Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Paracalanidae ( Family )
            Acrocalanus ( Genus )
Acrocalanus longicornis  Giesbrecht, 1888   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Acrocalanus gardineri (M) Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1004, figs.M); Sewell, 1914 a (p.211)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.171, 175, 770, figs.F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.25, Rem. F); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.233, 243); Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1000, figs.); A. Scott, 1909 (p.28, Rem.); Sewell, 1912 (p.358, Rem.); Pesta, 1913 (p.31, fg.F); Sewell, 1914 a (p.209); 1929 (p.82, figs.F, Rem. M: p.83, 86); Mori, 1929 (p.172, figs.F); Farran, 1929 (p.208, 222); 1936 a (p.80); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.31, fig.F); Vervoort, 1946 (p.133, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.53); Tanaka, 1956 c (p.372, Rem.F,M, p.375: Rem.M); Bowman, 1958 (p.119: fig.F, p.121: Rem.); Fish, 1962 (p.11); Grice, 1962 (p.187, figs.F, Rem.); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.24, figs.F); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.46, figs.F); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.76); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.38, figs.F); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.101, figs.F, Rem.); Chen & Zhang, 1974 (p.106, figs.M); Marques, 1976 (p.989); Greenwood, 1976 (p.19); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.624, fig.F); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.30, figs.F); Hiromi, 1987 (p.154); Nishida, 1989 (p.173, fig.3, table 1, 2, 3, dorsal hump); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.50, figs.F,M, fig.99); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.846, Pl.136: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.877, 909, figs. F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.155, figs.F,M, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.175, figs.M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.919, figs.F, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.118, figs.F); Al-Yamani & al., 2011 (p.18, figs.F,M); Soh & al., 2013 (p.52, figs.F)
Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.50, Fig.23].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, P4.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.11, 1-3].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral right side); 3, 2nd and 3rd segments of exopod of P4 (posterior).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.22].
Female (from Canarias Is.): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side); 3, P1; 4, P2; 5, P3; 6, P4; 7, P5.
Nota: A1 excceds the caudal rami by the last 5 segments (generally more longer in this species). Exopodal segment 2 of P2 with 7 teeth on outer margin (generally 2-3 teeth in this species).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1929, X. [p.82, Fig.33].
Female (from N Indian Ocean): a, habitus (lateral right side); b, urosome (ventral); c, P1; d, P2; e, P3; f, P4.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c. Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.3, Figs.33-34].
male (from South China Sea): 33, habitus (lateral right side); 24, P5.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : T.E. Bowman in Bull. mar. Sc. Gulf Caribb., 1958, 8 (2). [p.119, Fig.1, D].
Female (from off Georgia, USA): D, habitus (lateral).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : T.E. Bowman in Bull. mar. Sc. Gulf Caribb., 1958, 8 (2). [p.120, Fig.2, G].
Female: G, exopod segment 3 of P4 (posterior surface).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori inThe pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.12, Fig.6].
Female: 6, habitus (lateral).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen inMarine planktonic copepods in Chinese waers. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.30, Fig.17].
Female: a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, exopods of P2 and P3.
Scale bars in mm.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. V, Fig.2].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 2, habitus (lateral).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IV, Figs.21-23].
Female: 21, P2; 22, P3; 23, P4.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.185, Pl.5, Figs.1-16].
Female (from equatorial Pacific): 1-2, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3-4, posterior part of thorax and urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 5, P1 (anterior); 6, P1 (posterior); 7, P2 (anterior); 8, P2 (posterior); 9, P3 (anterior; without distal 2 segments of endopod); 10, distal 2 segments of endopod of P3 (anterior); 11, P3 (anterior; without distal 2 segments of endopod); 12, distal 2 segments of endopod of P3 (posterior); 13, P4 (anterior; without 3rd exopodal segment); 14, 3rd exopodal segment of P4 (anterior); 15, P4 (posterior; without 3rd exopodal segment); 16, 3rd exopodal segment of P4 (posterior).

Nota: The presence of a partial suture between the head and 1st thoracic segment and the spinulation of the swimming legs, particularly the number of teeth (more than 18) on the distal part of the 3rd exopodal segment of P4, distinguised this species from others in the genus.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Figs. 34, 36].
Female: 34, P1 (posterior view); 36 P3 (posterior view).
B, basipodite (B2 = basis); Ri = endopodite; Re = exopodite


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 10, Fig.39].
Female: 39, Md.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 6, Fig.25].
Female: 25, habitus (lateral).


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 6, Fig.33].
Female: 33, thoracic somites 4 +5 and urosome (dorsal)


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : Y. Al-Yamani, V. Skryabin, A. Gubanova, S. khvorov & I. Prusova in Marine Zooplankton Practical Guide for the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, 2, 2011. [p.19, Fig.126, b-d].
Female (from Kuwait): b, habitus (lateral); c, exopod of P4; d, distal part of P4 exopod.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. [p.38, Figs.201, 202].
Female: 201, habitus (dorsal); 202, P4.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.200, Fig.74].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, P4.

Body length after the drawing: F = 1.298 mm.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.175, Fig.98].
Male (from 03°40'S, 128°10'E): a, habitus (dorsal); b, P3; c, P4; d, P5.

Nota: Dorsal separation between cephalon and metasome segments incomplete. P4, outer margin of exopod segment 3 with the large number (>18) of denticles.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.53, Fig.30].
Female (Korean waters): A-B, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); C, forehead (ventral).
Scale bars: A, B = 200 µm; C = 100 µm.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.54, Fig.31].
Female: A, P1; B, P2.
Scale bars: 50 µm.


Species Acrocalanus longicornis - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.55, Fig.32].
Female: A, P3; B, P4; C, P5.
Scale bars: A, B = 100 µm; C = 25 µm.

Compl. Ref.:
Wilson, 1942 a (p.170); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.390, 395, 407, 412, 414, 433, 436, 442, 450, 459); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.157); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.114); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.306); Yamazi, 1958 (p.148, Rem.); Heinrich, 1961 (tab.2); Fagetti, 1962 (p.13); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.7, 15); Gaudy, 1963 (p.21, Rem.); Björnberg, 1963 (p.31, Rem.); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.11); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.14); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.78); Delalo, 1968 (p.137); Park, 1970 (p.475); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Binet & al., 1972 (p.55); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II: %, Table IV: seasonal abundance); Björnberg, 1973 (p.384); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Patel, 1975 (p.659); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Dessier, 1979 (p.204); Star & Mullin, 1981 (p.1322, abundance); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, 2, Rem., %); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Stephen, 1984 (p.161, Rem.: 168); Almeida Prado Por, 1985 (p.250); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.57); Dessier, 1988 (tabl.1); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Jimenez-Perez & Lara-Lara, 1988; Mitra & al., 1990 (fig.3); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 563, Table 1); Godhantaraman, 1994 (tab. 6, 7); Gouda & Panigrahy, 1995 (p.206); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.71); Webber & al., 1996 (tab.1); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,2,3,4); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Smith S. & al., 1998 (p.2369, Table 6, moonsoon effects); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Lopes & al., 1999 (p.215, tab.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 2000 (1247, tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Shimode & Shirayama, 2004 (tab.2); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Rezai al., 2004 (p.489, tab.2); Chang & Fang, 2004 (p.456, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Kazmi, 2004 (p.230); Alvarez-Silva & al., 2005 (p.39); Smith & Madhupratap, 2005 (p.214, tab.4,6) ; Rezai & al., 2005 (p.157, Table 2: spatial & temporal variations); Prusova & Smith, 2005 (p.75); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.58, Rem., chart); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (tab.2, 4, Rem.); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.514, 521); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 5); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl.II); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, table 2, indicator); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Pillai H.U.K. & al., 2011 (p.239, Table 3, vertical distribution); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2); Beltrao & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 1, density vs time); Johan & al., 2012 (p.647, Table 1, fig.2, salinity range); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Lavaniegos & al., 2012 (p. 11, Table 1, fig.3, seasonal abundance, Appendix); Naz & al., 2012 (p.61, Table 4, relative abundance); Cornils & Blanco-Bercial, 2013 (p.861, Table 1, molecular analysis, figs.3, 4, 5); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2013 (p.1009, Table I, abundance vs. environmental factors); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, pers. comm.); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions)
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Acrocalanus longicornis by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E), Congo, G. of Guinea, off Lagos, Ivorian shelf, Dakar, off S Cape Verde Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Brazil (S, off Macaé, Cabo Frio, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Natal, Tocantins Estuary), off Amazon, Venezuela, Barbada Is., Caribbean Colombia, Caribbean Sea, Jamaica, Yucatan, E Costa Rica, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, off Bermuda, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Medit. (N Lebanon Basin), Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf (Kuwait), Maldive Is., Madagascar, G. of Mannar, Sri Lanka, Natal, Indian, India (Karashi coast, Saurashtra coast, S, Madras, Rushikulya estuary, Lawson's Bay, Mandarmani), G. of Bengal, Nicobar Is., Barren Island, S Burma, W Malay Peninsula (Andaman Sea), Perai River estyary (Penang), Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Bintulu coast, SW Celebes, Ambon Bay (SW Ceram Is.), Philippines, Viet-Nam (Cauda Bay), China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (SW, E, Kaohsiung Harbor, N: Mienhua Canyon, NW, NE), Okinawa, S Korea, Japan, Ariake Bay, Kucginoerabu Is., off SE Japan, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, Moreton Bay), New Caledonia, off NW New Zealand, Pacif. (equatorial), Pacif. (N Central Gyre), Hawaii, California, W Baja California, G. of California (rare, Bahia de los Angeles), Zihuatanejo Bay, SW Mexico, G. of Tehuantepec, W Costa Rica, Galapagos-Ecuador, N Chile

Data from Cornils & Blanco-Bercial (2013): 01°00S; 09°00'W.
N: 168
Lg.:
(28) F: 1,24-1,02; (29) F: 1; M: 1-0,95; (34) F: 1,44-1,24; (35) F: 1,18-1,13; (47) F: 1,2-1; (55) F: 1,28-1,14; M: 0,955; (101) F: 1,27-1,17; (237) F: 1,1; M: 0,95-0,8; (290) F: 1,55-1,46; (333) F: 1,12; (334) F: 1,2-1,14; (338) M: 1,4-1,35; (530) F: 1,2; M: 1,1; (785) F: 1,14-0,94; (795) F: 1,2; (991) F: 1-1,26; M: 0,9-1,25; (1023) F: 1,16-1,41; (1085) F: 1,0-1,26; M: 0,95-1,25; (1122) M: 1,1; (1174) F: 1,42; {F: 0,94-1,55; M: 0,80-1,40}
Rem.: epipelagic, sometimes deeper. Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-500 m.

Acrocalanus longicornis plumulosus Sewell,1912
Ref.: Sewell, 1912 (p.359); Früchtl, 1923 (p.456); Silas, 1972 (p.646) Loc.: NE Gulf of Bengal.
After Björnberg (1963, p.31) this species occurred in Brazilian samples of very warm and very saline waters (temperatures above 25°C, salinities above 36.00 p.1000). It diminished in frequency and percentage in colder very saline waters (temperatures under 25°C). It was not present in samples from colder (under 20°C) or deep water layers.
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is a fine-filter feeder.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
R. Stephen: Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line).
Last update : 01/07/2016
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