Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Pontellidae ( Family )
            Pontella ( Genus )
Pontella mediterranea  (Claus, 1863)   (F,M)
Syn.: Pontellina mediterranea Claus, 1863 (p.211, figs.M);
? Pontella mediterranea indica Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1021, Rem.F);
Pontellina mediterranea jaltensis Czerniavski,1868;
Pontella mediterranea jaltensis (Czerniavski, 1868);
no Pontella mediterranea gaboonensis : T. Scott, 1894 b (p.86)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.461, 478, 774, figs.F,M); Thompson, 1888 d (p.143, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.143, Rem. F,M); Karavaev, 1894 (p.27, fig.M, Rem.); Pesta, 1920 (p.543); Sars, 1925 (p.353); Rose, 1929 (p.45), 1933 a (p.259, figs.F,M); Crisafi, 1960 e (p.293, figs.F,M, juv.); Porumb, 1970 (fiche CIESMM n°34); Razouls, 1972 (p.95, Annexe: p.92); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.776, 833: Rem); Sazhina, 1985 (p.74, figs.N); Santella & Ianora, 1990 (p.83, subitaneous and diapause eggs); Ianora & al., 1992 (p.401, fig.); Barthélémy & al., 1998 (p.721, genital area); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.9, Fig.7, A); Lapernat & Razouls, 2002 (p.17, Pl. VI: Md); Avancini & al., 2006 (Pl. 73, figs.F,M, Rem.);Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.514, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.39].
Female: forehead (lateral). R = rostrum.


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.48].
Frmale: 48, P5 (anterior view).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.1].
Male: habitus (dorsal).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.40].
Male: forehead (lateral. R = rostrum.


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.29].
Male: 29, Th5 and urosome (dorsal).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.20].
Male; 20, Md (posterior view).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht inMale: 16, Md (masticatory edge).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.21].
Male: 21, P1 (posterior view).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.46].
Male: 46, P5 (posterior view).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.47].
Male: left P5 (posterior view).


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.8].
Male: 8, right A1


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Ianora, A. Miralto & S. Vanucci in Mar Biol., 1992, 113. [p.403, Fig.2, A]. SEM micrographs.
Female & Male: A, surface attachment structure (mass of fine setules arranged in two semicircles on a flattened area of the anterodorsal surface of the cephalosome).

For the interpretation of this structure: see in Anomalocera patersoni.


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Barthélémy in Thèse Doct. Univ. Provence (Aix-Marseille I), 1999. [Fig.7, A]. Female (off Banyuls, Gulf of Lion): external ventral view genital double-somite.
Scale bar: 0.050 mm.


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : P.E. Lapernat & C. Razouls in Vie Milieu, 2002, 52 (1). [p.28, Pl. VI, fig.9].
Masticatory edge of Md gnathobase female (from off Malta, Mediterranean Sea).

Nota: Itoh's index: 564 (number of teeth : 7) .


Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : L. Santella & A. Ianora in Mar. Biol., 1990, 105. [p.84, Fig.1]. Pontella mediterranea.
A: Subitaneous eggs with a smooth surface and B: those covered with short spines.
C: Diapause eggs with thick spikes.
D to F: Corresponding histological sections showing the presence of a thin outer coat enveloping smooth eggs (D) as compared to the multilayered structure in subitaneous eggs with short spines (E) or diapause eggs (F).

Scale bar = 0.050 mm.

  Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 16 of morphological figures  

Species Pontella mediterranea - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Barthélémy in Thèse Doct. Univ. Provence (Aix-Marseille I), 1999. [Fig.7, A]. Female (off Banyuls, Gulf of Lion): external ventral view genital double-somite.
Scale bar: 0.050 mm.

Compl. Ref.:
Rose, 1925 (p.152); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.97, Rem.); Demir, 1959 (p.176); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.53); Mazza, 1964 (p.293, weight); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Chakroun, 1966 (p.67, Tableau); Mazza, 1966 (p.72); 1967 (p.329, 360, 377); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.741, geographic distribution, Rem.); Evans, 1968 (p.14); Specchi, 1968 (p.491); Champalbert, 1969 a (p.598); Kovalev, 1969 a (p.174); 1970 a (p.87, Tableau 1, 2, comparison hyponeustonic & planctonic forms); Marcus, 1970 (p.10); Carli, 1971 (p.372, tab.1); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 368, Rem.); Desgouille, 1973 (p.1, Rem.: p.141); Guglielmo, 1973 (p.399); Vives & al., 1975 (p.53, IV); Weikert, 1975 (p.137, chart); Champalbert & al., 1976 (1978) (p.263, geographic size comparison); 1978 (p.215, weight -CHN); Champalbert & Kerambrun, 1979 (p.357, weight-chimic composition v.s. conservation effect); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.1); Grice & Marcus, 1981 (p.125, Dormant eggs, Rem.: p.134); Grice & Gibson, 1981 (1982) (p.49, eggs instantaneous and diapause); Vives, 1982 (p.295); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.38); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl.I, II, III, IV); Comaschi Scaramuzza, 1987 (tab.1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.60); Romano & al., 1996 (p.157, metabolism, diapause); Marcus, 1996 (p.144); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.103); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.40, 46); Lapernat, 1999 (p.26); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.478); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Lapernat & Razouls, 2001 (p.123, tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Kovalev, 2003 (p.47); Zagorodnyaya & al., 2003 (p.52); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Hafferssas & Seridji, 2010 (p.353, Table 2); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.427); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, Rem.: p.7, Table 4)
NZ: 2

Distribution map of Pontella mediterranea by geographical zones
Species Pontella mediterranea - Distribution map 3
Species Pontella mediterranea - Distribution map 4issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 35 ]. Pontella mediterranea (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Loc:
off Canaries E, Baie Ibéro-marocaine, Médit. (Alboran Sea, Alger, Gulf of Annaba, Banyuls, G. of Lion, Marseille, Toulon harbour, Villefranche-s-Mer, Ligurian Sea, Genova, Tyrrhenian Sea, Gulf of Naples, Milazzo, Messine, Malta, Tripoli, Adriatic Sea, Venise, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Dardanelles, Marmara Sea, Black Sea (rare), Levantin Basin), ? Laquedives-Maldives (in Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1021)
N: 61
Lg.:
(46) F: 3-2,9; M: 2,85-2,7; (340) M: 2,4; (449) F: 3-2,9; M: 2,85-2,7; (478) F: 3,265-2,796; M: 2,612-2,556; (789) [Gulf of Marseille] F: 2,79 ± 0,02; M: 2,52 ± 0,02; [Black Sea: Bosphore] F: 2,77 ± 0,015; M: 2,48 ± 0,02; {F: 2,77-3,27; M: 2,40-2,85}
Rem.: epipelagic; 2000 m (off Malte).
Silas and Pillai (1973, p.833) remark: Two varieties have been described the first, var. jaltensisindica. Wolfenden's bief description of var. indica is based on a single female 3.1 mm long which is said to differ from the typical female as described by Giesbrecht (1892, Pl.24, fig.48) in the size of the external spines of the exopod of P5, as well as the size and structure of the endopodites. There is no subsequent record of this variety from the Indian Ocean. Sewell (1948, p.432) remarked that the record of occurrence of Anomalocera patersoni, Pontella mediterranea and Parapontella brevicornis from the Maldives and the Laccadives by Wolfenden (1906) could be explained by accidental mixing of collections from this region and the Atlantic Ocean.
After Romano & al. (1996) from copepods collected in the Bay of Naples and maintened at 20°C show a diapause.
Last update : 14/02/2014
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