Cyclopoida ( Order )
Oncaeidae Giesbrecht, 1893 [\"1892\"] ( Cyclopoida ) *
Syn.: Oncäidae part.Giesbrecht,1892 (p.81); Oncaeidae part.: Esterly, 1905 (p.215); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.184); Sars, 1918 (p.190); Rose, 1933 a (p.295); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.119); Humes & Stock, 1973 (p.6); Heron, 1977 (p.38, clé des G.); Boxshall, 1977 a (p.109, Déf., Rem.); Heron & Damkaer, 1978 (p.3, clé des G.); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.665); Razouls, 1982 (p.665); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.12); Heron & al., 1984 (p.449); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.262, clé des G.); Sazhina, 1985 (p.93); Boxshall & Huys, 1988/89 (p.164, 172); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.465); Razouls,1993 (p.313); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.11, 45, Rev., clé des G.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.978, Pl.220); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 969, clé des G.)
Ref.: Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1996/97 (p.243, 246, Redef.); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1016, clé des G.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.17; 613: Def.; p.615: Genera key. Rem. p.1: For the authors the order Poecilostomatoida is questionable); Di Capua & Boxshall, 2008 (p.1413: Key to species females in the Gulf of Naples); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.258, Rem., Genera key from Iberica Fauna); Böttger-Schnack & Machida, 1011 (p.111, DNA sequences, phylogeny).
Rem.:
Wickstead (1962, p.547, 548, food & feeding).
Boxshall & Hlsley (2004, p. 615) acknowledge the genus Triconia, in spite of the arguments given by Heron & Frost (2000). The genus Pachos must be removed from this family (incertae sedis). 7 G.: Archioncaea, Conaea, Epicalymma, Monothula, Oncaea, Spinoncaea, Triconia.
After Böttger-Schnack (pers. comm., 2009), publication year of Giesbrecht´s monography on the pelagic copepods of the Gulf of Naples should be cited as Giesbrecht 1893 ["1892"] (for an explanation, see the note of Ruth Böttger-Schnack in the family site of Oncaeidae in the WoRMS database).
* We thank Ruth Böttger-Schnack (Universität Bremen) for having forwarded to us a copy of the families Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae et Sapphirinidae from the Fauna of Japan by Chihara et Murano (1997), as well as the English translation concerning the Oncaeidae family performed by Hiroshi Itoh.
(1) Archioncaea Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1997
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1997 (p.80); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615)
Rem.: 1 sp.:
(2) Conaea Giesbrecht, 1891
Syn.: Conäa Giesbrecht, 1891; 1892 (p.82, 605)
Ref.: A. Scott, 1909 (p.243); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.191); Rose, 1933 a (p.303); Davis, 1949 (p.77); Heron, 1977 (p.38, 86, clé spp.); Boxshall, 1977 a (p.145); Razouls, 1982 (p.678); Malt, 1982 (p.191, 192, Rem.); Heron & al., 1984 (p.449); Razouls, 1993 (p.313); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.45, Déf., Rem.); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1996/97 (p.245, 246, Rem.); Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1998 (p.369); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.970, spp. key); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1060, spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.260, Rem.)
Rem.: type: Conäa rapax Giesbrecht,1891. 4 spp.:
(3) Epicalymma Heron, 1977
Syn.: Oncaea : Malt, 1982 (part., p.192)
Ref.: Heron, 1977 (p.82); Razouls, 1982 (p.682); Heron & al., 1984 (p.449, 479, spp. key); Razouls, 1993 (p.313); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.45, Rem.); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1996/97 (p.245, 246, Rem.); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1058, spp. key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.262, Rem., spp. key)
Rem.: Malt (1982, p.185) regards this genus as a synonym of Oncaea, contrary to Heron & al. (1984) and Heron & Bradford-Grieve (1995).
Type: Epicalymma schmitti. 7 spp.:
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0,559 mm (n= 6; S= 0,105; Cv= 0,188) and the mean male size is 0,483 mm (n= 3; S= 0,097; Cv= 0,201). The size ratio (M/F) is 0,948 ou 94,8 % (n= 3; S= 0,161; Cv= 0,17).
(4) Monothula Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 2001
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 2001 (p.468); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.266, Rem..)
Rem.: type: Oncaea subtilis Giesbrecht,1892
Myspictosum Kazatchenko & Andreev, 1977
Ref.: Razouls, 1982 (p.683); Malt, 1982 (p.192, Rem.)
Rem.: Cf. Oncaea
(5) Oncaea Philippi, 1843
Syn.: Antaria Dana, 1846; Conäa Giesbrecht, 1891; Oncäa : Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.81, 590); Myspictosum Kazatchenko & Andreev, 1977 (p.47)
Ref.: Sars, 1900 (part., p.106); Wheeler, 1901 (p.190); Esterly, 1905 (p.215); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.184); Farran, 1908 b (p.95, spp. key of Females); A. Scott, 1909 (p.241); Sars, 1918 (p.190); Pesta, 1920 (p.650 spp. key); Wilson, 1932 a (p.350, spp. key); Rose, 1933 a (p.295, spp. nkey of Females); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.119); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.116, spp. key); Davis, 1949 (p.76); Shmeleva, 1968 (p.1791, clé spp.); 1969 (p.3, 25, spp. key); Ferrari, 1975 (p.217, 230, clé spp.); Heron, 1977 (p.40, spp. key); Razouls, 1982 (p.665); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.113); Malt, 1982 (p.192, Rev.); 1982 a (p.140, key. N, juv.); 1983 a (p.4, spp. key); 1983 b (p.449, polymorphism); Heron & al., 1984 (p.461, clé spp., Rem.); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.262, spp. key); Böttger-Schnack & al., 1989 (p.1089, Rem.: biology); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.465); Heron & Bradford-Grieve, 1995 (p.13, Déf., spp. key of Females, Rem.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.979, Pl.221); Böttger-Schnack & Huys, 1998 (p.369, Rem.: phylogeny); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.970, spp. key); Heron & Frost, 2000 (p.1017, spp. key, Rem.: For the authors the genus Triconia is questionable); Böttger-Schnack, 2001 (p.28, Déf.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.269, Rem., spp. key from Iberica Fauna); Böttger-Schnack & Machida, 1011 (p.111, DNA sequences, phylogeny).
Rem.: Malt (1982, p.191, 192) regards the 2 genera Conaea and Epicalymma as synonyms of Oncaea, whereas Heron & al. (1984) and Heron & Bradford-Grieve (1995) believe that they should be maintained.
Type: Oncaea venusta Philippi,1843. 70 spp. + 5 unidentified.:
Genus Oncaea - Plate 1issued from : C.T. Achuthankutty, N. Ramaiah & G. Padmavati in Pelagic biogeograpgy ICoPB II. Proc. 2nd Intern. Conf. Final report of SCOR/IOC working group 93, 9-14 July 1995. Workshop Report No. 142, Unesco, 1998. [p.8, Fig.6].
Salinity ranges for Oncaea spp. in coastal and estuarine waters of Goa (India).
Shaded area indicates the range of higher abundance.

Genus Oncaea - Plate 2issued from : Y.-B. Go, B.-C. Oh & M. Terazaki in J. Mar. Syst., 1998, 15. [p.480, Fig.4].
Attacking behaviors of Oncaea spp. on the body of Sagitta (Chaetognatha). FVL: head trunk in front fins; VG: ventral ganglion; CS: caudal septum

Nota: Direct underwater observations with SCUBA were performed at night (Ceju Island, off South Korea) The attack behavior of Oncaea started mostly below the stationary Sagitta in the field (surface water). The attack distance at which Oncaea spp. approached Sagitta from below was about 5-6 cm; the attacking behavior from the upper side of Sagitta was observed only occasionally, and the attack distance was about 1-3 cm. This behaviour suggests that Oncaea is not a touch feeder. The attachment sites of Oncaea on the body of Sagitta spp. were for a total of 320 individuals: ventral side 56.3 %, lateral side 32.8 % and dorsal side 10.9 %.
Oncaea crept directly to the chaetognath tail or the head region using their second antennae, and pierced the body of chaetognaths with the long claw of the maxilliped, and moved maxillae and mandibles.
The chaetognaths did not move at all when this copepod was crawling on the body.
Early copepodid stages and adult females with egg sacs were found attached to Sagitta spp.

Genus Oncaea - Plate 3issued from : Y.-B. Go, B.-C. Oh & M. Terazaki in J. Mar. Syst., 1998, 15. [p.479, Table 1].
Frequency of the various zooplankton to which Oncaea spp. attached in the coastal upwelling area (Cheju Island, off South Korea).
n: number of observations; q: less than 0.05 %.

Genus Oncaea - Plate 4issued from : Y.-B. Go, B.-C. Oh & M. Terazaki in J. Mar. Syst., 1998, 15. [p.481, Table 4].
Occurrence frequency (%) of food items in the guts of Oncaea spp. collected in coastal waters of Cheju Island (off South Korea). A total of 50 individuals were examined.

Nota: Midgut contents of Oncaea spp. sampled during both day and night were examined by SEM.
The greater part of the midgut of these copepods collected at both periods was empty, and the contents consisted mainly of unidentified fine particles, and occasionally larvaceans houses, diatoms fragments, coccoliths, dinoflagellates, crustacean fragments.
(6) Spinoncaea Böttger-Schnack, 2003
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack, 2003 (p.189, Def.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 2007 (p.121, Table 3); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.328, Rem., spp. key)
Rem.: type: Oncaea ivlevi. 3 spp.:
(7) Triconia Böttger-Schnack, 1999
Ref.: Böttger-Schnack, 1999 (p.41, Def.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.613, 615); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.336, Rem., spp. key from Iberica Fauna); Böttger-Schnack & Machida, 1011 (p.111, DNA sequences, phylogeny).
Rem.: type: Oncaea conifera Giesbrecht,1891.
22 spp. + 1 ind.

Generic name derived from the Latin tres, tria, meaning three and conus, meaning cone, and refers to the presence of a conical projection on the distal endopodal segments of the last three pairs of swimming legs.
Böttger-Schnack (1999) established the genus Triconia which is composed of all oncaeids having a large conical process on the distal margin of the endopod of swimming legs 2-4.
This genus was subdivided into 3 subgroups: similis, conifera, dendipes.
After reexamination, the similis sub-group includes 2 groups, which can be distinguished by the proportional spine lengths on the endopods of swimming P2: 1- containingT. minuta, T. umerus, T. gonopleura, T. parasimilis, present a relatively short distal endopodal spine: 2- including T. similis, T. hawii, T. recta, T. denticulata, with a relatively long distal endopodal spine.

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