Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Pontellidae ( Family )
            Epilabidocera ( Genus )
Epilabidocera longipedata  (Sato, 1913)   (F,M)
Syn.: Pontella longipedata Sato, 1913; Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.96, figs.M); Sewell, 1948 (p.408); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270);
Paralabidocera amphitrites McMurrich, 1916; Willey, 1920 a (p.17, figs.F,M]; Esterly, 1924 (p.99, figs.F,M, Rem.);
Epilabidocera amphitrites : Davis, 1949 (p.64, figs.F,M); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.413, figs.F,M); Park, 1966 a (p.129, figs.F,M, Rem.: external and internal structures); Ikeda, 1976 (p.51, respiration rate); Peterson & Miller, 1976 (p.14, Table 1, 2, 3, abundance vs interannual variations); Gibson & Grice, 1977 (p.85, Table 1, copper pollution); Peterson & Miller, 1977 (p.717, Table 1, seasonal occurrence); Grice & Marcus, 1981 (p.125, dormant eggs, Rem.: p.135); Marcus, 1990 (p.413, tab.1,2, fig.2: egg); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.40, 58); Hooff & Peterson, 2006 (p.2610); Hopcroft & al., 2009 (p.9, Table 3); Matsuno & al., 2011 (p.1349, Table 1, abundance vs years); DiBacco & al., 2012 (p.483, Table S1, ballast water transport); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013 ; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Ohashi & al., 2013 (p.44, Table 1, Rem.); Questel & al., 2013 (p.23, Table 3, interannual abundance & biomass, 2008-2010); Eisner & al., 2013 (p.87, Table 3: abundance vs water structure)
Heinrich, 1969 (p.1457, fig.1); Silas & Pillai, 1976 (p.773); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.410, figs.F, M); Ohtsuka & al., 1996 b (p.153, figs.F: mouth parts, gut contents); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.871, Pl.145: F,M); Gomez-Gutiérrez & Peterson, 1999 (p.637)
Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.413, Fig.293]. As Epilabidocera amphitrites.
Female (from Sea of Okhotsk): habitus (dorsal); S5, P5.

Male (from Sea of Japan): habitus (dorsal); S5, P5.

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Willey in Rep. Can. arct. Exped., 1920, VII: Crustacea, Part K: Marine Copepoda. [p.17K, Figs.14-17]. As Paralabidocera amphitrites.
Female (from G. of Alaska): 14, forehead with eye and rostrum (lateral); 15, last thoracic segments and urosome with spermatophore (dorsal); 17, urosome (side view).
Nota: Genital segment carries a large wing-like lobe on the left side, terminating in a recurved hook; this hook is easily lost, so that the lobe then appears to end bluntly. In side view the segment presents a ventral convexity and 2 small curved hooks, right and left of the genital opening.

Male: 16, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal).
Nota: Genital segment with a small lobe and notch on the left side

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Willey in Rep. Can. arct. Exped., 1920, VII: Crustacea, Part K: Marine Copepoda. [p.19K, Figs.20-24]. As Paralabidocera amphitrites.
Female: 20, P5.

Male: 21, P5; 22, chela of right leg of P5; 23, left basipod; 24, left terminal segment of P5.

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : T.S. Park in La Cellule, 1966, LXVI (2). [p.135, Fig.1]. As Epilabidocera amphitrites.
Female (from Friday Harbor, Washington): a, habitus (dorsal); b, idem (lateral view from right side); c, posterior portion of body (lateral view from left side); d, A1; e, A2; f, Md; g, Md (cutting edge of mandibular blade); h, Mx2; i, Mxp .

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : T.S. Park in La Cellule, 1966, LXVI (2). [p.137, Fig.2]. As Epilabidocera amphitrites.
Female: a, head (with only maxillae; digestive tract shown in dotted outline; lateral view from left side); b, oral cone with Md (ventral); c, head (ventral); d, Mx1; e-f, P1-P2 (anterior aspects); g, P5 (anterior); h, urosome (ventral)
laa = anterior lobe of labrum; lal = lateral lobe of labrum.

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : T.S. Park in La Cellule, 1966, LXVI (2). [p.139, Fig.3]. As Epilabidocera amphitrites.
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, idem (lateral view from left side); c, idem (lateral view from right side); d, left A1; e, right A1; f, left P5 (posterior); g, posterior portion of body with P5 (ventral); h, right P5; (anterior aspect); i, idem (posterior aspect).

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (2nd edit., 1964). [Pl.45, Figs.1-4]. As Pontella longipedata.
Male: 1, P5; 2, right A1; 3, habitus (dorsal); 4, P1.

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1924, 26 (5). [p.100, Fig. J). As Paralabidocera amphitrites.
Female (from San Francisco Bay): 1, posterior part of thorax and genital segment (dorsal); 2, posterior part of thorax and urosome (dorsal; from a second specimen); 3, idem (lateral); 4, postrior part of thorax and genital segment (lateral, left side; same specimen as figure 1); 5, forehead (lateral); 6, idem (ventral); 7, Mxp; 8, Md; 9, P1; 10, P2; 11, P3; 12, P4; 13, A2; 14, A1; 15, terminal part of exopod of A2; 16, P5.
Nota: A1 24-segmented, extending to end of thorax. Abdomen 3-segmented, 1st segment always prolonged on left into wing projecting backwards and ending in sharp, spine-like process. (according to Willey, 5th segment of endopod with 3 setae, 4th 1, 3rd 1, 2nd 1, 1st 2, 2nd basal 3, distal lobe of 1st basal 1 very heavy, spinose bristle and 2 tiny setae. This is true for many specimens from bay but different individuals vary in number of bristles, as do appendages on two sides of same animal. jaw of Md with 5 teeth, ventral the largest.

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1924, 26 (5). [p.87, Fig. B.). As Paralabidocera amphitrites.
Male: 1, habitus (lateral); 2, cephalothorax and genital segment (dorsal); 3, right P5; 4, left P5; 5, some of the teeth on raised flange on thickened middle part of grasping A1; 6, right A1; 7, three posterior segments of abdomen and caudal rami; 8, some of the teeth on the segments proximal and distal to geniculation of grasping A1 (proximal teeth are at left); 9, posterior part of thorax and 1st and 2nd abdominal segments (dorsal); 10, posterior part of thorax, genital segment, basal segments of left P5 (lateral); 11, 2nd basal segment of left P5 (from side); 12-13, distal segment of left P5; 14, claw of right P5.
Nota: Mxp 7-segmented

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Ohtsuka, M. Shimozu, A. Tanimura, M. Fukuchi, H. Hattori, H. Sasaki & O. Matsuda in Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Biol., 1996, 9. [p.158, Fig.4, B].
Epilabidocera longipedata Female (from Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea): Mandibular cutting edge, ventralmost tooth (arrowed).
Scale bar = 10 µm.

Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Willey in Rep. Can. arct. Exped., 1920, VII: Crustacea, Part K: Marine Copepoda. [p.18K, Figs.18, 19]. As Paralabidocera amphitrites.
Male: 18, terminal portion of right A1. Nota: The right grasping A1 with the geniculation between the 18th and 19th segments, more like that of Pontella than that of Labidocera.
19, Mxp. Nota: Mxp 7-segmented, inner margin of basis denticulated; distally this segment carries 2 long setae and 1 additional shorter seta; Endopodal segment 1 with 2 setae, 2nd segment with 1, 3rd with 1, 4th with 1 and 5th with 3 apical setae. The distal lobe of coxa has 1 long seta and 2 very small anterior setae at its base, 1 of which was distinctly plumose. In the figure 19, one of the two setae of the middle lobe of coxa is lost, its place being indicated by a small mamelon.

Compl. Ref.:
Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Shih & al., 1971 (p.150); Peterson & Miller, 1975 (p.642, 650, Table 3, interannual abundance); Damkaer & Dey, 1982 (p.417, UV-B radiation effect); Mackas & Anderson, 1986 (p.115, Table 2); Dey & al., 1988 (p.321, 323, UV-B effect); Shih & Marhue, 1991 (tab.3); Marcus, 1996 (p.144); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.40); Lenz & al., 2000 (p.338); Park, W & al., 2004 (p.464, tab.1); Choi & al., 2005 (p.710: Tab.III); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 5); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Bollens & al., 2011 (p.1358, Table III)
NZ: 5

Distribution map of Epilabidocera longipedata by geographical zones
Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Distribution map 2
Chart of 1996
Species Epilabidocera longipedata - Distribution map 3issued from : A.K. Heinrich in Zool. Zh., 1969, 48 (10) [p.1458, Fig.1].
Distribution of two species of Pontellidae in the Pacific Ocean.
1: occurrence of Labidocera detruncata; 2: occurrence of Epilabidocera longipedata; 3: stations.
S Korea, Japan (Hokkaido), Japan Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, off NW Alaska, Arct., G. of Alaska (Icy Strait), NE Alaska, Puget Sound, British Columbia, Fjord System (Alice Arm & Hastings Arm), Portland Inlet, Vancouver Island, Friday Harbor, Oregon (Yaquina Bay, off Newport), San Francisco Bay & Estuary, N California
N: 28
(22) F: 3,2-4; M: 2,3-3; (91) M: ±3,25; (280) F: 3,93-3,68; M: 3,28-2,78; (866) F: 3,2-4; M: 2,3-3,49; {F: 3,20-4,00; M: 2,30-3,49}
Rem.: Neritic. Occurrence into slightly freshened waters.
According to Brodsky (1967, p.414) this species plays somr role in the diet of planktonophagous during periods of hight water temperature. Mass numbers appear only near the southern fringe of the range (San Francisco Bay) and near the coast of southern Sakhalin; further north this species is rare.
Observed in ballasts of ships in San Francisco.
Last update : 12/11/2015
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Marine Planktonic Copepods

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