Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Temoridae ( Family )
            Temora ( Genus )
Temora stylifera  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Temora armata Claus, 1863 (p.195); Brady, 1883 (p.80);
? no T. stylifera : Chiba, 1953 c (p.695, figs.M); 1953 e (p.722, figs.M); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.308); 1957 a (p.11); Yamazi, 1958 (p.150);
no T. stylifera : Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.66, figs. juv.F); Tanaka, 1963 (p.14, Rem.F,M); ? Anraku & Azeta, 1965 (p.13, Table 2, fish predator);
Temora discaudata : Grice & Hart, 1962 (p.287, table 3 as discaudatus)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.328, 337, 775, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.101, Rem. F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.234, 249); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.357); Sewell, 1912 (p.353, 366); 1914 a (p.227); Pesta, 1920 (p.526); Sars, 1925 (p.193); Gurney, 1927 (p.151); Farran, 1929 (p.209, 257); Rose, 1929 (p.28); Sewell, 1932 (p.246); Wilson, 1932 a (p.104, figs.F,M); Sewell, 1933 (p.27); Rose, 1933 a (p.170, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.29); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.147, figs.F,M); Marques, 1953 (p.106, figs.F,M); Marques, 1959 (p.213); Gaudy, 1961 (p.115, figs. Nauplius, juv.); 1962 (p.93, 99, Rem.: p.108, 128, Pl.V-VIII: Nauplius-juv., Tableau 6: development), P.145: biological annual cycle; Fish, 1962 (p.15); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.40, 41, figs.F,M); Paiva, 1963 (p.52); ? Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.66, figs. juv.F,M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.100, Rem.); Gonzalez & Bowman, 1965 (p.248, figs.F,M, Rem.); Ramirez, 1966 (p.13, figs.F,M); Marques, 1966 (p.5); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.68, figs.F,M); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.158); Vilela, 1968 (p.22, figs.M); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.168); Ramirez, 1971 (p.84, fig.F); Björnberg, 1972 (p.28, figs., Rem.:N); Razouls, 1972 (p.94, Annexe: p.66, figs.F,juv.); Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1973 (p.344, figs.F,M, Rem., carte); Marques, 1973 (p.242); 1974 (p.15); Fleminger, 1975 (p.395, 397); Greenwood, 1978 (Rem.: p.3, 4); Schnack, 1982 (p.145, fig.Mx, Md); Sazhina, 1982 (p.1157, 1158, fig.N); Riera, 1972 (p.67, morphometry); Razouls S., 1975 (p.297: eggs.); Marques, 1982 (p.760); Riera, 1983 (p.363, Rem.: morphometric variations); Nival & Nival, 1978 (p.78, figs.F,M, Rem.: md); Goswami & Goswami, 1978 (p.11, figs.); Séret, 1979 (p.128, fig.M, Rem.); Arnaud & al., 1980 (p.213, gut structure); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.640, figs.F,M); Koga, 1984 (p.43, figs.); Sazhina, 1985 (p.52, figs.N); Razouls S. & al., 1986 (p.875, genital system, eggs); 1987 (p.653: genital system); Schnack, 1989 (p.137, tab.1, fig.6: Md); Arcos & Fleminger, 1991 (p.1177, figs.F,M, juv.5, Rem.); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270); Bundy & Paffenhöfer, 1993 (p.3, fig.F); Barthélémy & al., 1998 (p.721, genital area); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.884, 954, figs.F,M); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.9, Fig.11, A); Paffenhöfer & Loyd, 1999 (p.101, Rem., figs.F); Paffenhöfer & Loyd, 2000 (p.171, fig.F); Corni & al., 2001 (p.79, reproductive morphology); G. Harding, 2004 (p.14, figs.F,M); Conway, 2006 (p.17, copepodides 1-6, Rem.); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.62, 63, Rem.); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.91, Pl. 60, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.524, figs.F,M, Rem.); Martinelli-Filho & al., 2009 (p.455, figs F,M: anomalies); Lacuna & al., 2013 (p.99, 105, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Temora stylifera - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in B. Zeitschel, ed., The Biology of the Indian Ocean. 1973. [Fig. 6, p.345; Fig.7, p.346].
Female: g, habitus (dorsal view).
Male: a, P5 (anterior); b, exopodite of P2 (dorsal); c, right A1; e, habitus (dorsal).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Rose in Faune de France. 26. Paul Lechevalier ed., 1933. [Fig. 193, p.170].
Female and Male.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Bol. Inst. Biol. Mar., Mar del Plata, 1966, 11. [Lam.V, Figs.16-22].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 16, habitus (dorsal); 18, P2; 20, P2 (abnormal); 21, P5.

Male: 17, right A1; 19, P5; 22, habitus (dorsal).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.7].
Female: Md (anterior view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.10].
Female: 10, Mxp (anteror view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.13].
Female: 13, P4 (posterior view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.22].
Female: 22, P5.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.38, fig.26].
Female: 26, anal segment and caudal rami (ventral).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.2].
Male: 2, terminal seta of exopodite 3 of P1.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.4].
Male: 4, exopodite 3 of P2 (anterior view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.38, fig.29].
Male: 29, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.6].
Male: right A1 (posterior view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.11].
Male: 11, P1 (posterior view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.12].
Male: 12, terminal portion of exopodite 3 of right P2.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.17, fig.19].
Male: 19, P5 (anterior view).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : F. Arcos and A. Fleminger in J. Plankton Res., 1991, 13 (6). p.1183, Fig.5].
Comparison between T. discaudata (from W coast of Mexico) and T. stylifera (from Caribbean Sea off Honduras).
a, b, right A1 male (segments 14-16); c, d, habitus (dorsal).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.50].
Female (from Banyuls): F, P5.

Copepodite stage 1: B, corners of the distal metasomal segment and urosome (dorsal); I, I, left corner.

Cpepodite stage 2: C, same; J, corner.

Copepodite stage 3: D, same.

Copepodite stage 4: E, same; H, P5.

Copepodite stage 5: A, same; G, P5


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : G. Harding in Key to the adullt pelagic calanoid copepods found over the continental shelf of the Canadian Atlantic coast. Bedford Inst. Oceanogr., Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, 2004. [p.14].
Female: P5. Nota: inner terminal spine longer than other three.

Male: P5 (L = left leg; R = right leg).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. [p.69, Figs.442, 443].
Female: 442, habitus (dorsal).

Male: corners of the last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. [p.70, Figs.449-451].
Female: 449, P5.

Male: 450, right P5; 451, left P5.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : P.E. Lapernat & C. Razouls in Vie Milieu, 2002, 52 (1). [p.28, Pl. VI, fig.11].
Masticatory edge of Md gnathobase female (from off Malta, Mediterranean Sea).

Nota: Itoh's index value of the mandibular gnathobase = 746.8 (number of teeth : 8), and 813.3 (number of teeth : 9); and after Schnack (1989) the Itoh's index value = 798.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : S.B. Schnack in Crustacean Issue, 1989, 6. [p.143, Fig.6: 10].
10, Temara stylifera (from off NW Africa, upwelling region): Cutting edge of Md.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 23 of morphological figuresissued from : S.B. Schnack in Crustacean Issue, 1989, 6. [p.147, Fig.9].
Mx2.
Nota: Temora species are apparently able to switch from one feeding mode (herbivore and omnivore).: the Maxillae bear a single setule-free, long, and powerful seta suitable for grasping prey items (see Schnack, 1982 a). besides this seta, Mx2 has small intersetule distances (between 4 and 11 micometers).


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 24 of morphological figuresissued from : S. Razouls, S. Nival & P. Nival in J. Plankton Res., 8 (5) [p.879, Fig.2)
Schematic representation of the female gonad and evolution of ovocytes.
3-9: index of measures (length-width).
Zm = multiplication zone; Zc = growth zone; C1, C2, C3 = different stages of vitellogenesis maturation.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.67].
Female and Male.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Ianora, B. Scotto di Carlo & P. Mascellaro in Mar. Biol., 1989, 101. [p.189, Fig.2];
Temora stylifera females from Gulf of Naples (Italy): Unripe female with transparent gonads (a) and dark (b) ripe female wit gonads containing mature oocytes.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 27 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Ianora, B. Scotto di Carlo & P. Mascellaro in Mar. Biol., 1989, 101. [p.190, Fig.3];
Temora stylifera females from Gulf of Naples (Italy). Histological sections: a, previtellogenic phase of oogenic cycle, corresponding to light or unripe females; b, vitellogenic phase with dense yolk granules filling oocytes running parallel to inner margins of oviducal diverticulae, corresponding to semi-dark females; c, final vitellogenic phase with diverticulae containing mature oocytes, corresponding to dark or ripe females; d, moment of egg-laying and ensuing light or unripe gonadal condition.
i.o. = immature oocytes; m.o. = mature oocytes; m.g. = mid-gut; h.g. = hind-gut; m.b. = muscle bands.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 28 of morphological figuresissued from : J.E. Martinelli-Filho, M. Melo-Junior, D.R. Cunha & R.M. Lopes in Braz. J. Biol., 2009, 69 (2). [p.455, Fig.1].
Anomalous male from Temora stylifera (from Southern Brazilian Bight), bearing geniculation on both A1.

Nota: Geniculation in both A1 is common in cyclopoid families, but not in calanoids.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 29 of morphological figuresissued from : J.E. Martinelli-Filho, M. Melo-Junior, D.R. Cunha & R.M. Lopes in Braz. J. Biol., 2009, 69 (2). [p.456, Fig.2].
Aberrant individual displaying male characters and a female double-genital somite complex (Gns) from Temora stylifera (from Southern Brazilian Bight): a, whole specimen; b, detail of female Gns and male P5.

Nota: The animal shows a female genital somite and reproductive structures including ovary and oviducts. The remaining sexual characters such as A1 and P5 are typically male.
The gynandromorphic individual anomaly was not induced by parasites (no evidence of infections);
Intersexuality is often found in P5 (see Ianora & al., 1987), or A1 (see Fleminger, 1985) rather than on the genital somite. Intersex individuals were described in sevaral calanoid families (Acartiidae, Calanidae, Diaptomidae, Euchaetidae, Metridinidae and Paracalanidae. Similar data has not been found for the Temoridae and the authors cannot confirm that the gynandromorphic specimen is an intersex.
The fact that A1 and P5 are identical to male appendages is not an ordinary pattern in intersex as well.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 30 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Barthélémy in Thèse Doct. Univ. Provence (Aix-Marseille I), 1999. [Fig.11, A]. Female (from Gulf of Marseille, NW Mediterranean Sea): A, external ventral view genital double-somite.
go = genital operculum.
Scale bar: 0.050 mm.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 31 of morphological figuresissued from : R.-M. Barthélémy, C. Cuoc, D. Defaye, M. Brunet & J. Mazza in Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, 1998, 353. [p.733, Fig.63].
Schematic representation of external genital area in the species studied;
Dashed line, limit of the anterior pad and lateral thickenings; shading, posterior pad; dots, genital operculum.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 32 of morphological figuresissued from : M.L.D.G. Lacuna, D.C. Sagrado, N.B. España, D.D. Simyunn & R.O. Mejorada in ABAH Bioflux, 2013, 5 (1). [p.108, Fig.11, e; p.109, Fig.12, e].
Female (from Mindanao bays); F: P5.

Male: M, P5.


Species Temora stylifera - Plate 33 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle, UPMC, Paris 6. [Pl. XXXIV, Figs.217-219].
Male (from off Kerguelen Is.): 217, habitus (dorsal); 218, exopodal segment 3 of P2; 219, P5.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.198); Sewell, 1912 (p.366); Carazzi & Grandori, 1912 (p.12, 38); Chatton, 1920 (p.17); Rose, 1924 d (p.479); Wilson, 1942 a (p.209); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.91); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.391, 406); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (? part., p.343); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.125); Deevey, 1960 (p.5, Table II, annual abundance); Cervigon, 1962 (p.181, tables: abundance distribution); Grice & Hart, 1962 (p.287, table 3); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Shmeleva, 1963 (p.141); Gaudy, 1963 (p.24, Rem.); Björnberg, 1963 (p.46, Rem.); Mazza, 1964 (p.293, weight); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.14); Roehr & Moore, 1965 (p.565, vertical distribution); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume-weight relation); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.26, Table III, annual cycle); Vives, 1966 (p.81); Pavlova, 1966 (p.43); Mazza, 1966 (p.71); 1967 (p.356, 377, 399, fig.76); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.738, geographic distribution, Rem.); Séguin, 1968 (p.488); Evans, 1968 (p.15); Delalo, 1968 (p.138); Berdugo & Kimor, 1968 (p.447); Champalbert, 1969 a (p.636); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, 1969 (p.2, fig.1); El-Maghraby & Dowidar, 1970 (p.81); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.269); M. Bernard, 1970 (p.75); Park, 1970 (p.476); Shih & al., 1971 (p.49); Salah, 1971 (p.319); Deevey, 1971 (p.225); Gamulin, 1971 (p.381, tab.2); Carli, 1971 (p.372, tab.1); Gaudy, 1971 (p.65, Tabl. 1, fig.1, egg production); 1972 (p.175, 200, figs.13-18, annual cycle); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II: %), Table IV; Brodsky, 1972 (p.256); Binet & al., 1972 (p.71); Della Croce & al., 1972 (p.1, Rem.); Riera, 1972 (p.67, morphometry); Razouls S., 1972 (p.95, metabolism); 1972 a (p.145, respiration); Champalbert & Gaudy, 1972 (p.159, respiration vs temperature); Valentin, 1972 (p.377: egg diameter = 80 µm); Ibanez & Seguin, 1972 (p.81, annual cycle, multivarite analysis); Nival & al., 1972 (p.63, respiration); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.328, 352, fig.4); Boucher & Thiriot, 1972 (p.47, Tableau 4); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); C. Razouls & Guinness, 1973 (p.413, size variations & temperature); Champalbert & al., 1973 (p.529, CHN composition); Gaudy, 1973 (p.267, Table I, II, fig.2, 5, respiration); P. Nival & S. Nival, 1973 (p.135, mouth parts, grazing); Desgouille, 1973 (p.1, 131, Rem.: p.138); Guglielmo, 1973 (p.399); C. Razouls, 1973 a (p.361, annual abundance); 1974 (p.51, life history); S. Razouls, 1974 (147, oxygen rate); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Nival & al., 1974 (p.231, respiration & excretion); Gaudy, 1975 (p.109, Table I, respiration); Le Ruyet-Person & al., 1975 (p.283, comparative biology, metabolism activity); S. Razouls, 1975 (p.297, egg production); Vives & al., 1975 (p.43, tab.II, III, IV); Boucher & al., 1975 (p.85, nutrition/enzyme); Fernandez, 1975 (p.1, fig.1, 2, 3, 4, metabolism/lux), Boucher & al., 1976 (p.61, elementary composition); Lakkis & Abboud, 1976 (p.81); Razouls & Razouls, 1976 (p.281, annual variations); Boucher & al., 1976 (p.61, 62); C. Razouls & S. Razouls, 1976 (p.281, caloricity, growth); S. Razouls, 1977 (p.265, caloricity); Weikert, 1977 (p.351, Rem.: p.353, exuviae); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Scaramuzza, 1978 (p.17); Paffenhöfer & Knowles, 1978 a (p.143, feeding); Fernandez, 1978 (p.97, metabolism/food, Rem.: Table 19); S. Razouls & Apostolopoulou, 1978 (p.13, metabolism); Binet, 1979 (p.400); Dessier, 1979 (p.100, 201, 206); Paffenhöfer & Knowles, 1979 (p.35, fecal pellets); Stephen & Iyer, 1979 (p.228, tab.1, 3, 4, figs.3, 4); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Andronov & Maigret, 1980 (p.71, Table 1, 2, 3); Paffenhöfer & Knowles, 1980 (p.355, feeding); Yassen, 1981 (p.125, rearing, mortality rate); Sreekmaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493, Fig.2); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.84); Vives, 1982 (p.293); Castel & Courties, 1982 (p.417, Table II, spatial distribution); Boucher, 1982 a (p.199, fig.2); Yassen, 1982 (p.125, culture, mortality rate); Riera, 1983 (p.363, biometry); Abou Debs & Nival, 1983 (p.125, egg production v.s. diet, temperature); Rivière, 1983 (p.19, enzymes); Greze & al., 1983 (p.17, Rem.: p.24); Turner & Dagg, 1983 (p.16, 22); De Decker, 1984 (p.316, 364: chart); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.7); Turner, 1984 a (p.73, Table 1, fig.4-7: pellet contents); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1041); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); ? Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Miller & al., 1984 (p.1274, Rem.: p.1278, molting rates); Abou Debs, 1984 (p.213, egg & fecal pellets porduction, respiration rate, C& N budget vs. diet); Gruzov, 1985 (p.633, age dependant feeding); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.34); Brenning, 1985 (p.5, spatial distribution/TS); 1985 a (p.23, Table 2); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl.I, II, III, IV, V); Petipa & Borichenko, 1985 (tab.2); Gaudy, 1985 (p.279, Tab.3); Garcia-Rodriguez, 1985 a (p.41, 42); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, 1985 (p.303, occurrence/abundance in E Mediterranean Sea); Valentin & al., 1986 (p.117, Table V); Riera & Alcaraz, 1986 (p.127, biometry); Ambler, 1986 a (p.957, fig.7, selectivity); Comaschi Scaramuzza, 1987 (tab.1); Boucher & al., 1987 (p.133, spatial distribution/physical structure); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Daan & al., 1988 (p.45, carnivorous behaviour); Ianora & al., 1989 (p.187, reproduction); Kouwenberg & Razouls, 1990 (p.23, climatic change); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Lindo, 1991 (tab.3); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Carlotti & Nival, 1991 (p.801, variability of development); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table 1, eggs, temperature-dependent production); C. Razouls & S. Razouls, 1992 (p.259, life history); Ayukai & Hattori, 1992 (p.163, Table 5, fecal pellet production rate); Kouwenberg, 1993 (p.215, fig.3, seasonal abundance); 1993 a (p.281, fig.3, 4, sex ratio); Ianora & Poulet, 1993 (p.1615, egg production & viability/food); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Lopes, 1994 (tab.1); Kouwenberg, 1994 (tab.1); Hajderi, 1995 (p.542); Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.74); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Webber & al., 1996 (tab.1); Jamet & Ferec-Corbel, 1996 (p.17, tab.1); Paffenhöfer & al., 1996 (p.1699, motion behavior); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Hure Krsinic, 1998 (p.59, 101); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1, 2); Lopes & al., 1998 (p.195); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,3,4); Kouwenberg, 1998 (p.203, seasonal variation, fig.3: global change); Vigoni & al., 1998 (tab.2); Hopcroft & al., 1998 (tab.2); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hsieh & Chiu, 1998 (tab.2); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.111); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.8, 16, 21, 25, 26, 27, 30, 38, 45, 47, 48, 58, 61, 62, 63); Lopes & al., 1999 (p.215, tab.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Miralto & al., 1999 (p.173, Rem.: p.175, egg production vs diatoms effect of inhibition); Lapernat, 1999 (p.29, 55); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.476); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); El-Sherif & Aboul Ezz, 2000 (p.61, Table 3: occurrence); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 2000 (1247, tab.1); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Plounevez & Champalbert, 2000 (p.175, Table III, IV, V, abundance vs fish, Rem.: p.185); Pakhomov & al., 2000 (p.1663, Table 2, transect Cape Town-SANAE antarctic base); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); d'Elbée, 2001 (tabl. 1); Lapernat & Razouls, 2001 (p.123, tab.1); Pardal & Azeiteiro, 2001 (p.25); El-Serehy & al., 2001 (p.116, Table 1: abundance vs transect in Suez Canal); Calbet & al., 2001 (p.319, Fig.7); Halsband-Lenk & al., 2001 (p.597, seasonal cycle, egg production); Zerouali & Melhaoui, 2002 (p.91, Tableau I); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Bressan & Moro, 2002 (tab.2); Dunbar & Webber, 2003 (tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Bode & al., 2003 (p.85, Table 1, abundance); Fernandez de Puelles & al., 2003 (p.123, fig.5); Ceballos & Ianora, 2003 (p.189, egg production); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.397, tab.1, p.398: Rem., p.399, tab.2); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.486, p.490: tab.2, p.495: tab.8, abundance); Chang & Fang, 2004 (p.456, tab.1); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4, tab.1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Di Capua & Mazzocchi, 2004 (p.632); Halsband-Lenk & al., 2004 (p.709, figs.6,7); CPR, 2004 (p.63, fig.189); Vukanic & Vukanic, 2004 (p.9, tab. 3); Wang & Zuo, 2004 (p.1, Table 2, dominance, origin); Dias & Bonecker, 2005 (p.100 + poster); Di Capua & al., 2005 (p.72 + poster); Lakkis & al., 2005 (p.152); Uriarte & Villate, 2005 (p.863, tab.I); Molinero & al., 2005 (p.640, climate forcing); Lindley & Daykin, 2005 (p.869, occurrence between 1959 to 2000); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.162: tab.1); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Sterza & Fernades, 2006 (p.95, Table 1, occurrence); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.67, Rem., chart); Zervoudaki & al., 2006 (p.149, Table I); De Olazabal & al., 2006 (p.966); Koppelmann & Weikert, 2007 (p.266: tab.3); Fernandez de Puelles & al., 2007 (p.338, fig.7); Albaina & Irigoien, 2007 (p.435: Tab.1); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.104: tab.1, figs.7, 8); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Busatto, 2007 (p.26, Tab.2); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Aldamman, 2008 (p.1-154); Kiørboe, 2008 (p.155, Table 2, swimming speed); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Rossi, 2008 (p.90: Tableau XII); Gugliandolo & al., 2008 (p.580, bacteria assiociated); Jerling, 2008 (p.55, Tabl.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Goetze & Kiørboe, 2008 (p.185, mating recognition); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Muelbert & al., 2008 (p.1662, Table 3); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl.II); Zhang W & al., 2009 (p.261); Brugnano & al., 2010 (p.312, Table 2, 3); Hafferssas & Seridji, 2010 (p.353, Table 2); Eloire & al., 2010 (p.657, Table II, temporal variability); Lidvanov & al., 2010 (p.356, Table 3); Drira & al., 2010 (p.145, Tanl.2); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Xu & Gao, 2011 (p.514, figs.3, 4, Table 2: optimal salinity); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.428); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Yen & Lasley, 2010 (p.177, Rem.: p.183, mating): Hafferssas & al., 2010 (p.1281, Table III, abundance vs spatial distribution); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, 4, abundance); Nowaczyk & al., 2011 (p.2159, Table 2); Shanthi & Ramanibai, 2011 (p.132, Table 1); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Magris & al., 2011 (p.260, abundance, interannual variability); Costa R.G. da & al., 2011 (p.364, Table 1, seasonal occurrence); Moscatello & al., 2011 (p.80, Table 4); Selifonova, 2011 a (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Barreiro & al., 2011 (p.13, egg production, hatching success, ingestion rate vs food selection); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, Table I, II, fig.6, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Isari & al., 2011 (p.51, Table 2, abundance vs distribution); Ianora & al., 2011 (p.265, diet vs egg production, egg viability, fecal pellets production, survival); ); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Delpy & al., 2012 (p.1921, Table 2); Shiganova & al., 2012 (p.61, Table 4); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Almeida LR. & al., 2012 (p.13, Table 1, abundance); Salah S. & al., 2012 (p.155, Tableau 1); Zizah & al., 2012 (p.79, Tableau I, Rem.: p.89); Miloslavic & al., 2012 (p.165, Table 2, transect distribution); Vidjak & al., 2012 (p.243, Rem.: p.254); Aubry & al., 2012 (p.125, table 1, 3, fig. 6, 8 a, b, interannual variation); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Turner & al., 2012 (p.63, toxic dinoflagellate effects); Drillet & al., 2012 (p.155, Table 1, culture); Bode & al., 2012 (p.108, spatial distribution vs time-series, % biomass); Mazzocchi & al., 2012 (p.135, annual abundance 1984-2006); Miyashita & al., 2012 (p.1557, Table 2: occurrence); Neffati & al., 2012 (p.80, egg production & nauplii survival vs environmental factors); Buttino & al., 2012 (p.247, culture); Gusmao & al., 2013 (p.279, Table 4, sex ratio); Nikolioudakis & al., 2012 (p.173, Table 2: Ivelv's selectivity index); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, p.4, Table 2); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); Teuber & al., 2013 (p.1, Table 1, 2, abundance vs oxygen minimum zone, respiration rates); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, fig.11, seasonal abundance); Anjusha & al., 2013 (p.40, Table 3, abundance & feeding behavior); Sobrinho-Gonçalves & al., 2013 (p.713, Table 2, fig.8, seasonal abundance vs environmental conditions); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); El-Serehy & al., 2013 (p.2099, Rem.: p.2101, as Tempora stylifera); Fernandez de Puelles & al., 2014 (p.82, Table 3, seasonal abundance); Bonecker & al., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Pansera & al., 2014 (p.221, Table 2, abundance); Mazzocchi & al., 2014 (p.64, Table 3, 4, 5, spatial & seasonal composition %) ; Araujo & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 3, abundance, %)
NZ: 14 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Temora stylifera by geographical zones
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 3
Chart of 1996
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 4Distribution of Temora discaudata (hatching) and T. stylifera (cross-hatching); modified from Fleminger and Hulsemann; issued from : F. Arcos and A. Fleminger in J. Plankton Res., 1991, 13 (6). [Fig.7, p.1184]
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 5issued from : J.A. Lindley & S. Daykin in ICES Journal. Mar. Sc., 2005, 62. [p.871, Fig.1].
The geographical distribution of occurrences of Temora stylifera in CPR samples east of 20°W in the years 1959-1977, 1978-1987, and 1988-2000. Note that the Iberian coastal waters south of 42°N were only sampled from 1978 to 1986 and from 1997 onwards and the Bay of Biscay east of the line between Ushant and Cape Finisterre was sampled only on a few occasions in 1958 and 1959 and regularly from mid-1997 onwards.
See chart in Centropages chierchiae
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 6issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 24 ]. Temora stylifera (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 7issued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.67].
Chart of occurrence in Brazilian waters (sampling between 22°-23° S).
Nota: sampling 131 specimens.
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 8issued from : R. Gaudy in Rec. Trav. St. Mar. End., 1962, 27 (42). [p.146, Fig.5].
Population dynamics of Temora stylifera in the Gulf of Marseille (43°15'30''N, 5°17'02''E) during 1960-1961.
A: Frequenciy distributions of size classes (cephalothoracic lengths females from 1 to 10); B: Number of adults (males and females) and nauplii by haul; C: Percentage of the different stages (N: naulii, 1-5: copepodites, 6: adults); D: Interpretation of successive generations.
Class of sizes (in mm): 1 = 0.800-0.849; 2 = 0.850-0.899; 3: 0.900-0.949; 4 = 0.950-0.999; 5: 0.1.000-1.049; 6 =1.050-1.099; 7 = 1.100-1.149; 8 = 1.150-1.199; 9 = 1.200-1.249; 10 = 1.250-1.299.

Gaudy (p.138) points to 5 generations by year in the Gulf of Marseille (NW Mediterranean Sea).
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 9issued from : J.T. Turner in Mar. Biol., 1984 a, 82. [p.79, Fig.5].
Contents of fecal pellets of Temora stylifera females from the Station in slope water (off W Mississipi River mouth) on 9 December 1945.
a: intact Thalassiosira sp. cell (T); b: fragmented Thalassiosira sp.cells (T) and Chaetoceros spp. spines (Ch); c and d: fragmented Thalassiosira sp. cells (T) showing inner and outer surfaces; e: intact Ciscinodiscus sp. cell (C); f: fragments of Coscinodiscus sp. (C) and Skeletonema costatum (S) cells.
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 10issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock -34. Jahrgang 1985. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 6. [p.10, Figs.6, 7].
Spatial distribution and T-S Diagram for Temora stylifera from from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W for different expeditions (V1: Dec. 1972-Jan. 1973; V2: Feb./mar. 1973; VI: May 1974; IV: Jun./Jul. 1972).

Nota: SO: Southern Surface Water (S °/oo: 34,50; T°C: 29,0); ND: Northern Water of the Surface Layer (S °/oo: 37,5; T°C: 21,0); SD: Southern Deep Water of the surface layer (S °/oo: 35,33; T°C: 13,4).
Water types basing on the works of Sverdrup & al. (1942), Wolf (1978) and Wolf & Kaiser (1978) distinguishing various quasi-permanent water types in the top 200 m of the water column in the NW Africa upwelling region. The water type SD, which usually forms the upper limit of the SACW (South Atlantic Central water: S °/oo: 34,35-35,33 & T°C: 5,15-13,4), can enter the surface layer as a result of upwelling, so that water types ND, SD and SO can be expected in this layer in upwelling regions. The boundary separating the NACW (North Atlantic Central Water: S °/oo: 35,10-37,35; T°C: 8,0-21,0) and SACW water masses is situated in the region between Bahia de Gorrei and Cap Blanc (Mauritania) throughout the whole year. The distribution of the water types SACW in the surface layer off North West Africa varies with the season and the meridional migration of the wind field. See in Brenning (1985 a, p.6).

Nota: Brenning (1985 a, p.28), taking into account the seasonal temperature variations, the number of generations to be expected in a given region when the duration of upwelling in the region concerned is known, obtained: ± 15 generations at Nouachott (Mauritania), ± 12 at Cap Vert (Dakar) and ± 10 at Cap Roxo (Casamance). Binet (1977), for instance, counting 25 generations in 14 months, i.e. 1 generation every 17 days, off the Ivory Coast.
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 11issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock -34. Jahrgang 1985. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 6. [p.7, Fig.4].
Vertical distribution for Temora stylifera from from NW Africa.
T: daylight; N: night.
r399); 4ons in mean mon91snated by in itp.26, Taatepintersexp.2ir>Nota: In t 2016 (p.1, ons e rpespatita: In t., 20(rnala sty 2016 (p.1,: C:N012 (p, e rteio befrr>
Species Temora stylifera - Distribution map 12issued from : A. Ianora & S.A. Poulet in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1993, 38 (8). [p.1617, Fig.1].
Field estimates of seasonal variations in mean monthly egg production rate (A) and egg viability (B) of Temora stylifera and chlorophyll a (C) sampled in the Bay of Naples (Italy).
M: mean of monthly values; bars: standard deviation of the monthly mean.

Nota: In the study, the authors show that egg production and egg viability are related to each other but not to phytoplankton stocks as deterlinated by in itu Chl a concentrations. Itfro.fr/en/images/image.php?c=s&i=168gother bu">
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