Cyclopoida ( Order )
Oncaeidae Giesbrecht, 1893 [\"1892\"] ( Cyclopoida ) *
Syn.: Oncäidae part.Giesbrecht,1892 (p.81); Oncaeidae part.: Esterly, 1905 (p.215); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.184); Sars, 1918 (p.190); Rose, 1933 a (p.295); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.119); Humes & Stock, 1973 (p.6); Heron, 1977 (p.38, Genera key); Boxshall, 1977 a (p.109, Def., Rem.); Heron & Damkaer, 1978 (p.3, Genera key); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.665); Razouls, 1982 (p.665); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.12); Heron & al., 1984 (p.449); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.262, Genera key); Sazhina, 1985 (p.93); Boxshall & Huys, 1988/89 (p.164, 172); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.465); Razouls,1993 (p.313); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.11, 45, Rev., Genera key); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.978, Pl.220); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 969, Genera Key)
Ref.: Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1996/97 (p.243, 246, Redef.); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1016, clé des G.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.17; 613: Def.; p.615: Genera key. Rem. p.1: For the authors the order Poecilostomatoida is questionable); Di Capua & Boxshall, 2008 (p.1413: Key to species females in the Gulf of Naples); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.258, Rem., Genera key from Iberica Fauna); Böttger-Schnack & Machida, 1011 (p.111, DNA sequences, phylogeny); Böttger-Schnack & Schnack, 2013 (p.265, species groups: Def.); Böttger-Schnack & Schnack, 2015 (p.1, identification key).
Rem.:
Wickstead (1962, p.547, 548, food & feeding).
Boxshall & Halsley (2004, p. 615) acknowledge the genus Triconia, in spite of the arguments given by Heron & Frost (2000). The genus Pachos must be removed from this family (incertae sedis). 7 G.: Archioncaea, Conaea, Epicalymma, Monothula, Oncaea, Spinoncaea, Triconia.
After Böttger-Schnack (pers. comm., 2009), publication year of Giesbrecht´s monography on the pelagic copepods of the Gulf of Naples should be cited as Giesbrecht 1893 ["1892"] (for an explanation, see the note of Ruth Böttger-Schnack in the family site of Oncaeidae in the WoRMS database).

Key to genera after Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.615):
1 - P5 bearing 3 setae; legs P1 to P4 with 2-segmented endopods ..........Archioncaea.
1' - P5 with at most 2 setae, or leg further reduced; legs P1 to P4 typically with 3-segmented endopods ............ 2.
2 - Caudal ramus with conspicuous dorsal expansion surrounding insertion of dorsal seta ....... 6.
2' - Caudal ramus without expansion on dorsal surface .......... 3.
3 - Female carrying single dorsal egg sac; 3rd endopodal segment of legs P2 to P4 lacking outer margin spine ........Monothula.
3' - Female carrying paired dorsal egg sacs; 3rd endopodal segment of legs P2 to P4 typically ** with outer margin spine ....... 4.
4 - Caudal ramus with seta III modified into strong spine ..........Spinoncaea.
4' - Caudal ramus with seta III setiform ......... 5.
5 - Adult females without mid-dorsal projection on 2nd pedigerous somite; endopod of leg P4 without distal conical process between apical and outer margin spines ............ Oncaea *.
5' - Adult females with or without mid-dorsal projection on posterior margin of 2nd pedigerous somite; endopod of leg P4 with distal conical process located between apical and outer margin spines .......... Triconia *.
6 - 3rd exopodal segment of legs P1 to P3 with II, III, III spines on outer margin ............ Epicalymma.
6' - 3rd exopodal segment of legs P1 to P3 with III, II, II spines on outer margin .......... Conaea.
* One exception : Oncaea insolita Heron & Frost, 300, also has a small conical process (addition to the version from Boxshall & Halsey, 2004, after R. Boettger-Schnack (30/11/2015, pers. comm.).
** However, the genus Oncaea includes also a number of species (16 species at present) lacking outer margin spines. (addition to the version from Boxshall & Halsey, 2004, after R. Boettger-Schnack, 30/11/2015, pers. comm.)
* We thank Ruth Böttger-Schnack (Universität Bremen) for having forwarded to us a copy of the families Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae et Sapphirinidae from the Fauna of Japan by Chihara et Murano (1997), as well as the English translation concerning the Oncaeidae family performed by Hiroshi Itoh.
Family Oncaeidae - Plate 1Issued from : Boxshall & Halsey in The Ray Society, 2004, Part II. [p.613].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Nota: Inner seta on basis of P1 present or absent. Setation often modified by loss of elements from both rami. Endopod of P4 armature 0-1; 0-2; I, II, 2 or with terminal armature reduced to 0, II, I, or 0, II, 1, or 0, I, 1. P2 and P3 usually with conical process between distal spines on endopod; process present on P4 in Triconia.
- P5 laterally located on somite; protopod incorporated into somite, usually represented by seta on surface of somite but absent in Archioncaea; exopod 1-segmented typically armed with 2 setae0, or reduced to single seta plus a spinule, on surface, or absent; exopod bearing 3 setae in Archioncaea.
- P6 represented by genital opercula; armed with 1 seta in female, unarmed in male.
- Egg sacs typically paired, multiseriate, single egg sac carried in Monothula.

Family Oncaeidae - Plate 2Issued from : Boxshall & Halsey in The Ray Society, 2004, Part II. [p.614, Fig.199).
A, Triconia borealis (as Oncaea borealis) female; B, Oncaea media f minor male urosome; C, Oncaea venusta Mx2; D, A2; E, Md.
After Sars, 1918: A; Huys & Boxshall, 1991: B-E.
(1) Archioncaea Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1997
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1997 (p.80); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615)
Rem.: Total: 1 sp.
(2) Conaea Giesbrecht, 1891
Syn.: Conäa Giesbrecht, 1891; 1892 (p.82, 605)
Ref.: A. Scott, 1909 (p.243); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.191); Rose, 1933 a (p.303); Davis, 1949 (p.77); Heron, 1977 (p.38, 86, spp. Key); Boxshall, 1977 a (p.145); Razouls, 1982 (p.678); Malt, 1982 (p.191, 192, Rem.); Heron & al., 1984 (p.449); Razouls, 1993 (p.313); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.45, Déf., Rem.); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1996/97 (p.245, 246, Rem.); Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1998 (p.369); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.970, spp. key); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1060, spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.260, Rem.)
Rem.: type: Conäa rapax Giesbrecht,1891. 4 spp.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.770 mm (n = 7, SD = 0.208), and the mean male size is 0.740 mm (n = 4, SD = 0.213). The size ratio male: female is 0.961.
(3) Epicalymma Heron, 1977
Syn.: Oncaea : Malt, 1982 (part., p.192)
Ref.: Heron, 1977 (p.82); Razouls, 1982 (p.682); Heron & al., 1984 (p.449, 479, spp. key); Razouls, 1993 (p.313); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.45, Rem.); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1996/97 (p.245, 246, Rem.); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1058, spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.262, Rem., spp. key)
Rem.: Malt (1982, p.185) regards this genus as a synonym of Oncaea, contrary to Heron & al. (1984) and Heron & Bradford-Grieve (1995).
Type: Epicalymma schmitti. 7 spp.:
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0,559 mm (n= 6; S= 0,105; Cv= 0,188) and the mean male size is 0,483 mm (n= 3; S= 0,097; Cv= 0,201). The size ratio (M/F) is 0,948 ou 94,8 % (n= 3; S= 0,161; Cv= 0,17).
(4) Monothula Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 2001
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 2001 (p.468); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.266, Rem..)
Rem.: type: Oncaea subtilis Giesbrecht,1892. Total: 1 sp.
Myspictosum Kazatchenko & Andreev, 1977
Ref.: Razouls, 1982 (p.683); Malt, 1982 (p.192, Rem.)
Rem.: Cf. Oncaea
(5) Oncaea Philippi, 1843
Syn.: Antaria Dana, 1846; Conäa Giesbrecht, 1891; Oncäa : Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.81, 590); Myspictosum Kazatchenko & Andreev, 1977 (p.47)
Ref.: Sars, 1900 (part., p.106); Wheeler, 1901 (p.190); Esterly, 1905 (p.215); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.184); Farran, 1908 b (p.95, spp. key of Females); A. Scott, 1909 (p.241); Sars, 1918 (p.190); Pesta, 1920 (p.650 spp. key); Wilson, 1932 a (p.350, spp. key); Rose, 1933 a (p.295, spp. nkey of Females); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.119); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.116, spp. key); Davis, 1949 (p.76); Shmeleva, 1968 (p.1791, clé spp.); 1969 (p.3, 25, spp. key); Ferrari, 1975 (p.217, 230, clé spp.); Heron, 1977 (p.40, spp. key); Razouls, 1982 (p.665); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.113); Malt, 1982 (p.192, Rev.); 1982 a (p.140, key. N, juv.); 1983 a (p.4, spp. key); 1983 b (p.449, polymorphism); Heron & al., 1984 (p.461, clé spp., Rem.); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.262, spp. key); Böttger-Schnack & al., 1989 (p.1089, Rem.: biology); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.465); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.13, Déf., spp. key of Females, Rem.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.979, Pl.221); Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1998 (p.369, Rem.: phylogeny); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.970, spp. key); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1017, spp. key, Rem.: For the authors the genus Triconia is questionable); Böttger-Schnack, 2001 (p.28, Déf.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.269, Rem., spp. key from Iberica Fauna); Böttger-Schnack & Machida, 1011 (p.111, DNA sequences, phylogeny).
Rem.: Malt (1982, p.191, 192) regards the 2 genera Conaea and Epicalymma as synonyms of Oncaea, whereas Heron & al. (1984) and Heron & Bradford-Grieve (1995) believe that they should be maintained.
Type: Oncaea venusta Philippi,1843. Total: 71 spp. + 1 unidentified.:
Genus Oncaea - Plate 1issued from : C.T. Achuthankutty, N. Ramaiah & G. Padmavati in Pelagic biogeograpgy ICoPB II. Proc. 2nd Intern. Conf. Final report of SCOR/IOC working group 93, 9-14 July 1995. Workshop Report No. 142, Unesco, 1998. [p.8, Fig.6].
Salinity ranges for Oncaea spp. in coastal and estuarine waters of Goa (India).
Shaded area indicates the range of higher abundance.

Genus Oncaea - Plate 2issued from : Y.-B. Go, B.-C. Oh & M. Terazaki in J. Mar. Syst., 1998, 15. [p.480, Fig.4].
Attacking behaviors of Oncaea spp. on the body of Sagitta (Chaetognatha). FVL: head trunk in front fins; VG: ventral ganglion; CS: caudal septum

Nota: Direct underwater observations with SCUBA were performed at night (Ceju Island, off South Korea) The attack behavior of Oncaea started mostly below the stationary Sagitta in the field (surface water). The attack distance at which Oncaea spp. approached Sagitta from below was about 5-6 cm; the attacking behavior from the upper side of Sagitta was observed only occasionally, and the attack distance was about 1-3 cm. This behaviour suggests that Oncaea is not a touch feeder. The attachment sites of Oncaea on the body of Sagitta spp. were for a total of 320 individuals: ventral side 56.3 %, lateral side 32.8 % and dorsal side 10.9 %.
Oncaea crept directly to the chaetognath tail or the head region using their second antennae, and pierced the body of chaetognaths with the long claw of the maxilliped, and moved maxillae and mandibles.
The chaetognaths did not move at all when this copepod was crawling on the body.
Early copepodid stages and adult females with egg sacs were found attached to Sagitta spp.

Genus Oncaea - Plate 3issued from : Y.-B. Go, B.-C. Oh & M. Terazaki in J. Mar. Syst., 1998, 15. [p.479, Table 1].
Frequency of the various zooplankton to which Oncaea spp. attached in the coastal upwelling area (Cheju Island, off South Korea).
n: number of observations; q: less than 0.05 %.

Genus Oncaea - Plate 4issued from : Y.-B. Go, B.-C. Oh & M. Terazaki in J. Mar. Syst., 1998, 15. [p.481, Table 4].
Occurrence frequency (%) of food items in the guts of Oncaea spp. collected in coastal waters of Cheju Island (off South Korea). A total of 50 individuals were examined.

Nota: Midgut contents of Oncaea spp. sampled during both day and night were examined by SEM.
The greater part of the midgut of these copepods collected at both periods was empty, and the contents consisted mainly of unidentified fine particles, and occasionally larvaceans houses, diatoms fragments, coccoliths, dinoflagellates, crustacean fragments.
(6) Spinoncaea Böttger-Schnack, 2003
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack, 2003 (p.189, Def.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 2007 (p.121, Table 3); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.328, Rem., spp. key)
Rem.: type: Oncaea ivlevi. Total: 3 spp.
(7) Triconia Böttger-Schnack, 1999
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack, 1999 (p.41, Def.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.336, Rem., spp. key from Iberica Fauna); Böttger-Schnack & Machida, 1011 (p.111, DNA sequences, phylogeny).
Rem.: type: Oncaea conifera Giesbrecht,1891. Total: 26 spp. + 1 indet.

Generic name derived from the Latin tres, tria, meaning three and conus, meaning cone, and refers to the presence of a conical projection on the distal endopodal segments of the last three pairs of swimming legs.
Böttger-Schnack (1999) established the genus Triconia which is composed of all oncaeids having a large conical process on the distal margin of the endopod of swimming legs 2-4.
This genus was subdivided into 3 subgroups: similis, conifera, dendipes.
After reexamination, the similis sub-group includes 2 groups, which can be distinguished by the proportional spine lengths on the endopods of swimming P2: 1- containingT. minuta, T. umerus, T. gonopleura, T. parasimilis, present a relatively short distal endopodal spine: 2- including T. similis, T. hawii, T. recta, T. denticulata, with a relatively long distal endopodal spine.

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2016. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en 
[Accessed August 30, 2016]

© copyright 2005-2016 CNRS, UPMC

Webmaster
CNRS   Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls sur Mer - Laboratoire Arago
UPMC - Paris Universitas

 

Version française
English version

 

Search

On the WEB of CNRS

 


Marine Planktonic Copepods

Marine Planktonic Copepods

 

Imprimer Contact Accueil Plan du site Accès restreint Retour Une du Labo Imprimer Contact Plan du site Crédits Téléchargez les Plug-Ins