010 (p.296, figs.11, 12); Beaugrand & Kirby, 2010 (p.1268, fig.3, 4); Petursdottir & al., 2010 (p.1, fatty acid); ; Head & Pepin, 2010 (p.1633, inter-decadal variability); Pershing & al., 2010 (p.1661, interannual variability); Templeton, 2010 (p.1, p.15: fig.12, interannual variability); Leandro & al., 2010 (p.88, biotoxin trophic transfer); Hansen B.H. & al., 2010 (p.212, chemical polluant); Gaardsted & al., 2010 (p.1465, abundance distribution); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Kwasniewski & al., 2010 (p.72, Table 2, abundance vs hydrography); Arendt & al., 2010 (p.49, egg & faecal pellets production vs. environmental conditions); Dünweber & al., 2010 (p.11, biomass, gut content); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2010 (p.991, Table 2); 2011 a (p.1231, Table 2: abundance, biomass); Dvoretsky V.G., 2011 (p.361, abundance, stage composition); Jonasdottir & Koski, 2011 (p.85, vertical distribution, production); Tang & al., 2011 (p.77, composition & biomass); Hansen B.H; & al., 2011 (p.704, ecotoxicology); Kosobokova & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, 3, figs.4, 6, Rem.: Arctic Basins); Pomerleau & al., 2011 (p.1779, Table III, IV, V, VI); Arendt, 2011 (p.1, Fig.10, fecal pellets); Arendt & al., 2011 (p.1526, clearance rate, fecal pellet production, egg production); Swalethorp & al., 2011 (p.429, grazing, egg production and life strategies); Van Ginderdeuren & al., 2012 (p.10, 17: Rem.); Carstensen & al., 2012 (p.951, Fig.2, 8, biomass); Lauritano & al., 2012 (p.22, Table 1, 2, gene/polluants); Dalpadado & al., 2012 (p.1, abundance vs. climate change); Sigurdardottir, 2012 (p.1, Table 2.3, annual abundance, feeding activity, fecundity); Tammilehto & al., 2012 (p.165, nutition, algal toxicity); Johnson C & al., 2012 (p.1, 15, figs. 19, 20a, 20b, 21, 23a, 23b, 25b, 26b, 28, 29, interannual variarions); Fields & al., 2012 (p.1, behavioral sensitivity and escape reaction); Pasternak & al., 2012 (p.377, feeding rate); Dvoretskii & Dvoretskii, 1912 (p.563, biomass variation vs time-series vs NAO index); Hansen B.H. & al., 2012 (p.38, toxicity of oil spilled); Klok & al., 2012 (p.24, ecotoxicology); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2012 (p.1321, Table 2, 3, 4, 5, abundance, biomass, production); Trudnowska & al., 2012 (p.18, Table 1, abundance vs hydrography); McGinty & al., 2012 (p.122, time series abundance); Kwasniewski & al., 2012 (p.890, interannual variability); Davies & al., 2012 (p.614, energy content vs methods); Lenz & al., 2012 (p.110, lipid-rich, lipid-poor, molecular biology vs environmental cues); Miljetig & al., 2013 (p.14426, phototaxis behaviour vs oil polluant); Gusmao & al., 2013 (p.279, Table 3, sex-specific predation by fish); Helaouët & al., 2013 (p.1, long-term changes abundance; 1958-2008); Hansen B.H. & al., 2013 (p.1577, metabolism); Miljeteig & al., 2014 (p.16, irradiance sensitivity, behavior); Lenz & al., 2014 (p.1, molecular biol. vs lipids synthesis vs environmental diet); Colombo-Hixson & al., 2013 (p.687, aquaculture meal); Hsiao & Fang, 2013 (p.175, Table 2: Hg bioaccumulation); Pasternak & al., 2013 (p.547, egg production); Pepin & al., 2013 (p.371, drift effects, seasonal variations); Olsen A.J. & al., 2013 (p.2045, mortality, reproduction vs. dispersed oil effects); Unal & al., 2013 (p.76, analysis of gene expression patterns); Christie & al., 2013 (p.165, diel migration, diapause vs molecular analysis)
NZ: 6 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Calanus finmarchicus by geographical zones
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 3
Chart of 1996
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 4issued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [p.55, Fig.1].
Ditribution of stages V and VI in the North Atlantic from the Continuous Plankton Recorder.
The chart show the average abundance and distrubution derived from more than 43.000 samples taken a depth of 10 m during 1958 to 1968. The samples were assigned to rectangles of 1° lat. by 2° long. The boundary of the sampled area (defined as those rectangles sampled in more than 5 months) is shown by the straight lines in the chart; within this area the average abundance in each rectangle is shown by circular symbols; the presence of the species in the occasional samples outside this area is indicated by plus signs. The absence (in the sampled area) indicates that the species was not found in CPR.
large and small filled in circles and open circles, respectively, are used to indicate the following categories of abundance (average numbers per sample of 3.3 m3: >6.4 : 6.4-1.7 : <1.7
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 5issued from : N. Mumm, H. Auel, H. Hanssen, W. Hagen, C. Richter & H.-J. Hirche in Polar Biol., 1998, 20. [p.192, Fig.1, p.194, Fig.3]
Fig.1 after Diepenbroek & al., 1997; Station map, the dark line connects stations of different expeditions to a transpolar transect (AB: Amundsen Basin, BS: Barents Sea; GL: Greenland; GS: Greenland Sea; LR: Lomonov Ridge; MB: Makarov Basin; MJP: Morris Jessup Plateau; NB: Nansen Basin; NG: Nansen-Gakkel Ridge; SB: Spitsbergen; WSC: West Spitsbergen Current; YP: Yermak Plateau

Fig.3: Biomass share (% of total mesozooplankton dry mass) of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and other taxa in 0- to 500 m depth of different Arctic regions (DM total: mean total dry mass).
Note the co-occuring of the three species, but the the different abundance according to the basins.
C. finmarchicus reached a maximum abundance in the WSC, this form was the dominant species in the West Spitsbergen Current and south of the central Nansen Basin.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 6issued from : J.T. Turner & M.J. Dagg in Biol. Oceanogr., 1983, 3 (1). [p.18, Fig.8].
Vertical and inshore-offshore distributions of Calanus finmarchicus in relation to the 15°C isotherm at pump stations on the Long Island (NW Atlantic) transect (40°31.8'-39°53.2' N, 72°23.6'-72°59.4' W; October 1978).
Station numbers are given on the top axis, and dark horizontal bars identify stations sampled at night.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 7issued from : K.S. Tande & C.C.E. Hopkins in Mar. Biol., 1981, 63. [p.161, Fig.3].
Calanus finmarchicus( from 69°21'N, 19°16'E): A, left lateral view of genital system in male copepodite V (26 November 1977); B: dorsal view of genital system in more advanced male copepodite stage V (31 January 1977).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 8issued from : K.S. Tande & C.C.E. Hopkins in Mar. Biol., 1981, 63. [p.162, Fig.7].
Calanus finmarchicus( from 69°21'N, 19°16'E): Seasonal variation in proportion of males (November 1976 to December 1977 in copepodite satges V and VI.
Black circle: copepodite stage V males; white circle: copepodite stage VI; square : absent.

The copepodite stage IV cannot be separated into males and females owing to the gonad being still sexually undifferentied. The gonad of copepodite stage V in its most immature condition resembles that seen in copepodite stage IV, whereas the sex of stage V copepodites with mature gonads can be easily determined. The genital ducts are the key characters for separating males and females. It appears that the stage V males represent a situation where the right genital duct has degenerated (see Lowe, 1935).
The adult sex-ratios often favour females, and the highest proportion of males often coincides with the time of fertilization. The females appear to undergo a longer and more extensive development of the reproductive system than males in copepodite stage V.
The pre-adult gonad maturation process in C. finmarchicus seems to be an adaptation to overwintering so that spawning can occur as soon as possible after the start of the spring diatom increase.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 9issued from : R. Wulliams in Mar. Biol., 1985, 86. [p.146, Fig.2].
Calanus finmarchicus. Annual mean distribution and abundance from sampling at 10 m depth by the Continuous Plankton Recorder. Data for all months sampled from 1960 to 1981. The boudary of the sampled area is shown by straight lines. Position of the 14°C isotherm in August is shown.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 10issued from : R. Wulliams in Mar. Biol., 1985, 86. [p.148, Fig.6].
Calanus finmarchicus (a) and C. helgolandicus (b) from Celtic Sea (53°30'N, 07°00'W). Vertical distribution of Copepodite V and VI. Numbers in each night (black) and day (white) hauls are plotted in 5 m depth intervals as percentagges of total numbers (n) present in the haul.
Temperature and Salinity profiles are shown for the day hauls. GMT: Greenwhich Mean Time.

Nota: The two congeneric copepods are morphologically very similar and show little phenotypic divergence. No hybrids are produced between the species which demonstrates that their isolating mechanisms are fully evolved. The only reason that C. finmarchicus, a northern species, is able to persist in the Celtic Sea, which has a sea-surface temperature of ca. 18° C, is because the sea becomes seasonally thermally stratified and a winter sea-temperature is retained below the thermocline. C. finmarchicus is associated with the colder (ca. 8.5° C), more saline water below the thermocline, while is distributed in the warmer, less saline water above the thermocline. When the water comumn is thermally stratified, two separate water masses are formed; the upper wind-mixed and the lower tidally-mixed water. From July into autumn, C. finmarchicus remained below the thermocline , presumably feeding on sedimented and tidally re-suspended particulates, whereas C. helgolandicus remained within the euphotic zone in close association with autotrophic phytoplankton.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 11issued from : A. Longhurst & R. Williams in J. Plankton Res., 1979, 1 (1). [p.23, Fig.8a].
Day/night percentage numerical profiles at India Station (59°N, 19°W) at end of March 1975.
Depth in meter.
Sampling by LHPRs (Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorders).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 12issued from : A. Longhurst & R. Williams in J. Plankton Res., 1979, 1 (1). [p.24, Fig.8b].
Day/night percentage numerical profiles at India Station (59°N, 19°W) in early May 1975.
Depth in meter.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 13issued from : W.A. Jaschnov in Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol., 1970, 55 (2). [p.203, Fig.2]
Distribution of Calanus finmarchicus from literary sources, and unpublished data.
Solid lines indicate the position of the convergence zones. Arrows denote some of the currents; arrows in the eastern part of the Polar Basin indicate cyclonic circulation of Atlantic waters (after Worthington, 1953). Dark circles indicate occurrence in reproduction areas, semi-dark circles in immigrated areas and white circles in expatriation areas (usual single findings).

Nota: C. finmarchicus is carried eastward with the southern branch of the North Atlantic Current and then southward. It occurs in small numbers in the surface water layers along the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula ans west Madeira (Rose, 1929 and unpublished data) within the area of expatriation. The presence of the species in Mediterranean Sea. The occurrence at stations in the Mediterranean Sea, in the western part, is explained by the penetration of Atlantic surface waters into this region (cf in Remarks).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 14issued from : E.H. Grainger in J. Fish. Bd. Canada, 1961, 18 (5). [p.673, Fig.6].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus in northern North America.
Circles indicate collection first reported by the author, squares collections described by others (mostly Jespersen, 1934). Arrows denote principal water movements.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 15issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.77, Fig.5].
Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Numbers of a few stations are shown.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 16issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.78, Fig.6].
Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 17issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.79, Fig.7].
Labrador and southeast Canadian waters. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 18issued from : B.T. Hargrave, G.C. Harding, K.F. Drinkwater, T.C. Lambert & W.G. Harrison in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1985, 20. [p.227, Fig.7].
Major species of zooplankton present at the central station in St. Georges Bay (45°45'N, 61°45'W) during 1977.
Nota: All zooplankton collections were made after sunset. The net towed obliquely throughout the water column (± 34 m in depth).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 19issued from : B.T. Hargrave, G.C. Harding, K.F. Drinkwater, T.C. Lambert & W.G. Harrison in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1985, 20. [p.223, Fig.2].
Seasonal profiles of water temperature and salinity in St. Georges Bay (45°45'N, 61°45'W) near the central station during 1977.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 20issued from : G.C. Hays in Nature, 1995, 376. [p.650].
a: the estimated spawning stock of herring (Clupea harengus), after A. Corten & G. van de Kamp, 1992, in the North Sea during 1960-1990. Herring spawning-stock size in millions of tonnes.
b: The normal diel vertical migration (DVM) behaviour of C5-C6 Calanus finmarchicus in the North Sea (54°-60°N, 3°W-10°E).
c: The two time series in a and b reduced to zero mean and unit variance to facilite visual comparison.

Nota: The normal DVM behaviour of copepodite stages C5-C6 of C. finmarchicus co-varied with the abundance of herring. The implication is that in those years when herring were abundant, a smaller proportion of C. finmarchicus occurred near the surface during the day because of the increased risk of mortality.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 21issued from : G.A. Harding in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1973, 18 (4). [p.671, Fig.1].
Examples of selected copepod tissues (Calanus finmarchicus) stained with carbol thionin (see Baker, 1967) to demonstrate the presence or absence of bacteria (non classified).
Photographs taken through a Zeiss compound microscope using Nomarsky interference lightting;
a: Bacteria on chitin after 2 days. Calanus incubated at 20-22 °C.
b: Bacteria between muscle sheets.

Nota: Killed copepods decomposed within 11 days in 4°C Halifax water and within 3 days in 22 °C Sargasso Sea water. In both cases initial infection occurred on the exoskeleton and apparently progrssed into the organisms through the mouth. The urosome and internal extremities were the last to be attacked.
Rod-shaped bacteria were responsable for the degradation of dead Calanus in the surface water collected off Nova Scotia and Bermuda (for example specimens damaged when caught in nets or from natural causes). It is unlikely that the copepod's normal intestinal flora contribute significantly to this decomposition. Temperature has a large effect on rrate of decomposition. Although the bacteria were superficially alike, in Sargasso Sea (water at 20-22 °C) decomposition was 4 times as rapid as at 4 °C in coastal Halifax water. Autolysis of copepod tissues after death does not appear to have an observable effect on carcass appearances although it may aid bacterial effect.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 22issued from : J.P. Harding, S.M. Marshall & A.P. Orr in Nature, Lond., 1951, 167 (4258). [p.953]
.Time of egg-laying for Calanus finmarchicus at Millport (SW Scotland). The continuousline represents the number of eggs laid per hour (A) or in 3 hr (B). The verical columns represent the percentage of Calanus laying.

Nota: In diagram A: 68 ù spawned between midnight and 3 a.m. and the bulk of the rest by 4 a.m. Only 5 of the 10d individuals did not lay. The average number of eggs was very constant at about 40 per female. This result might have been caused by the shock of capture and examination, or by the sudden reduction of pressure (specimens captured between 50 and 100 m at 4 p.m., examination at about 6 P.m.), acting after an interval of about 8 hours.
Diagram B shows that laying was still concentrated in the early hours of the morning. The peak is not so marked, possibly because of the longer period of starvation. It has been found that the number of eggs laid by Calanus is closely dependent on the amount of food available.
The eggs are heavier than sea water and sink about 36 m hr., which is about the minimum time it takes for the eggs to hatch.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 23issued from : S. Eriksson in ZOON, 1973, 1. [p.46, Fig.9].
Size distribution of adult females of Calanus finmarchicus (offshore station H6:11°30'N, 57°40'.5, The Kattegatt) during 1969-70 in the main series.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 24issued from : S. Eriksson in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.320, Figs. 2-3]
Salinity and temperature curves for main series at offshore station H6 (11°30' N, 57°40'.5 E, The Kattegatt) from March 1968 to November 1970.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 25issued from : I.A. McLaren, M.J. Tremblay, C.J. Corkett & J.C. Roff in Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989, 46. [p.565, Fig.3].
Annual cycle of Calanus finmarchicus on Browns Bank (42°35'N, 65°50'W), April 1984 to Febriary 1985.
Successive generations labelled Go, etc. Upper panel: abundances as proportions of stages (AD: adults; males clear section of adult bar). Lower panel: numbers of CIV, CV, and adult females in arbitrary subsamples from samples.
The samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 70-80 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.202 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 26issued from : I.A. McLaren, M.J. Tremblay, C.J. Corkett & J.C. Roff in Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989, 46. [p.565, Fig.4].
Annual cycle of Calanus finmarchicus on Emerald Bank (43°30'N, 63°00'W), 1979-80.
Successive generations labelled Go, etc. For convenience, Nov. 1979 sample placed at end. Upper panel: proportions of stages (AD: adults). Lower panel: size-frequencies of adult females.
The samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 25 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.250 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 27issued from : I.A. McLaren inJ. Fish. Res. Board Can., 1978, 35. [p.1336, Fig.4].
Life cycles of Calanus finmarchicus in Loch Striven (55°55'N, 05°10'W).
Relative abundance of C V as a percentage of all copepodids (lower panel); size and numbers per haul (including combined hauls from 60 m to 10 m and 10 to 0 m) of adult females (middle panel), and percentage of nauplii and copepodids above 10 m (from split hauls, taken from 60 to 10 m and 10 to 0 m) (upper panel).
Successive generations as infered from peaks in the C V cohorts and size changes designated as Go, G1, etc.
Data from Marshall (1949, tables I and II).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 28issued from : G.W. Comita, Marshall S.M. & Orr A.P. in J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 1966, 46. [p.12, Fig.5].
Monthly temperature (above) and length of cephalothorax (below) in mm of Calanus finmarchicus female (open circles), male (crosses) and stage V (full circles) , 1962-1963, from Bute Channel (SW Scotland).

Nota: length is not necessarily correlated with weight or calorific value, although in 1962-63 it also showed three maxima during the period usually coinciding with the weight maxima.
The length of males, for instance, was much the same at all three maxima, although the weight and calorific value differ widely.
Females increased slightly in length at the time of their weight and caloric minimum and stage V showed no mid-winter increase in length but rather a fall.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 29issued from : G.W. Comita, Marshall S.M. & Orr A.P. in J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 1966, 46. [p.10, Fig.4, D].
Weights of Calanus finmarchicus male (crosses), female (open circles) and stage V (full circles), 1962-63, from Bute Channel (SW Scotland).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 30issued from : G.W. Comita, Marshall S.M. & Orr A.P. in J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 1966, 46. [p.6, Fig.2].
Weight and calories per g Calanus finmarchicus male (crosses), female (open circles) and stage V (full circles), 1962-63, from Bute Channel (SW Scotland), by bomb calorimeter.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 31Issued from : J.L. Urban, McKenzie C.H. & Deibel D. in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1992, 84. [p.262, Fig.21].
Calanus finmarchicus from Logy Bay, Newfoundland, Canada). Percent occurrence in the fields viewed per faecal pellet of phytoplankton species within general taxonomic groups at each sampling date. * At least 1 identifiable heterotrophic species was found in this group.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 32Issued from : A. Hassel in Biol. og kjem. oceanografi, 1983, BKO 8308. [p.6, Fig.4].
Relative distribution of copepodite stage I-III of Calanus finmarchicus from 0-200 m depth, in percent of total numbers of copepodites. 5-12 May 1981. Stations are indicated to lower right.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 33Issued from : A. Hassel in Biol. og kjem. oceanografi, 1983, BKO 8308. [p.7, Fig.5].
Main surface currents in the western Barents Sea.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 34Issued from : J.E. Søreide, S. Falk-Petersen, E.N. Hegseth, H. Hop, M.L. Carroll, K.A. Hobson & K. Blachowiak-Samolyk in Deep-Sea Res., II, 2008, 55. [p.2228, Fig.1].
Study sites in the Svalbard region. The biomass (dry-weight b/m2) of the population of Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus (CI-adult) is shown for the main sampling locations (data from Stn. NK2 is missing) and the Atlantic and Arctic water masses are indicated by arrows (WCS: west Spitsbergen Current). The location of the ice edge (defined as 30% ice concentrations) is indicated for selected dates.

Nota: Stable isotope and fatty acid trophic marker techniques were employed together to assess trophic level, carbon sources (phytoplankton vs. ice algae), and diet of the three Calanus species.
Patterns in absolute fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition revealed that diatoms were the most important food for C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, followed by Phaeocystis, whereas diatoms, Phaeocystis and other small autotrophic flagellates were equally important for C. finmarchicus.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 35Issued from : S. Falk-Petersen & al. in Deep-Sea Res., 2008, 55. [p.2282, Table 5].
Arctic Ocean, Ice Stations 1 (82°N, 11°E) on 2 September 2004, and 2 (82°30'N, 21°E) on 4 September 2004: Depth distribution of mesozooplankton in the upper 1200 m.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 36Issued from : S. Falk-Petersen & al. in Deep-Sea Res., 2008, 55. [p.2281, Fig.8].
Arctic Ocean, Ice Stations 1 (82°N, 11°E) on 2 September 2004, and 2 (82°30'N, 21°E) on 4 September 2004: Temperature (black profile), relative fluorescence values (red line), salinity (dotted line).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 37Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Møller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.83, Fig.4]
Calanus finmarchicus (from the continental slope off Fyllas Bank to the inner part of Godthabsfjord, SW Greenland, corresponding to stations 0 to 20) in the summer (2008).
Contour plots of biomass (mg C/m3) of all developmental stages collected from 4 to 9 strata with a multinet samples (300 µm mesh aperture)
Dots are mid-points of sampling intervals. Numbers on top are stations. Hatched area = bottom topography.

Compare this distribution with the other dominant large zooplankton species Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus and Metridia longa for the same transect.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 38Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Møller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.79, Fig.1]
Station positions along Godthabsfjord in southwestern Greenland.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 39Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Møller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.81, Fig.2]
Contour plots of water temperature (°C), salinity, density (kg/m3) and chlorophyll a (mg/m3) along the transect of Godthabsfjord.
Distances were measured from Station o. Note the different contour line scales for different panels.
Hatched area in each panel represents bottom topography.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 40iSsued from : A. Gislason & O.S. Astthorsson in ICES J. Mar. Sci., 2000, 57 (6). [p.1728, Fig.1].
Map of the study area southwest of Iceland showing the sampling stations and the positions od the two transects.
Inserted on the figure are the main ocean currents in the upper layers, adapted from Valdimarsson & Malmberg (1999), and the main overflow paths over the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, adapted from Hansen & al. (1998).
Grey arrows, Atlantic Water; black arrows, Polar Water; black broken arrows, mixed water; grey broken arrows, main overflow paths.

Based on CPR data, the distribution area of C. finmarchicus in the North Atlantic may be divided into two main centres of high abundance, one in the Labrador Sea and the other in the Norwegian Sea. Analysis of individuals from both sides of the North Atlantic has revealed genetic differentiation between the main distribution centres (See in Bucklin & al., 1996). Iceland is situated at the boundary between those two centres, and the current system in the North Atlantic suggests that C. finmarchicus may be advected to deep water southwest of Iceland from both these areas.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 41Issued from : Ø. Fiksen in ICES J. Mar. Sci., 2000, 57 (6). [p.1827, Fig.1].
A general overview of how the lfe cycle alternatives are modelled. Depending on which day the copepods wake up (WUD), switch allocation pattern (AFD), and reach its fat-soma ratio (FSR), the life cycle may consist of one or several generations, and a long or short diapause.

Nota : In environments with strong and variable seasonal fluctuations, organisms are selected on the basis of their phenology, such as the timing of diapause, reoroduction, or assembling of storage products.
A simulation model of the dynamic balance of various phenologies within a population facing density-dependence and varying annual, environmentaly determined growth opportunities is presented by the author.
The main assumption is that the timing of phenological events is heritable and cued by a single signal (day length).Then, the balance between alternative strategies is regulated by natural selection and reproduction success.
The model is developed for C. finmarchicus, which must decide when to start preparing for diapause by allocating to storage rather than somatic growth, how much storage (lipids) to bring with it during wintering and when to ‘’wake up’’ to complete development and to reproduce.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 42Issued from : V. Sigurdardottir inmaster's thesis, Faculty of Life and Environmetal Sciences, Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik: 2012. [p.27, Fig.2.5].
Total abundance (number/m2) of Calanus finmarchicus from Breidafjördur (W Iceland) during spring and summer 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Collected with WP-2 net, towed vertically from the bottom to surface.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 43Issued from : V. Sigurdardottir inmaster's thesis, Faculty of Life and Environmetal Sciences, Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik: 2012. [p.21, Fig.2.2].
Average temperatiure from 0-50 meter depth from Breidafjördur (W Iceland) during spring and summer 2007, 2008 and 2009.
Numbers are average from measurements of both stations.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 44Issued from : S. Plourde & I. McQuinn inSecr. can. de consult. sci. du MPO Doc. de rech. 2009/104, 2010. [p.25, Fig.9].
Biomasse moyenne de C. finmarchicus en Juin 1999 dans le Golfe du Saint-Laurent estimée à l'aide du modèle couplé biologique-physique en 3 dimensions.

Nota: Results from 3-D coupled biological-physical model of the copepod C. finmarchicus ran for the uear 1999.
Twelve zoneshave been identified, with the lower estuary, the northern area in the northwest Gulf of St-Lauwrence, the Gaspé Current, the coastal area in the southern Gulf of St-Lawrence (including the Baie-des-Chaleurs), the maximum turbidity zone (middle estuary), and the region extending from the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula into the outer Baie-des-Chaleurs being the most important
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 45Issued from : S. Plourde & I. McQuinn inSecr. can. de consult. sci. du MPO Doc. de rech. 2009/104, 2010. [p.23, Fig.7].
Production d'oeufs (indice de production secondaire) moyenne de C. finmarchicus en juin 1999 dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent estimée à l'aide du modèle couplé biologique-physique en 3 dimensions.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 46Issued from : S. Plourde & I. McQuinn inSecr. can. de consult. sci. du MPO Doc. de rech. 2009/104, 2010. [p.26, Fig.10].
Biomasse moyenne de C. finmarchicus en septembre 1999 dans le Golfe du Saint-Laurent estimée à l'aide du modèle couplé biologique-physique en 3 dimensions.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 47Issued from : S. Plourde & I. McQuinn inSecr. can. de consult. sci. du MPO Doc. de rech. 2009/104, 2010. [p.24, Fig.8].
Production d'oeufs (indice de production secondaire) moyenne de C. finmarchicus en septembre 1999 dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent estimée à l'aide du modèle couplé biologique-physique en 3 dimensions.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 48Issued from : DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2009/154. [p.10, Fig.12].
Time-series (1999-2008) of Calanus finmarchicus abundance and developmental stages at the Halifax-2 fixed station (Nova Scotia).
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 49Issued from : DFO in DRO Sci. Stock Status Rep. G3-02 (2000). [p.8].
Abundance of C. finmarchicus in Emerald Basin (Nova Scotia) during the years 1982 to 1998.
Nota: Compare with Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus glacialis.
See in Sameoto & al., 1997.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 50Issued from : V.G. Dvoretskii & A.G. Dvoretskii in Biol. Bull., 2012, 39 (6). [p.567, Fig.3].
Dynamics of total zooplankton biomass (a) and Calanus finmarchicus biomass (b) in the upper 50-m water layer in the southern Barents Sea in 1952-1958.
Vertical lines indicate standard errors.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 51Issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.245, Table 4].
Length of prosome (mm) and number of teeth on coxopodite of P5 in adult females selected at random from samples used to determine urosome pore signature.
Species Calanus finmarchicus - Distribution map 52Issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.241, Fig.5 b].
Distribution of Calanus finmarchicus sensu stricto in North Atlantic and adjacent seas based on published litterature (squares: Edinburg Oceanographic Laboratory, 1973; open triangles: Jaschnov, 1970; present records: dots and half-filled circles). Stippled areas approximate inhabited region beyond or at perimeter of North Atlantic Ocean.

Nota: From time to time equivocal determinations of C. finmarchicus from Mediterranean Sea localities have been published. The authors are unaware of any convincing evidence that this species occurs even occasionally in the Mediterranean Sea, although its presence there would not be surprising in view of prevailing circulation of the mixed layer in the Strait of Gibraltar.
Loc:
Atlant. N (E-W), off C. Hatteras, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, Cape Cod Canal, off E Cape Cod, Narragansett Bay, G. of Maine, Portsmouth, off Woods Hole, Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, off SE & SW Nova Scotia, Emerald Basin, Roseway Basin, off Halifax, Bay of Fundy, St. Georges Bay, Shédiac Bay, St. Margaret's Bay, Northumberland, Passamaquoddy Bay, Strait, Baie des Chaleurs, G. of Saint Lawrence, Saguenay fjord, upper St. Lawrence Estuary, off S & E Newfoundland (Grand Bank, Flemish Cap), Davis Strait, Disko Bay, Labrador Sea, SW Iceland, Caribbean Colombia (Tayrona, Magdalena, in Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.275, Tab. 2); Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Azores, Ireland, Aran Islands, Celtic Sea (in winter), Galway Bay, Fairlie Channel (SW Scotland), Millport, Loch Fyne, Bristol Channel, ? English Channel (? Granville), ? Biscayne Bay (deep), off W Cape Finisterre, Azores (rare), Ungava Bay, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, off shore Godthabsfjord, Disko Bay, Fram Strait, Greenland Sea, Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland, Fram Strait, Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen, Amundsen & Makarov Basins (rare), S Nansen Basin (abundant), Norway Sea, Svalbard, Korsfjorden, Kosterfjorden, Balsfjorden, Trondheimsfjorden, off Bear Island, Barents Sea, Franz Josef Land, Pechora Sea, Laptev Sea, North Sea, Dogger Bank, Fladen Ground area, Norwegian Sea (Voering Plateau); Norway ( Tromsø fjords, Malangen fjord, Raunefjorden, Gullmarfjord, Korsfjorden, Tronheimsfjorden, Bergen, Oslo fjord), Skagerrak, Gullmar Fjord, Kattegat, Gulf of Mecklenburger, Baltic Sea (occasional), Arct. ( Franz Josef Land, Spitsbergen, Irminger Basin, Nansen Basin, Amundsen Basin, Makarov Basin, Canadian abyssal plain, Lomonosov Ridge)
N: 399
Lg.:
(65) F: 5-4; M: ±3,6; (87) F: 3,6; (131) F: 4,21-2,42; M: 3,98-2,57; (328) F: ± 2,7; (329) F: 4,21-2,42; M: 3,98-2,57; (339) F: 3,8-3,3; M: 3,8-3; (1303) F; 3,12; {F: 2,42-5,00; M: 2,34-3,98}
Prosome length (1098) F: 2.48-2.91
Rem.: Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-2000 m (most numerous between 1000 and 1500 m) (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station"S"). 2000-1000 m (slope) and 4000-3000 m under the Gulf Stream (Harding, 1974).
After Corner & al. (1974) this species could survive the winter in the Clyde sea-area by feeding carnivorously on nauplians forms.
Certain confusions exist in the literature between C. finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus on one side and between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis on the other (Cf. Brodsky, 1955, p.2; Frost, 1971, p.23).
The locality records in the south Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific and Central Arctic Oceans are doubtful, or else completely mistaken.
I have not yet been able to identify the Arctic limits and in particular beyond the Barents Sea to Eastern Siberia.
Sars (1925, p.369) indicates the presence of this species at station 299 (Tyrrhenian Sea), but does not site this in the text (p. 6) suggesting its southern limit at the Azores. Rose, who indicated the species in the Bay of Alger and near Monaco in works, earlier than 1933 does not cite the species anymore but refers later to C. helgolandicus. Furnestin & Giron (1961) indicate the two species in the Catalan Sea, but Giron (1963; 1963 a) only observes C. helgolandicus in the Alboran Sea. Soenen (1969, p.56) identifies the two species near the Algerian coast (one specimen in the case of C. finmarchicus) and Carli (1971, p.372, tab.1) found C. finmarchicus in the Ligurian Sea. A serious doubt exists on these identifications.
Vives (1967; 1970; 1978; 1982) and Vives & al. (1975) have never observed C. finmarchicus in the Ibero-Morroccan waters or in the Western Mediterranean.
For Kosobokova & al. (2011, Table 3) it is an expatriate species observed in Arctic basins.
The occurrence of this species needs confirmation in the Caribbean Sea.

Calanus finmarchicus telezkensis Stalberg,1931 (F)
Ref.: Stalberg, 1931 (p.209, figs.F)
Ref. compl.: Marshall & Orr, 1972 (p.10: Rem.); Lindley, 1992 (p.368: Rem.)
Loc.: Telezker Lake (central Siberia: 51°,5 N & 88 ° E)
N: 1
Lg.: F: 3-2,7; {F: 2,70-3,00}
Rem.: Surprising relict variety regarding its freshwater adaptation and its isolation that need confirmation. (see in Vereshchagin, G.J., 1940. Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol. Hydrogr., 40: 390-419.).
For Kosobokova & al. (2010, in press) Calanus finmarchicus is an expatriate species from Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean Basins, because the reproduction is not assumed in polar waters.

For Itoh (1970 a, fig.2, from co-ordonates) the Itoh's index value from mandibular gnathobase = 280.
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