Calanoida ( Ordre )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamille )
Heterorhabdidae Sars, 1902 ( Arietelloidea )
Syn.: Heterochätina Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.63);
Heterochaetidae Sars,1900 (p.79);
Heterorhabdinae : Esterly, 1905 (p.181)
Ref.: Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.73, 117); Gurney, 1931 a (p.84); Rose, 1933 a (p.198); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.82, 341); Mazza, 1967 (p.190); Heptner, 1971 (p.146); 1972 a (p.54, Rev., Genera Key.); Grice, 1973 (p.943, Rem.); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1005); Razouls, 1982 (p.460); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.9); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.143, 145); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.248); Mauchline, 1988 (p.708: cuticular pores); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.463); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.816); Ohtsuka & al., 1997 (p.577, Phylogeny); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.883, 902, 903, 942, 943: Key of Genera); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.70, Def., Rem.); Park, 2000 (p.5, Rem., p.9: Genera & Sug-Genera Keys); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.461); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.14; 49; 124: Def.; p.126: Geneta Key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.292, part. Genera Key); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.103, Table 1, Fig. 2, 3, 4, molecular biology, phylogeny)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002. http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/calanoida/index.htm
Rem.: La famille des Heterorhabdidae est revue par Heptner (1972) qui estime artificiel les caractères utilisés, notamment pour les genres Hemirhabdus et Disseta. Les espèces sont regroupées sur la base de la structure des appendices buccaux liée au type de régime alimentaire qui évolue du mode filtreur (Disseta) au mode carnivore suceur (Heterorhabdus). L'auteur crée alors les deux genres nouveaux: Neorhabdus et Microdisseta. Un examen comparé des Md, Mx1, Mx2 et Mxp conduit l'auteur à envisager une évolution dans la famille. Le genre Heterorhabdus est divisé en deux sous-genres par Brodsky (1950): Paraheterorhabdus (type: H. robustus) et Euheterorhabdus (types: H. papilliger et H. norvegicus).
Grice (1973) ajoute à cette famille le nouveau genre Alrhabdus à partir de la découverte d'une femelle (A. johrdae), qui présente des affinités à la fois avec les Heterorhabdidae et les Augaptilidae, mais l'auteur, faute de la connaissance du mâle, ne crée pas de famille particulière. Il suggère que diverses espèces de calanoïdes hyperbenthiques sont dans une situation semblable. Park (2000, p.1, 8, 141) exclut ce genre de la famille des Heterorhabdidae de même que Microdisseta, maintenus ici pour mémoire, et confirme le genre Paraheterorhabdus de Brodsky (1950)
8 G: Microdisseta, Disseta, Hemirhabdus, Heterorhabdus, Heterostylites, Mesorhabdus, Neorhabdus, Paraheterorhabdus.
Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 1issued from : S. Ohtsuka, H.Y. Soh & S. Nishida in J. Crustacean Biol., 1997, 17 (4). [p.589, Fig.8].
Cladogramm showing phylogenetic relationships between genera of the family Heterorhabdidae generated with PAUP when all characters are set unordered.
The numbers corresopnd to characters in Table 3 (following figure). Underline = multistate character; * = reversal; cross = convergence.
Diss = Disseta; Micr = Microdisseta; Meso = Mesorhabdus; Hets = Heterostylites; Hemi = Hemirhabdus; Neo = Neorhabdus; Hete (Para) = Heterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus); Hete (Hete) = Heterorhabdus (Heterorhabdus).

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 2issued from : S. Ohtsuka, H.Y. Soh & S. Nishida in J. Crustacean Biol., 1997, 17 (4). [p.587].
Characters used in the cladistic analysis (in the matrix) for genera on the family Heterorhabdidae.
Codes 0-4 refer to transformation series of multistate characters. o = plesiomorphic state, 1 = advanced (apomorphic) state, 2-4 = further advanced states, 9 = missing data.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 3issued from : S. Ohtsuka, H.Y. Soh & S. Nishida in J. Crustacean Biol., 1997, 17 (4). [p.590, Fig.9].
Two cladograms showing phylogenic relationships between genera of the family Heterorhabdidae generated with PAUP when all characters are set-ordered.
The numbers, symbols, and abbreviated generic names as in Fig. 8 and Table 3 (above).
For the authors gut content analyses partly support Heptner's (1972) conclusion on the feeding habits of the family. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the family generated in the present study are almost identical with the noncladistic evolutionary tree of Hepner (1972), which was not based on detailed observations of the mandibular ventralmost teeth and the posterior surface of the labrum. The particle-feeder Disseta is the first to diverge from the main lineage, while the carnivores Hemirhabdus-Neorhabdus-Heterorhabdus are the terminal branch. Microdisseta is the second off-shoot in the evolution of the family. Mesorhabdus and Heterostylites are intermediate between these suspension feeders and the carnivores. The relative position of Heterostylites in the cladograms is equivocal.
The specialization of the mandibular ventralmost tooth and the supposed paralytic-substance-releasing gland openings on the labrum are shared by Heterorhabdus and the Hemirhabdus-Neorhabdus clade.
The evolutionnary transformation from particle feeders to pure carnivores has been accomplished by a combination of reductions or losses and specializations of several elements on the mouthpart appendages and the conversion of a lateral pair of labral secretory glands into a venom- or anaesthetic-realising system. Only in Heterorhabdus the relative elongation of the maxillary (Mx2) praecoxa is added to these transformations (length of Mx2 praecoxa in relation to body length female = 19.7). The elongation supposedly guarantees effective capture of prey animals (see in Ohtsuka, 1991). The remarkable elongation of the Mx2 praecoxa is found separately in Heterorhabdus and Heterostylites (ratio length of Mx2 praecoxa in relation to body length female = 14.4 in the latter) is not involved in the cladistic analysis.
The lateral pair of large gland openings (type-1) on the posterior surface of labrum of Hemirhabdus-Neorhabdus-Heterorhabdus seem not be novel structures, but a conversion of two outer pores of two pairs of openings of ancestral type-3 glands into type-1 gland openings. In Disseta, Mesorhabdus, and Heterostylites, which lack type-1 glands, there are two pairs of openings of type-3 glands of almost equal size, while in Hemirhabdus, Neorhabdus, and Heterorhabdus, which possess type-1 glands, there is only one pair of openings of type-3 glands. This interpretation is supported by the fact that both type-1 and type-3 glands have one-paired gland cells and a common opening (see in Nishida & Ohtsuka, 1996); the conversion may be accompanied by an increase in the size of the gland system and the lateral movement of the position of the openings.
In the Md, the reductions or losses of dorsal teeth and of daggerlike spinules have occurred throughout the evolution of the family. Heterostylites and Heterorhabdus may have independently developped the most advanced condition, the complete absence of these elements. The specialization of the ventralmost tooth and its isolation from the remaining teeth are evidently associated with the acquisition of the type-1 glands, and facilitate its protrusion from between the labrum and paragnath to inject a paralytic substance into prey (see in Nishida & Ohtsuka, 1996). The complete tubular structure of the ventralmost tooth of Heterorhabdus seems to be much effective in injecting a paralytic substance into prey than the semitube of Hemirhabdus and the groove of Neorhabdus. To avoid leaking the labral paralytic substance, the postrior side of the labrum presumably functions as an operculum to close the groove of Neorhabdus and the semitube of Hemirhabdus during injection of the substance into prey via the ventralmost mandibular tooth. The central teeth also appear to have become relatively elongate and slender in an evolutionary spep from Disseta to Mesorhabdus.
In the Mx2, the transformations in the family can be explained by both developments and reductions of elements. Two setae on the basis and the first endopod segment are highly specialized into a grasping organ in the carnivores, with heavy sclerotization of the setae with hooked tips and an inner row of stout spinules. Reductions of setae on the second to fourth endopod segments are exhibited by all carnivores. Similar specializations and reductions of the Mx2 elements have convergently occurred also in the deep-sea predatory family Hyperbionychidae (see in Ohtsuka & al., 1993).

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 4Issued from ; T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.269, Fig. 116].
Cladograms showing phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the family Heterorhabdidae. Based on the 20 pairs of character states selected, two cladograms are possible.
Dis: Disseta; Mes: Mesorhabus; Hem: Hemirhabdus; Neo: Neorhabdus; Hst: heterostylites; Pah: Paraheterorhabdus; Het: Heterorhabdus.
Capital letters = morphological characters used (see p.268).

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 5Issued from : E.T. Park & F.D. Ferrari in A selection from Smithsonian at the Poles Contributions to International Polar year. I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller, eds., Publs. by Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington DC., 2009. [p.163, Table 8]
Endemic species of several species of Heterorhabdidae found in four different areas of interest.
A''+'' indicates presence.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 6Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.124].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P5

Nota: Female P5 relatively unmodified, with 3-segmented rami; inner seta on 2nd exopodal segment strongly developed and directed medially.
- Male P5 asymmetrical; biramous, typically with serrate coxa and basis, and 3-segmented rami; right leg typically with large medial process on basis. 1st exopodal segment with outer spine, 2nd with rounded or spinous inner process plus distal spine, 3rd typically forming curved claw armed with inner seta proximally and long subapical seta. Left leg with or without small medial process on basis; endopod formula 0-0; 0-1; 2,2,2, or with seta on middle segment absent. 1st and 2nd exopodal segmets each with outer spine, 3rd segment drawn out into apical claw, armed with inner and outer spines proximal to base of claw.
- Eggs release into water.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 7Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.125, Fig. 25].
Heterorhabdidae. A, heterorhabdus robustus habitus female; B, Md: C, P5; D, habitus male; E, Hemirhabdus latus (as Macrorhabdus latus) female Mx2; F, Mesorhabdus gracilis male P5. [Sars, 1924].

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 8Issued from J.M. Bradford-Grieve in NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 111, 1999. [p.71].
Spine and seta formula of swimming legs P1 to P5.
- P5 female natatory, symmetrical, similar to other swimming legs but smaller; inner edge seta on exopod segment 2 ismodified into a long slender spine articulated with its segment; exopod segment 2 posterior distal border expanded into a toothed flange.
- P5 male with a 3-segmented endopod and exopod on left and right; right basipod 2 usually with inner extensions of variable shape and usually fringed by hairs or spinules, sometimes with an inner extension on the left; right exopod segment 2 with an inner expansion of variable shape but usually in the form of a thick spine; left exopod segment 3 often but not always termunated by an elongate spine.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 9Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9].
Key of genera and subgenera of the family Heterorhabdidae.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 10Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 154].
Fig. 2 a: Mx1 of Disseta palumbii female.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 11Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 160].
Fig. 8 d: Mx1 of Mesorhabdus angustus female.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 12Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 171].
Fig. 19 k.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 13Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 172].
Fig. 20 f: P5 (with endopods omitted, posterior view) of Heterostylites major male.
Nota: female as 19 k.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 14Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 183].
Fig. 31 b: Mx2 of Hemirhabdus grimaldii female.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 15Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 187].
Fig. 35 b: left Mx2 (asp: anterior spine; psp = posterior spine; tsp = terminal spine) of Neorhabdus latus female.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 16Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 196].
Fig. 44 d: Mx2 of Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) robustus female.

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 17Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 196].
Fig. 44 a, b: Md of Paraheterorhabdus (Paraheterorhabdus) robustus female. a: left mandible (posterior view); b: masticatory edge of right mandible (posterior view).

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 18Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 209].
Fig. 57 a, b: Md of Paraheterorhabdus (Antirhabdus) compactus female. a: left mandible (posterior view); b, masticatory edge of right mandible (posterior view).

Famille Heterorhabdidae - Planche 19Issued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31 [p.9, 212].
Fig. 60 g: left Mx2 (posterior view) of Heterorhabdus spinifrons female.
Alrhabdus Grice, 1973
Ref.: Grice, 1973 (p.943, 946); Razouls, 1982 (p.476); 1993 (p.307); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.71, Déf.); Park, 2000 (p.1, 8, 141)
Rem.: Boxshall & Halsey (2004 (p.68, 126) transfèrent ce genre parmi les Augaptilidae, cependant avec quelque doute tant que le mâle n'ait pas été trouvé.
(1) Disseta Giesbrecht, 1889
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.63, 369); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.112); Esterly, 1906 a (p.71); A. Scott, 1909 (p.133); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.313); Sars, 1925 (p.221); Rose, 1929 (p.34, Rem.); Sewell, 1932 (p.308); Rose, 1933 a (p.198); Farran, 1948 d (n°15, p.3); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.342, clé spp.); Tanaka, 1964 (p.32); Heptner, 1972 a (p.56, spp. Key); Razouls, 1982 (p.461); Mauchline, 1988 (p.706); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.816); Mauchline, 1998 (p.70: F; p.73: M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.71, Def.); Park, 2000 (p.11, Rem., spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.127); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.293)
Rem.: type: Disseta palumbii. 3 spp.:
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 8.295 mm (n = 6; SD = 1.7147) and the mean male size is 7.698 mm (n = 6; SD = 1.7321). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 0.929 (n = 3; SD = 0.0617). The sex ratio (Female : Male) is 1.
Genre Disseta - Planche 1Diagnosis of Disseta:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase only slightly thickened, separated from adjacent teeth by narrow gap, no wider than base of blade
2 - Distal coxal endite of Mx2 with 3 unmodified setae.
3 - Basal and 1st endopodal endite of Mx2 without large, claw-like elements. Coxal endite of Mx1 with at least 2 setae.
4 - Basal endite of Mx2 without claw-like element, armed with 3 setae.

Genre Disseta - Planche 2Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve inNIWA Biodiversity Memoir 111, 1999. [p.75, Fig.42]. Disseta palumbii.
Female (from Bradford-Grieve, 1999): A, urosome (dorsal view); B, same (lateral view); C, Md; D, P5, E, spine from inner distal corner of exopod segment 2 of P5.
Male: F, P5.
(2) Hemirhabdus Wolfenden, 1911
Syn.: Macrorhabdus Sars, 1920 c (p.11)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1911 (p.308); Sars, 1925 (p.230); Sewell, 1932 (p.302, Rem.); Rose, 1933 a (p.205); Farran, 1948 d (n°15, p.3); Tanaka, 1964 a (p.26); Heptner, 1972 a (p.58, Rem.); Razouls, 1982 (p.477); Mauchline, 1988 (p.708); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.820); Mauchline, 1998 (p.70 : F; p.74: M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.76, Def.); Park, 2000 (p.51, 52: Key spp., Rem.: p.143); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.126); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.295)
Rem.: type: Hemirhabdus grimaldii. Total: 2 spp.
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 10.233mm (n = 4; SD = 2.0230) and the mean male size is 10.585 mm (n = 4; SD = 1.6406). The size ratio (Male : Female) is about 1 . Le sex ratio (Female : Male) is 1.
Genre Hemirhabdus - Planche 1Diagnosis of Hemirhabdus:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase thickened and curved, separated from remaining distal teeth by marked diastema.
2 - Mx2 with at most 1 strong claw-like element on basis and on distal endite of coxa; proximal coxal endite with 3 or more setae. Middle endite of syncoxa of Mxp represented by 1 to 3 short setae.
3 - Distal praecoxal endite of Mx2 atrophied, proximal praecoxal endite lobate, with 4 setae.
(3) Heterorhabdus Giesbrecht, 1898
Syn.: Heterochaeta Claus, 1863 (p.180); Dahl, 1894 (p.77, clé spp.); Sars, 1900 (p.79); Heterochäta : Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.64, 372); Alloiorhabdus (part.) Wolfenden, 1911 (p.303); Vervoort, 1951 (p.140, Rem.)
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.113, spp. Key); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.117); Esterly, 1905 (p.182, clé spp.); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.117, spp. Key); A. Scott, 1909 (p.130); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.302); Sewell, 1932 (p.298); Wilson, 1932 a (p.131, spp. Key); Rose, 1933 a (p.199, spp. Key); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.73); Sewell, 1947 (p.178, Rem.); Farran, 1948 e (n°16, p.3); Davis, 1949 (p.56); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.344, spp. Key); Tanaka, 1964 a (p.1); Bradford, 1971 a (p.120, 135, spp. Key); Heptner, 1972 a (p.56, 59, spp. Key); Razouls,1982 (p.464); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.363); Mauchline, 1988 (p.706); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.248); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.817); Mauchline, 1998 (p.70: F; p.74: M); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.29); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.943, 944: spp. Key); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.76, Def.); Park, 2000 (p.89, Redef., Key of 4 Groups, Rem.: p.144); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.126); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.297, spp. key)
Rem.: type: Heterorhabdus spinifrons (Claus, 1863).
Brodsky , 1950 (1967, p.345) établit les 2 sous-genres : Heterorhabdus (type: H. robustus) et Euheterorhabdus (types : H. papilliger & H. norvegicus.
Park établit 4 groupes ("spinifrons", "papilliger", "fistulosus", "abyssalis").
Total: 31 spp. (+ 4 douteuses):
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 3.249 mm (n = 62; SD = 2.6382) and the mean male size is 2.792 mm (n = 62; SD = 0.6757). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 0.859 or if we consider the mean size for each species, we obtain 0.959 (n = 31; SD = 0.0512). The sex ratio est 1.
For the first group (''spinifrons''): the mean female size is 2.881 mm (n = 14; SD = 6860) and the mean male size is 2.719 mm (n = 14; SD = 0.6035). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.944. The sex ratio is 1.
For the second group (''papilliger''): the mean female size is 2.084 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.3832) and the mean male size is 2.047 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.3970). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.982. The sex ratio is 1.
For the third group (''fistulosus''): the mean female size is 3.278 mm (n = 4; SD = 0.6592) and the mean male size is 3.308 mm (n = 4; SD = 0.7100). The size ratio (male : female) is 1.009. The sex ratio is 1.
For the fourth group (''abyssalis''): the mean female size is 3.152 mm (n = 34; SD = 0.7383) and the mean male size is 2.980 mm (n = 34; SD = 0.6095).The size ratio (male : female) is 0.946. The sex ratio is 1.
Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 1Diagnosis of Heterorhabdus:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase thickened and curved, separated from remaining distal teeth by marked diastema.
2 - Mx2 with 2 setal elements on basis and on distal endite of coxa; proximal praecoxal endite with 2 setae. Middle endite of syncoxa of Mxp typically represented by long, distally-curved seta.
3 - Mx2 with 2 large, claw-like setal elements on basis.

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 21 a - Mxp: Middle coxal spine of Mxp smoothly curved (cf. H. spinifrons Fig.60-h). Mx2: None of the spines on 5th lobe conspicuously serrated with long spinules (cf. H. spinifrons Fig.60-g).......spinifrons species Group.
1 b - Mxp: Middle coxa spine distinctly bent (H. guineanensis Fig.73-a). Mx2: 1 of the spines on 5th lobe conspicuously serrated with long spinules (cf. H. guineanensis Fig.72-i)...... 2.
2 a - Mx2: Unserrated spine on 5th lobe much shorter than serrated spine (cf. H. H. hadrosomus Fig.84-i). Basal lobe of male right P5 relatively long and arising from middle of segment (cf. H. hadrosomus Fig.85-g)...... abyssalis species Group.
2 b - Mx2: Unserrated spine on 5th lobe nearly as long as or only a little shorter than serrated spine (cf. H. guineanensis Fig.72-i. Basal lobe of male right P5 relatively short and arising close to distal end segment. (cf. H. guineanensis Fig.73-c).......3 a, b.
3 a: Dorsally midanterior tubercular process of forehead somewhat truncate (cf.
H. egregius Fig.82-d). Mxp: Basis with large elevated pore on medial margin close to distal end (cf.H. egregius Fig.82-h)...... fistulosus species Group.
3 b: Dorsally, midanterior tubercular process of forehead pointed (cf. H. guineanensis Fig.72-d). Mxp: Basis without elevated pores on medial margin close to distal end......papilliger species Group.

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 3Issued from T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.212, Fig.60, g-h].
Appendage types to identification for spinifrons species Group.

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 4Issued from T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.224, Fig.72-i; p.225, Fig.-73-a].
Appendage types to identification for other species Group (abyssalis'', ''papilliger'', ''fistulosus'').

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 5Issued from T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.212, Fig.84-i, p.237; Fig.85-g].
Appendage types to identification for abyssalis species Group.

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 6Issued from T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.224, Fig.72-i; p.225, Fig.73-g ].
Appendage types to identification for ofher species Group (''papilliger\" and ''fistulosus\").

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 7Issued from T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.224, Fig.72-d; p.225, Fig.73-a].
Appendage types to identification for papilliger species Group.

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 8Issued from T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.234, Fig.82-d, h-k].
Appendage types to identification for fistulosus species Group.

Genre Heterorhabdus - Planche 9Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 111, 1999. [p.87, Fig.55]. Heterorhabdus spinifrons.
Female (from Bradford-Grieve, 1999): A, genital segment (dorsal view); B, same (lateral view); C, forehead (dorsal view); D, same (lateral view); E, Mx2 lobe 4; F, P5.
Male: G, forehead (dorsal view); H, same (lateral view); I, P5.
(4) Heterostylites Sars, 1920
Ref.: Sars, 1920 c (p.11); 1925 (p.237); Sewell, 1932 (p.300); Rose, 1933 a (p.207); Farran, 1948 d (n°15, p.3); Davis, 1949 (p.60); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.357); Tanaka, 1964 a (p.23); Heptner, 1972 b (p.58); Razouls, 1982 (p.473); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.377); Mauchline, 1988 (p.707); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.816); Mauchline, 1998 (p.70: F; p.73: M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.943, 945: spp. Key); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.88, Déf.); Park, 2000 (p.37, 39: spp. Key, Rem.: p.143); Boxshall Halsey, 2004 (p.127); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.312, spp. Key)
Rem.: Type: Heterostylites longicornis (Giesbrecht, 1889). Total: 6 spp.
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 4.133 mm (n = 12; SD = 1.0460) and the mean male size is 3.948 mm (n = 12; SD = 0.8596). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 0.955. The sex ratio (Female : Male) is 1.
Genre Heterostylites - Planche 1Diagnosis of Heterostylites:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase only slightly thickened, separated from adjacent teeth by narrow gap, no wider than base of blade
2 - Mx2 with large, claw-like seta on distal coxal endite, plus short seta.
(5) Mesorhabdus Sars, 1905
Ref.: Sars, 1905 c (p.9); A. Scott, 1909 (p.132); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.126); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.312); Sars, 1925 (p.233); Sewell, 1932 (p.308); Rose, 1933 a (p.206); Farran, 1948 d (n°15, p.3); Tanaka, 1964 a (p.29); Heptner, 1972 a (p.57, Key spp.); Razouls, 1982 (p.474); Mauchline, 1988 (p.707); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.817); Mauchline, 1998 (p.70: F; p.74: M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.90, Rem.); Park, 2000 (p.23, Key spp., Rem.: p.143); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.127); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.317, Key spp.)
Rem.: type: Mesorhabdus annectens Sars, 1905 (= Heterorhabdus brevicaudatus) Wolfenden, 1905. Total: 5 spp.
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 5.287 mm (n = 10; SD = 1.4503) and the mean male size is 5.326 mm (n = 9; SD = 1.5488). The size ratio (Male : Female) is about 1 (0.948 to 1.038). The sex ratio (Female : Male) is 1.
Genre Mesorhabdus - Planche 1Diagnosis of Mesorhabdus:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase only slightly thickened, separated from adjacent teeth by narrow gap, no wider than base of blade
2 - Distal coxal endite of Mx2 with 3 unmodified setae.
3 - Basal and 1st endopodal endite of Mx2 each with 1 large, claw-like seta. Coxal endite of Mx1 with 1 seta.

Genre Mesorhabdus - Planche 2Issued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 111, 1999. [p.91, Fig.58]. Mesorhabdus gracilis.
Female A, habitus (dorsal view); B, right Md blade; C, left Md blade); D, P5.
Male: E, P5 (R = right leg; L = left leg)
(6) Microdisseta Heptner, 1972
Ref.: Heptner, 1972 a (p.60); Razouls, 1982 (p.463); 1993 (p.307); Mauchline, 1998 (p.70: F; p.73: M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.91, Def. Rem.); Park, 2000 (p.1, 7,141); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.127); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.320)
Rem.: Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.126) ne suivent pas l'opinion de Park sur l'incertitude de la place de ce genre dans cette famille. Total: 1 espèce:
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 0.740 mm (0.68 to 0.80 mm) and the mean male size is 0.74 mm (0.73 to 0.75 mm). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 1. The sex ratio (Female : Male) is 1.
Genre Microdisseta - Planche 1Diagnosis of Microdisseta:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase only slightly thickened, separated from adjacent teeth by narrow gap, no wider than base of blade
2 - Distal coxal endite of Mx2 with 3 unmodified setae.
3 - Basal and 1st endopodal endite of Mx2 without large, claw-like elements. Coxal endite of Mx1 with at least 2 setae.
4 - Basal endite of Mx2 with claw-like element plus 1 seta.
(7) Neorhabdus Heptner, 1972
Ref.: Heptner, 1972 a (p.58, Key spp.); Razouls, 1982 (p.476); 1993 (p.307); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.92, Déf., Rem.); Park, 2000 (p.57, 59: Key spp., Rem.: p.143); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.126); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.320)
Rem.: type: Neorhabdus latus (Sars, 1905). Total: 5 spp.
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 9.140 mm (n = 10; SD = 2.3632) and the mean male size is 8.483 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.005). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 0,972 (n = 4; SD = 0.0662). The sex-ratio (Female : Male) is 1,25. (Probably equal in the genus)
Genre Neorhabdus - Planche 1Diagnosis of Neorhabdus:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase thickened and curved, separated from remaining distal teeth by marked diastema.
2 - Mx2 with at most 1 strong claw-like element on basis and on distal endite of coxa; proximal coxal endite with 3 or more setae. Middle endite of syncoxa of Mxp represented by 1 to 3 short setae.
3 - Distal praecoxal endite of Mx2 represented by 2 setae, proximal endite lobate, with up to 3 setae.
(8) Paraheterorhabdus Brodsky, 1950
Ref.: Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.345); Park, 2000 (p.71, 2 S-G: Antirhabdus & Paraheterorhabdus, spp. Key, Rem.: p.143); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.126)
Rem.: Total: 8 spp.
Remarques sur les dimensions et le sex-ratio:
The mean female size is 3.516 mm (n = 16; SD = 0.9922) and the mean male size is 3.329 mm (n = 16; SD = 0.9397). The size ratio (Male : Female) is 0.952 (n = 8; SD = 0.0688) The sex ratio (Female : Male) is 1.
Genre Paraheterorhabdus - Planche 1Diagnosis of Paraheterorhabdus:
1 - Ventralmost blade on mandibular gnathobase thickened and curved, separated from remaining distal teeth by marked diastema.
2 - Mx2 with 2 setal elements on basis and on distal endite of coxa; proximal praecoxal endite with 2 setae. Middle endite of syncoxa of Mxp typically represented by long, distally-curved seta.
3 - Mx2 with 1 claw-like setal elements + 1 small seta on basis.
Antirhabdus Park, 2000
Ref.: Park, 2000 (p.85, Def.)
Rem.: Type: Heterochaeta compacta Sars,1900. 1 species.
Paraheterorhabdus Brodsky, 1950
Ref.: Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.345, 346); Park, 2000 (p.71, Redef.)
Rem.: type: Heterorhabdus robustus Farran, 1908. 7 espèces

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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2017. - Diversité et répartition géographique chez les Copépodes planctoniques marins. Disponible sur http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr 
[Accédé le 19 août 2017]

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