Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Oithonidae ( Family )
        Oithona ( Genus )
Oithona similis  Claus, 1866   (F,M)
Syn.: no Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863 (p.105, fig.M);
O. spinifrons Boeck, 1864; Brady, 1878 (p.90); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.255);
Oithona helgolandica : Sars, 1900 (p.119); 1913 (1918) (p.8, Rem.: p. 207, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1914 (p.8, fig.F); Pesta, 1920 (p.551); Campbell, 1929 (p.322, Rem.); Rose, 1929 (p.56); 1933 a (p.281, figs.F,M); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.102, Rem.); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.42); Davis, 1949 (p.73, figs.F,M); Fleury, 1950 (p.47, fig.2); Hansen K.V., 1951 (p.231, migration vs. discontinuity layer); Gundersen, 1953 (p.1, 26, seasonal abundance); Crisafi, 1959 b (p.49, figs.F,M, Rem.); Gaudy, 1962 (p.93, 99, Rem.: p.116) ; Duran, 1963 (p.25); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.56); Gaudy, 1963 (p.30, Rem.); Shmeleva, 1963 (p.141); Vilela, 1965 (p.12); Mazza, 1966 (p.73); 1967 (p.363, 377, fig.70, p.401, fig.76); Séguin, 1968 (p.488); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.268); Ramirez, 1969 (p.87, fig.F, Rem.); Champalbert, 1969 a (p.641); Della Croce & al., 1972 (p.1, fig.2, Rem.); Razouls, 1972 (p.95, Annexe: p.105, figs.F,M); Desgouille, 1973 (p.1, 131, Rem.: p.136, fig.16); Vives & al., 1975 (p.53, tab.II, III, IV); Gaudy, 1976 (p.77, fig.1, 6, Table I, II, III, production); Davis C.C., 1976 (p.37, fig.2, reproductive characteristics); Falconetti & Seguin, 1977 (p.188); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Castel & Courties, 1982 (p.417, Table II, fig.4, spatial & monthly distribution); Vives, 1982 (p.295); Patriti & al., 1984 (tab.1); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1041); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.40); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl.I, II, III, IV, V); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Pancucci-Papadopoulou & al., 1990 (p.199); Valdes & al., 1990 (tab.2); Kouwenberg & Razouls, 1990 (p.23, climatic change); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.358, 360, 442, 465); Villate, 1991 a (fig.4); Santos & Ramirez, 1991 (p. 82, 83); Jouffre & al., 1991 (p.489, lagoon); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Santos & Ramirez, 1995 (p.133, Tabl. I, fig.2, 3); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Holmes & Gotto, 2000 (p.3, Rem.); Sautour & al., 2000 (p.531, Table II, abundance); d'Elbée, 2001 (tabl.1); Zerouali & Melhaoui, 2002 (p.91, Tableau I, fig.5); Gaudy & al., 2003 (p.357, tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.1, tab.1); Marrari & al., 2004 (p.667, tab.1); Vukanic & Vukanic, 2004 (p.361, tab. 1, fig.1); Rawlinson & al., 2005 (p.205, tidal exchange); Uriarte & Villate, 2005 (p.863, tab.I); Marques & al., 2006 (p.297, tab.III); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Licandro & Icardi, 2009 (p.17, Table 4); Hafferssas & Seridji, 2010 (p.353, Table 2); Drira & al., 2010 (p.145, Tanl.2); Antacli & al., 2010 (p.71, Table 1, 2, Figs.4, 6);
Oithona spp (mainly similis : Atkinson & Shreeve, 1995 (p.1291, vertical distribution, grazing); Atkinson, 1996 (p.85, Table 3, 5, fig.1, feeding); Atkinson & Sinclair, 2000 (p.46, zonal distribution)
Ref.:
Claus, 1866 (p.14); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.537, 548, figs.F,M); Wheeler, 1901 (p.186, figs.F,M, Rem.); Giesbrecht, 1902 (p.28: Rem.Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.236, 255); Farran, 1908 b (p.88); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.363); Lysholm, 1913 (p.7); Rosendorn, 1917 a (p.24, figs.F,M); Sars, 1918 (p.207, figs.F,M, Rem.); Willey, 1920 a (p.22); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.28); Mori, 1929 (p.199, fig.F); Kiefer, 1929 g (p.7, Rem.F,M); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 283); Rose, 1929 (p.55); Wilson, 1932 a (p.314, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.125, fig.33); Farran, 1936 a (p.124); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.112, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.116, fig.F); Jespersen, 1940 (p.90); Vervoort, 1951 (p.148, Rem.); Lindberg, 1955 a (p.464: Rem.); Shen & Bai, 1956 (p.226, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1957 (p.146, Rem.); Crisafi, 1959 b (p.53 & suiv., Rem.); Tanaka, 1960 (p.62, figs.F,M); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.75, 76, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1964 (p.13); Marques, 1966 (p.11); Faber, 1966 (p.191, figs.N); Pallares, 1968 b (p.31, figs.F,M); Wellershaus, 1970 (p.483, 484); Minoda, 1971 (p.44); Shih & al., 1971 (p.55, 155, 214); Bossanyi & Bull, 1971 (p.15, Rem.); Bradford, 1971 b (p.28); 1972 (p.48, figs.F,M); Björnberg, 1972 (p.87); Shuvalov, 1972 (1975) (p.172, figs., Rem.); Chen & al., 1974 (p.30, figs.F,M, p.74: Rem., Tab.1); Sullivan & al., 1975 (p.176, figs.Md); Nishida & al., 1977 (p.149, figs.F,M, Rem.); Shih & Laubitz, 1978 (p.50, 51); Séret, 1979 (p.160, figs.F); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.9, figs.F,M); Shuvalov, 1980 (p.115, figs.N,F,M, Rem.M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.663, figs.F); Schnack, 1982 (p.89, figs.: Mx2, Md, Mxp); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.108, figs.F,M); Nishida, 1985 a (p.88, figs.F, Rem.F, p.129); Sazhina, 1985 (p.91, figs. Nauplius); Zheng Zhong & al.,1984 (1989) (p.261, figs.F,M); Nishida, 1986 (p.386); Kim & al., 1993 (p.271); Mazzocchi & al., 1995 (p.219, figs.F, Rem.); Menshenina & Melnikov, 1995 (p.128); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.939, Pl.194, 200: F,M); Schnack-Schiel & al., 1998 (p.173); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.886, 966, figs.F); Conway & al., 2003 (p.204, figs.F,M, Rem.); Conway, 2006 (p.22, copepodides 1-6, Rem.); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.35, Rem. N, p.60, 65, copepodites); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.126, Pl. 94, figs.F, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.76, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Oithona similis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresFemale: 1, 1', habitus (dorsal view); 2, 2' P1; 3, Head, (lateral); issued from : Tanaka, 1960. 4, Furca; issued from : Nishida, 1985.
Male: 5, habitus (lateral); issued from : Tanaka, 1960. 6, Urosome (dorsal); issued from Nishida, Tanaka & Omori in Bull. Plankton Soc. Jap., 1977, 24 (2): 119-158.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : M.G. Mazzocchi, G. Zagami, A. Ianora, L. Guglielmo, N. Crescenti & J. Hure in Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellan. Copepods; L. Guglielmo & A. Ianora (Eds.), 1995. [p.220, Fig.3.40.1].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal view); B, idem (lateral view); C, rostrum (lateral view); D, P1; E, P2; F, P3; G, P4.
Nota: Prosome 1.2 times urosome. Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 15:36:14:12:12:11 = 100


Species Oithona similis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. VI. Copepoda Cyclopoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1913 (1918). [Pl. III]. As Oithona helgolandica.
Female & Male (from Norway).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.89, Fig.50].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal); d, A1; e, A2; f, Md (mandibular palp); g, Md (biting edge).

Nota: Proportional lengths of urosome segments and caudal ramus 13:34:15:14:14:11. A1 with posteroventral row of minute teeth on segments 2-22.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.90, Fig.51].
Female: a, thoracic segment 5 and genital segment (dorsal); b, idem (lateral right side); c, Mx1; d, Mx2; e, Mxp; f, P1; g, P2; h, P3; i, P4.

Nota after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, p.76): Setal formula on outer margin (in first) and inner margin (in second) of exopod segments (from proximal to distal) of P1 to P4:
P1: 1, 1, 2; 0, 1, 4.
P2: 1, 0, 1; 0, 1, 5
P3: 1, 0, 1; 0, 1, 5.
P4: 0, 0, 1; 0, 1, 5.

Male: after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, p.76): Setal formula on outer margin (in first) and inner margin (in second) of exopod segments (from proximal to distal) of P1 to P4:
P1: 1, 1, 2; 0, 1, 4.
P2: 1, 1, 2; 0, 1, 5
P3: 1, 1, 2; 0, 1, 5.
P4: 1, 1, 2; 0, 1, 5.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.1, Figs.1-7].
Female (from China Seas): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forehead (lateral); 3, P2; 4, P3; 5, P4.
Nota: According to Breemen (1908) and Shen & Bai (1956), the exopod 3 of P4 is not provided with a single spine, our specimens are provided with an outer spine on the same segment, agreeing well with Tanaka's (1960) description.

Male: 6, habitus (dorsal); 7, P3.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C.-j. Shen & S.-o. Bai in Acta Zool. sin., 1956, 8 (2). [Pl.VII, Figs.55-56].
Female (from Chefoo); 55, habitus (dorsal); 56, P1.

Nota: The armatures of the endopods are similar in both sexes, but those of the exopods are different in some points (See infra Table)


Species Oithona similis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : C.-j. Shen & S.-o. Bai in Acta Zool. sin., 1956, 8 (2). [p.226].
Table: Armature of P1 to P4.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in Mem. N. Z. Oceonogr. Inst., 1972, 54. [p.51, Fig.14, (4-6].
Female (from Kaikoura, New Zealand): 4, habitus (dorsal); 6, exopod of P2.

Male: 5, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bars: 0.1 mm (4, 5, 6).

Nota: One of the most common copepods in the Kaikoura plankton.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.25, Fig.13].
Female: a, Md (mandibular palp).
Nota: Proportion of lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 56.41, Urosome : 43.59 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 5: 12: 5: 4: 5: 3.5. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae ; Si = inner setae), P1 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P2 : 1, 0, 1 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P3 : 1, 0, 1 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P4 : 0, 0, 1 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si .

Male: b, forehead (lateral); c, Md (mandibular palp); d, P2; e, P3.
Nota: Proportion of total lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 64.18, Urosome : 35.82 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 7 : 17 : 9 : 8.5 : 6.5 : 7: 7. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae ; Si = inner setae), P1 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P2 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P3 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si ; P4 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 0, 1, 5 Si .


Species Oithona similis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. VII, Fig.19].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 19, habitus (dorsal).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 62, Figs.1-6].
Female: 1, Md; 2, P1; 3, P2; 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, P3; 6, P4.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 62, Fig.12].
Female: 12, forehead (lateral).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 62, Fig.8].
Male: 8, habitus (dorsal).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 62, Figs.7, 9, 10, 11].
Male: 7, P1; 9, P2; 10, P3; 11, P4.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : V.S. Shuvalov in Opred. Faune SSSR, Nauka, Leningrad, 1980, 125. [p.117, Fig.25].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, prosome (dorsal); 3-4, forehead (lateral); 5, same (dorsal); 6, P1; 7, P2 (basipod , exopod); 8, P3; 9, urosome (dorsal); 10-13, anal segment and caudal rami; 14-16, prosome (dorsal).
Nota: 10, 11: from Atlantic Ocean; 12 from Arctic Ocean; 13: from Yellow Sea; 14: from Arctic Ocean; 15-16: from Atlantic ocean.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Skovgaard & N. Daugbjerg in Protist, 2008, 159. [p.403, Fig.1 A-C].
Living Paradinium spp.-infected copepods from the NW Mediterranean Sea.
A: P. poucheti (PaOi21) gonosphere attaced to the urosome of its host, Oithona similis.
B: same at higher magnification.
C: P. poucheti (PaOi01) gonosphere attached to the urosome of the copepod O. similis.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Skovgaard & N. Daugbjerg in Protist, 2008, 159. [p.403, Fig.2 A].
Paradinium poucheti gonosphere attached of its living host O. similis from the Godthabbsfjord, Greenland.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.44, Figs.5, 9].
Male: 5, habitus (lateral); 9, habitus (dorsal).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [taf.44, Fig.3].
Male: 3, A2 (over view).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.44, Fig.8].
Male: 8, urosome (ventral).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.44, Figs.10, 11].
Male: 10, P2; 11, P1.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 34, Figs.18, 19, 21].
Female: 18-19, forehead (lateral and dorsal, respectively); 21, urosome (dorsal).


Species Oithona similis - Plate 24 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 34, Figs.36-39].
Female: 36, exopodite of P1; 37, exopodite of P2; 38, exopodite of P3; 39, exopodite of P4.
Se = outer seta.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.61]. As Oithona helgolandica sensu Sars, 1913 (1918).
Female (from Banyuls, G. of Lion): A, forehead (dorsal view); B, Md; C, Mxp; D, Mx2; E, P3; F, P2; G, P4; H, P1.
Nota: anomaly on the basispodal segment 1 of P3 with 1 inner seta.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls in Th. Doc. Etat Fac. Sc. Paris VI, 1972, Annexe. [Fig.62]. As Oithona helgolandica.
Male: A-B, A1; C, P4; D, P3; E, urosome; F, P1; G, P2.
Nota: anomaly on exopodal segment 3 of P1 missing 1 inner seta.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 27 of morphological figuresissued from : B.K. Sullivan, C.B. Miller, W.T. Peterson & A.H. Soeldner in Mar. Biol., 1975, 30. [p.181, Fig.6, C-D].
Oithona similis (from 50°N, 145°W) female: C-D, SEM of two Md;.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 28 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida, O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 1977, 24 (2). [p.150, Fig.21].
Female (from Sagami Bay and adjacent waters): a, habitus (dorsal), b, forehead (lateral); c, Md; d, Mx1; e, P1; f, P2; g, P3; h, P4.

Nota: Setae formula of exopod P1 to P4 (outer setae in first, inner setae in second). P1: 1,1,2; 0,1,4. P2: 1,0,1; 0,1,5. P3: 1,0,1; 0,1,5. P4: 0,0,1; 0,1,5.
Prosome length/urosome length = 1.21-1.40.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 29 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida, O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 1977, 24 (2). [p.150, Fig.22].
Female (from Sagami Bay and adjacent waters ): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, Md.

Nota: Setae formula of exopod P1 to P4 (outer setae in first, inner setae in second). P1: 1,1,2; 0,1,4. P2: 1,1,2; 0,1,5. P3: 1,1,2; 0,1,5. P4: 1,1,2; 0,1,5.
Prosome length/urosome length = 1.73-1.90.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 30 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [Pl. XXVII].
Female (from Indian Ocean and Antarctic): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, P1; 3, exopod of P2; 4, P3; 5, P4; 6, habitus (dorsal; other specimen); 7, forehead (lateral); 8, P1.
Nota: Prosome and urosome proportional lengths 55 to 45.
Rostrum curved slightly posteriorly, not visible from the dorsal.
Urosomal segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 10 : 36 : 15 : 15 : 14; 10 = 100

Male (from Cape of Good Hope): habitus (lateral).
Nota: Prosome and urosome in the proportional lengths 63 to 37.
Urosomal segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 12 : 26 : 18 : 12 : 9 : 11 : 12 = 100.
The A1 has the knee-joint between the segments 11 and 12.

Remarks: The female varied in size from 0.71 to 1.05 mm, but no difference was found among them in general appearence and in the structure of the appendages. Farran (1929) reported that some Antarctic specimens had a rather broad and flattened cephalothorax, but their appendages agreed well with the typical type.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 31 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 63].
Female: Proportional lengths of segments of A1.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 32 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 63].
Female: Number of outer marginal spine and inner marginal seta of the exopodal segment of swimming legs P1 to P4.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 33 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 63].
Female: Number of Inner and outer marginal setae of endopodal segments of the swimming legs P1 to P4.


Species Oithona similis - Plate 34 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 64].
Male: Number of outer marginal spine on the exopodal segments of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Compl. Ref.:
Vanhöffen, 1897 a (p.281); Mrazek, 1902 (p.517, 524); Cleve, 1904 a (p.193); Damas & Koefoed, 1907 (p.395, tab.II); Rose, 1925 (p.152); Wilson, 1932 (p.49); Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (1936) (p.189, Rem.); Fish, 1936 b (p.168, biology); Jespersen, 1939 (p.79, Rem., Table 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30); Bogorov, 1939 b (p.706); C.B. Wilson, 1942 a (p.196); Sewell, 1948 (p.345, 461, 487, 515); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.271); Fleury, 1950 (p.47, fig.2); Østvedt, 1955 (p.15: Table 3, p.17, 77); Yamazi, 1958 (p.153, Rem.); Deevey, 1960 (p.5, Table II, annual abundance, Rem.: fig.18, 19); H. Schulz, 1961 (p.57); Fagetti, 1962 (p.39); Marshall & Orr, 1962 (tab.1, 3); Grice, 1962 a (p.101); Björnberg, 1963 (p.77, Rem.: Juv.); Lacroix & Bergeron, 1963 (p.59, Tableau III); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.32); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Dimov, 1964 b (p.33, Tableau 1); Carter, 1965 (Rem.: p.351); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Marshall & Orr, 1966 (p.513, 521, fig. I, 2, Table 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, feeding, respiration); Faber, 1966 a (p.419, 421); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Harding, 1966 (p.17, 71); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.29, Table III, annual cycle); Mazza, 1967 (p.356: Rem.); Pertsova, 1967 (p.240); Hargrave & Geen, 1968 (p.332, phosphorus excretion); Dimov, 1968 (p.506); Greze & al., 1968 (p.1066, annual variation); Kovalev, 1968 a (p.441, fig.1); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.49, 50, 53, 63, 64, 243); Harder, 1968 (p156, Table 1, behaviour v.s. density discontinuity); Salah, 1971 (p.320); Paulmier, 1971 (p.168); Martens, 1972 (p.30, fecal pellets); Björnberg, 1973 (p.357, 359: Rem., 388); Arndt & Heidecke, 1973 (p.599, 603, fig.3); Eriksson, 1973 (p.37, fig.26-29, annual cycle); 1973 b (p.113, 117); Frolander & al., 1973 (p.277, annual cycles); Hirota, 1974 (p.1, Table 3, fig.4, 5); Peterson & Miller, 1975 (p.650); Anraku, 1975 (p.79, microdistribution); Hirota & Hara, 1975 (p.115, fig.5, 6); Kolosova, 1975 (p.92, fig.2, 3, Table 1); Conover & Mayzaud, 1975 (p.151, fig.5, abundance); Porumb, 1976 (p.91); Grindley, 1977 (p.341, Table 2, fig.2, 3, 4); Hanaoka, 1977 (p.267, 300, abundance); McLaren, 1978 (p.1330, 1338: life history); Conover, 1978 (p.66, 69, feeding); Poulet, 1978 (p.1126, grazing); Hernroth, 1978 (p.1, Rem.: p.7); Mayzaud & Poulet, 1978 (p.1144, feeding); Peterson & al., 1979 (p.467, Table 1, Fig.11); Poulet & Marsot, 1980 (p.198, Fig.2, feeding); Fukuchi & Tanimura, 1981 (p.37); Gagnon & Lacroix, 1981 (p.401, Table 1, tidal effect); Hoshiai & Tanimura, 1981 (p.44); Mackas & Sefton, 1982 (p.1173, Table 1); Uye S-i., 1982 (p.149, relation length-weight-C-N); Buchanan & Sekerak, 1982 (p.41, Table 3: vertical distribution); Citarella, 1982 (p.791, 798: listing, frequency, fig.5, Tableau II, V); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Gagnon & Lacroix, 1982 (p.9, fig.4); 1983 (p.289, Table III, tidal estuary); Huntley & al., 1983 (p.143, Table 2, 3); Maranda & Lacroix, 1983 (p.247, estuary); Nishiyama & Hirano, 1983 (p.159, Table 4: length-weight); Hernroth, 1983 (p.835,, Rem.: p.840); Hassel, 1983 (p. 1, fig.6, abundance, distribution); Turner & Dagg, 1983 (p.8, fig.11, 17, vertical distribution); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.7, Rem.); Drits & Semenova, 1984 (p.755); Sameoto, 1984 (p.213, Table 1, fig.9); 1984 a (p.767, vertical migration); Fransz & al., 1984 (p.86); Pieper & Holliday, 1984 (p.226, Fig.3); De Ladurantaye & al., 1984 (p.21, fig.5, advective processes in fjord); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents); Kimmerer & McKinnon, 1985 (p.150); Musayeva, 1985 (tab.1); Foster & Battaerd, 1985 (p.213); Kawamura & Hirano, 1985 (p.626, Table 1, horizontal distribution); Sameoto & al., 1986 (p.53); Groendahl & Hernroth, 1986 (tab.1); Kawaguchi & al., 1986 (tab.2); Mackas & Anderson, 1986 (p.115, Table 2); Harding & al., 1986 (p.952, Table 3, diel vertical movements); Mikhailovsky, 1986 (p.83, Table 1, ecological modelling); Zmijewska, 1987 (tab.2a); Ceccherelli & al., 1987 (p.571, fig.5); Hopkins & Torres, 1988 (tab.1); James & Wilkinson, 1988 (p.249, Table 1, 2, biomass, carbon ingestion); McLaren & al., 1989 (p.560, life history, annual production); Kosobokova, 1989 (p.27); Springer & al., 1989 (p.359, Fig.5, 10); Citarella, 1989 (p.123, abundance); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Coyle & al., 1990 (p.764); Peterson & al., 1990 (p.259, Table V, feeding); Tucker & Burton, 1990 (p.591, tab.1, fig.5, seasonal, spatial variations); Ohman, 1990 (p.257, fig.); Anderson J.T., 1990 (p.127, Rem.: p.131); Dai & al., 1991 (tab.1); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Fransz & al., 1991 (p.7 & suiv.); Eslake & al., 1991 (p.93, Table 2, temporal changes); Conover & Huntley, 1991 (p.1, Table 2, 3, 4, polar seas comparison); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table A1, egg-adult weight, temperature-dependent production); Kimmerer, 1993 (tab.2); Hwang & Choi, 1993 (tab.3); Jiyalal Ram & Goswami, 1993 (p.129, tab.IV); Freire & al., 1993 (tab.3); Richter, 1994 (tab.4.1a); Vinogradov & al., 1994 (tab.1); Gonzalez & al., 1994 (p.331); Landry & al., 1994 (p.55, abundance, grazing); Godhantaraman, 1994 (tab.6); Myung & al., 1994 (tab.1); Sabatini & Kiørboe, 1994 (p.1329, egg production, development); Ragosta & al., 1995 (Appendix A); Petryashov & al., 1995 (tab.1); Oliveira Dias, 1995 (p.147); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75); Krause & al., 1995 (p.81, Rem.: p.134); Metz, 1995 (p.190); 1996 (p.22, 87); Knox & al., 1996 (tab.1); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); T.G. Nielsen & Sabatini, 1996 (p.79, abundance); Park & Choi, 1997 (p.225, Appendix); Cordell, 1997 (On line pdf); Fransz & Gonzalez, 1997 (p.395, weight-length, biomass vs. N-S transect); Swadling & al., 1997 (p.39, grazing); Falkenhaug & al., 1997 (p.449, spatio-temporal pattern); Nakamura & Turner, 1997 (p.1275, nutrition, respiration); Atkinson, 1998 (p.289, Table 1, biological data); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.80, 103); Elwers & Dahms, 1998 (p.150, 151, fig.1, 2, 3, seasonal abundance); Kosobokova & al., 1998 (tab.2); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.112); Sameoto & al., 1998 (p.1, Rem. p.7, spatial distribution); Schnack-Schiel & al., 1998 (p.173, abundance, sea ice); Harvey & al., 1999 (p.1, 49: Appendix 5, in ballast water vessel); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.478); Dolganova & al., 1999 (p.13, tab.1); Goldblatt & al., 1999 (p.2619, Fig.5); Halvorsen & Tande, 1999 (p.279, figs.3, 6); Logerwell & Ohman, 1999 (p.428, tab.1); Voronina & Kolosova, 1999 (p.72); Bragina, 1999 (p.196); Abramova, 1999 (p.161, Table 2); B.W. Hansen & al., 1999 (p.233, seasonal abundance & biomass); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 5, Appendix); Ueda & al., 2000 (tab.1); DFO, 2000 (p.1, Rem.: p.4, fig.2, interannual variations); Pepin & Maillet, 2000 (p.1, Rem.: p.8, table 2, interannual variations);Escribano & Hidalgo, 2000 (p.283, tab.2); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2000 (p.2029, tab.2); Selifonova, 2000 (p.68, tab.1); Musaeva & Suntsov, 2001 (p.511); Fortier M. & al., 2001 (p.1263, fig.6, 7, diel vertical migration); Van Hove & al., 2001 (p.303); Fransz & Gonzalez, 2001 (p.255, tab.1); Chiba & al., 2001 (p.95, tab.4, 7); Hidalgo & Escribano, 2001 (p.159, tab.2); Hidalgo & Escribano, 2001 (p.157, fig.4); Li & al., 2001 (p.894, tab.1); Lischka & al., 2001 (p.186); Hunt & al., 2001 (p.374, tab.1); Nielsen & al., 2002 (p.306, fig.1); Dubischar & al., 2002 (p.3871, abundance); Coyle & Pinchuk, 2002 (p.177, fig.2, 3, 4, Table 4, 5, annual variation); Bressan & Moro, 2002 (tab.2); Beaumont & al., 2001 (p.55); 2002 (p.133, tab.1); Viñas & al., 2002 (p.1031); Auel & Hagen, 2002 (p.1013, tab.2, 3); Nielsen & al., 2002 (p.301); Greenwood & al., 2002 (p.17, Table 2); Ringuette & al., 2002 (p.5081, Table 1, Fig.7, population dynamic); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.13); Ward & al., 2003 (p.121, tab.4); Kosobokova & al., 2003 (p.697, tab.2); Ashjian & al., 2003 (p.1235, figs.); Kovalev, 2003 (p.47); Zagorodnyaya & al., 2003 (p.52); Vieira & al., 2003 (p.S163, Table 2, abundance); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.398, tab.1, p.399, tab.2); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.490, tab.2, 3, abundance, Rem., p.495, tab.8); Chang & Fang, 2004 (p.456, tab.1); Shushkina & al., 2004 (p.524, tab.2); Zuenko & Nadtochii, 2004 (p.526, tab.1, fig.8); Gislason & Astthorsson, 2004 (p.472, tab.1); Wang & Zuo, 2004 (p.1, Table 2, dominance, origin); Hunt, 2004 (p.1, 43, 47, 74, Table 3.2, 4.4, fig.4.7, 4.11, Rem.: p.97, 100, fig.5.10: seasonal abundance); Vargas & Gonzalez, 2004 (p.151); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Mackas & al., 2004 (p.875, Table 2); Eiane & Ohman, 2004 (p.183, stage-specific mortality); Dmoch & Walczowski, 2005 (p.102 + poster); Dias & Bonecker, 2005 (p.100 + poster); Fuentes & Schanck-Schiel, 2005 (p.253); Mazzocchi & al., 2005 (p.155); Manning & Bucklin, 2005 (p.233, Table 1), fig.5); Lischka & Hagen, 2005 (p.910, life history); Bielecka & Zmijewska, 2005 (p.96); Choi & al., 2005 (p.710: Tab.III); Zamon & Welch, 2005 (p.133, fig.5); Calbet & al., 2005 (p.1195, tab.3); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.485, tab.1); Coyle, 2005 (p.77, tab.2,5); Hopcroft & al., 2005 (p.198, table 2); Mackas & al., 2005 (p.1011, tab.2, 3); Berasategui & al., 2006 (p.485: fig.2); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.164: tab.1); Ware & McQueen, 2006 (p.28, Table B1, weight ranges); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2006 (p.101, tab.1); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Hunt & Hosie, 2006 (p.1182, seasonal succession, indicator); 2006 a (p.1203, tab.2, fig.8); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I) ; Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.73, Rem., chart); Zervoudaki & al., 2006 (p.149, Table I); Hop & al., 2006 (p.182, Table 4, 5: inter-annual variability, fig.14); Tsujimoto & al., 2006 (p.140, Table1); Escribano, 2006 (p.20, Table 1); Hooff & Peterson, 2006 (p.2610); Papastephanou & al., 2006 (p.3078, Table 3); Deibel & Daly; 2007 (p.271, Table 1, 2, 3, 4, 6b, Rem.: Arctic polynyas); Albaina & Irigoien, 2007 (p.435: Tab.1); Elliott & Kaufmann, 2007 (p.418); Castellani & al., 2007 (p.1051); Schulz J. & al., 2007 (p.47, vertical zonation analysis); Fielding & al., 2007 (p.2106, tab.1); Walkusz & al., 2007 (p.43); Guglielmo & al., 2007 (p.747, Table 4, 5); Busatto, 2007 (p.26, Tab.2); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.104: tab.1); Biancalana & al., 2007 (p.83, Tab.2, 3); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2007 (p.2716, Table 2); Lischka & Hagen, 2007 (p.443, lipids vs. diet); Lischka & al., 2007 (p.1331, digestive enzyme vs. seasonal); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.843: Tab.1, p.848: Tab. IV); Isinibilir & al., 2008 (p.745: Tab.1, as similes); Lane & al., 2008 (p.97, fig.11, Tab.6); Ward & al., 2008 (p.241, Appendix II ); Walkusz & al., 2008 (p.1, Table 3, abundance); Hirst & Ward, 2008 (p.169, mortality rate); Humphrey, 2008 (p.84: Appendix A); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.522); Coyle & al., 2008 (p.1775, Table 3, 5, fig.11, abundance); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2008 (p.2210, Table 2, 3, 5, fig.4, biomass, composition vs climatic regimes); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Selifonova & al., 2008 (p.305, Tabl. 2); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2008 (p.1056, Table 1, 4); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 4, 5, in Japan Harbors); Raybaud & al., 2008 (p.1765, Table A1); Skovgaard & Daugbjerg, 2008 (p.401, fig.1 A-C, 2 A, parasited by Paradinium); Darnis & al., 2008, (p.994, Table1, fig.8, 9); Rossi, 2008 (p.90: Tableau XII); Perumal & al., 2008 (p.149, abundance vs hydrographic parameters); Hopcroft & al., 2009 (p.9, Table 3, Fig.22); Pagano, 2009 (p.116); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Skovgaard & Salomonsen, 2009 (p.425, Table 2); Telesh & al., 2009 (p.18: Table 2.1); Lan & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2); Escribano & al., 2009 (p.1083, Table 1, figs.6, 10); Zervoudaki & al., 2009 (p.1475, fig.2); DFO, 2009 (p.1, fig. 13, seasonal variability); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2009 (p.265, Table 4, biomass); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2009 (p.259, morphological variability vs. zones); 2009 a (p.11, Table 2, abundance); 2009 c (p.165, morphological variations); 2009 d (p.133, egg production vs. zonation); C.E. Morales & al., 2010 (p.158, Table 1); Hwang & al., 2010 (p.220, Table 2, fig.3, 4); Lidvanov & al., 2010 (p.356, Table 3); Takahashi & al., 2010 (p.317, Table 3, 4, figs.4, 5, 6, 7, 8); Drira & al., 2010 (p.145, Tanl.2); Drif & al., 2010 (p.159, Rem.: egg production); Pinkerton & al., 2010 (p.469, Fig.13); Hernandez-Trujillo & al., 2010 (p.913, Table 2); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Sun & al., 2010 (p.1006, Table 2); Hopcroft & al., 2010 (p.27, Table 1, 2); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1, fig.7 a); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.428); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Bucklin & al., 2010 (p.40, Table 1, Biol mol.); Kosobokova & Hopcroft, 2010 (p.96, Table 1, fig.7); Bucklin & al., 2010 (p.40, Table 1, Biol mol.); Swadling & al., 2010 (p.887, abundance, indicator species); Kosobokova & Hopcroft, 2010 (p.96, Table 1, fig.7); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2010 (p.991, Table 2); 2011 a (p.1231, Table 2; abundance, biomass); Kosobokova & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, figs.4, 7, Rem.: Arctic Basins); Pomerleau & al., 2011 (p.1779, Table III, IV); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Salah S. & al., 2011 (Tableau 1); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2); Magris & al., 2011 (p.260, abundance, interannual variability); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2011 (p.123, mortality rates vs. salinity); Yang & al., 2011 a (p.921, Table 2, inter-annual variation 1999-2006); Arendt, 2011 (p.1, Rem. p.23); Mazzocchi & al., 2011 (p.1163, Table I, II,, long-term time-series 1984-2006); Forest & al., 2011 (p.11418); 2012 (p.1301, figs.7, 8); Ward & al., 2012 (p.78, Table A1, B1, abundance, weight); Cepeda & al., 2012 (p.1, figs.1, 3, Table 1, Molecular systematic); Van Ginderdeuren & al., 2012 (p.3, Table 1); Postel, 2012 (p.327, Table 1, Fig.6); Shiganova & al., 2012 (p.61, fig.3, 4, 5); Glushko & Lidvanov, 2012 (p.138, Tableau 1); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Thompson G.A. & al., 2012 (p.127, Table 2, 3, 5, fig.4, 5, Rem.); DiBacco & al., 2012 (p.483, Table S1, ballast water transport); Zizah & al., 2012 (p.79, Table I, Rem.: p.86, 89 as O. helgolandica); Thompson G. & al., 2012 (p.367, fig.2, 3, Table 3, abundance v.s. mesh selectivity); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Zamora-Terol & Saiz, 2013 (p.376, Rem.: Table 3, egg production); Sigurdardottir, 2012 (p.1, Table 2.3); Aubry & al., 2012 (p.125, table 1, 3, fig. 6, 8a, b, interannual variation); Miloslavic & al., 2012 (p.165, Table 2, transect distribution); Schulz J. & al., 2012 (p.3, abundance vs. hydrography); Johnson C & al., 2012 (p.1, 15, fig. 23a, 23b, 24a, 24b, seasonal variability, interannual variarions); Stefanova & al., 2012 (p.403, Table 2, interannual abundance); Volkov, 2012 (p.474, Table 6, fig. 6, 11, abundance, distribution, interannual variation); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2012 (p.1321, Table 2, 3, 4, 5, abundance, biomass, production); Jean & al., 2012 (p.12, Table 3, protein vs environmental metal stress); Dvoretsky V.G., 2012 (p.63, mortality rates vs environmental data); Gusmao & al., 2013 (p.279, Table 3, 4, fig.1, sex-specific predation by fish, fig.4: seasonal variation of sex ratio); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, p.4, Table 2); Li C. &al., 2013 (p.101, feeding); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Fernandez de Puelles & al., 2014 (p. in press, Table 3, seasonal abundance); Ward & al., 2014 (p.305, Table 4, abundance in the ''Discovery'' Investigations in the 1930s)
NZ: 25

Distribution map of Oithona similis by geographical zones
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 4Issued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.129, Fig.78].
Indo-Pacific geographical distribution of Oithona similis. Dotted line: AC, Arctic Convergence; SC, Subtropical Convergence.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 5issued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [Taf. I].
The genus Oithona: Distribution of species sampled during the Deutsche Tiefsee Expedition 1898-99.
The size of symbols indicates the relative quantitty of the species.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 6issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 39]. Oithona similis (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 7issued from : P.S.B. Digby in J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 1950, 29. [p.406, Fig.7].
Life history of Oithona similis at station L (5 miles from Plymouth, English Channel).
A: abundance of copepodite stages; B: percentage distribution of stages; C: size-groups of adult females; D: suggested interpretation of generations (or cohorts) succession during the year (1947).
Correlate the size variations with the water temperature at station L4 (p.397, Fig.1).
The author deduces the succession of 5 generations.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 8issued from : P.S.B. Digby in J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K., 1950, 29. [p.397, Fig.1].
Temperature of the water at 1 and 30 m depth at station L4 (5 miles from Plymouth, English Channel) during 1947. x: surface readings from closer in-shore.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 9issued from : J.T. Turner & M.J. Dagg in Biol. Oceanogr., 1983, 3 (1). [p.10, Fig.4].
Vertical and inshore-offshore distributions of Oithona similis at pump stations on the Long Island (NW Atlantic) transect (40°31.8'-39°53.2' N, 72°23.6'-72°59.4' W)..
Station numbers are given on the top axis, and dark horizontal bars identify stations sampled at night.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 10issued from : J.T. Turner & M.J. Dagg in Biol. Oceanogr., 1983, 3 (1). [p.7, Fig.2].
Vertical temperature structure durnig the Long Island transect (40°31.8'-39°53.2' N, 72°23.6'-72°59.4' W; October 1978).
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 11issued from : J.T. Turner & M.J. Dagg in Biol. Oceanogr., 1983, 3 (1). [p.24, Fig.11].
vertical distribution of Oithona similis in relation to positions of the 15°C and 10°C water at the time of sampling during the Long Island time series (40°26'N, 72°18'W; October 1978).
Sampling times are given on the bottom axis, and dark horizontal bars identify periods of darkness.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 12issued from : G.A. Thompson, E. O. Dinofrio & V.A. Alder in Helgol. Mar. Res., 2012, 66. [p.134, Fig.4].
Density and biomass of Oithona similis (a, c) and nauplii (b, d) for summer 2000, 2001 and 2003.
Circle size is proportional to the absolute values of density and biomass.

Zooplankton samples and environmental data were collected at 56 oceanographic stations in Subantarctic and Antarctic waters of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (the Drake Passage and the Scotia Sea during three austral summers.

Oithona similis, together with small cyclopoids and nauplii, accounted for the largest percentage of the total number of copepods in the community and for the highest biomass value (63 % of total copepod biomass).
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 13issued from : J.R. Grindley in Trans. roy. Soc. S. Afr., 42, 3 & 4. [p.353, Fig.4].
Distribution of Oithona similis from Saldanha Bay to Schrywershoek area (33°S, 18° E).
Compare this distribution with the species in the same site: Pseudodiaptomus hessei, Tortanus capensis, Paracartia longipatella.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 14issued from : S. Eriksson in Zoon, 1976, 4. [p.157, Fig.2].
Seasonal distribution of neritic copepod Oithona similis off Gothenburg (Göteborg), The Skattegatt. (Monthly means for adult specimens during 1968-1973; point : inshore, depth = 10 m; x: offshore, depth > 40 m.
The optimum temperature is 6 to 18°C. range.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 15issued from : S. Eriksson in Zoon, 1976, 4. [p.159, Fig.3, e].
Temperature occurrence of neritic copepod Oithona similis off Gothenburg (Göteborg), The Skattegatt.
.Surface salinity of the investigation area varies around 25 p.1000 and the deep water slinity around 34 p.1000. There is a temperature stratification with surface water warmer than 10°C from May to October with maximum of 20°C in August. The coldest period is January to March with surface temperatures of 1-2°C. The deep water ranges between 5 and 10°C.
The hauls were horizontal at 2, 20, and 40 m.
Limits subjectively regarded as the optimum temperature range: 6-18°C.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 16issued from : S. Eriksson in ZOON, 1973, 1. [p.60, Fig.29].
Size distribution of adult females of Calanus helgolandicus (offshore station H6:11°30' N, 57°40'.5 E, The Kattegatt) during 1968-70 in the main series.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 17issued from : S. Eriksson in Mar. Biol., 1974, 26. [p.320, Figs. 2-3]
Salinity and temperature curves for main series at offshore station H6 (11°30' N, 57°40'.5 E, The Kattegatt) from March 1968 to November 1970.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 18issued from : I.A. McLaren, M.J. Tremblay, C.J. Corkett & J.C. Roff in Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989, 46. [p.574, Fig.12].
Annual cycle of Oithona similis on Emerald Bank (43°30'N, 63°00'W), 1979-80 (upper two panels) and Browns Bank (42°35'N, 65°50'W), 1984-1985 (lower panel).
Successive generations labelled Go, etc. For convenience, Nov. 1979 sample placed at end (after 1980) in uppermost panel, which is abundances as proportions of stages (AD: adults; adult males not distinguished). Middle and lower panels: size-frequencies of adult females as proportions.
The samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 25 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.250 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh) on Emerald Bank and obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 70-80 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.202 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh) on Browns Bank.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 19issued from : I.A. McLaren, M.J. Tremblay, C.J. Corkett & J.C. Roff in Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989, 46. [p.574, Fig.13].
Relative frequencies of stages of Oithona similis on Browns Bank (42°35'N, 65°50'W), 1979.
Adult males are clear portion of bar.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 20issued from : P. Martens in M.S. Inst. Meeresk. Christian-Albrechts Univ., 1972. [p.30].
Numbers of fecal pellets (n) by width classes (interval from 0.005 mm).
Nota: individuals in culture on Chaetoceros decipiens, C. socialis, Detonula cystifera, Skeletonema costatum and flagellates.
Mean size of fecal pellets: length = 36 ± 8 micrometers; width = 26 ± 5 micrometers. Volume male = 12915 µ3; female = 12387 µ3
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 21issued from : I.A. McLaren inJ. Fish. Res. Board Can., 1978, 35. [p.1339, Fig.8].
Life cycles of Oithona similis in Loch Striven (55°55'N, 05°10'W).
Relative abundance of C V as a percentage of all copepodids (lower panel); size and numbers per haul (including combined hauls from 60 m to 10 m and 10 to 0 m) of adult females (middle panel), and percentage of nauplii and copepodids above 10 m (from split hauls, taken from 60 to 10 m and 10 to 0 m) (upper panel).
Successive generations as infered from peaks in the C V cohorts and size changes designated as Go, G1, etc.
Data from Marshall (1949, tables IX and XVI).
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 22Issued from : R.J. Conover in Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, 1978, 173. [p.69, Fig.54].
Regression between rate of ingestion (I) for Oithona similis from Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia (Canada) and particle concentration in the same environment.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 23Issued from : M. Anraku in Mar. Biol., 1975, 30. [p.82, Figs. 1, 2].
Distribution of hydrological factors and abundance of Oithona similis in Oshoro Bay (west Hokkaido, Japan), 30 August 1958, along vertical section from stations 1 to 5 (distance 650 m).

Nota: The plankton samples were collected by means of a plankton pump during the morning hours at the same time as the hydrological observations. Copepodids and adults were counted ans expressed as number of individuals per 20 l.
The distribution of copepods in a limited area seems to be related to the pattern of oceanographic conditions to some extent, but a pattern of contagious distribution is also apparent. See Barnes & Marshall (1951); Cassie (1959); Boyd (1973).
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 24Issued from : M. Anraku in Mar. Biol., 1975, 30. [p.84, Fig.5].
Microdistribution of Oithona similis in Oshoro Bay (west Hokkaido, Japan), 28 August 1958, ascertained by pump along vertical section from station 3.

Nota: After the author, it is clear that the results obtained in the present investigations indicate non-random distribution.
The distribution patterns indicated the presence of inhomogeneous distribution with small swarms and irregular layerings.
Large-scale patchiness of plankton has previously been recorded (see Hardy & Gunther, 1935; Rae & Rees, 1947). The results of the present investigation indicate thet the large-scale patch includes small patches of different sizes in both the horizontal and vertical planes.
Simultaneous measurements of certain physical, chemical, and biological parameters (as the the quantitative and qualitative food particles, the occurrence of predators) are necessary to approach an understanding of copepod microdistribution.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 25Issued from : K.M. Swadling, So. Kawaguchi & G.W. Hosie in Deep-Sea Research II, 2010, 57. [p.898, Fig.6 (continued)].
Distribution of indicator species Oithona similis from the BROKE-West survey (southwest Indian Ocean) during January-February 2006.
Sampling with a RMT1 net (mesh aperture: 315 µm), oblque tow from the surface to 200 m.
The survey area was located predominantly within the seasonal ice zone, and in the month prior to the survey there was considerable ice coverage over the western section but none over the east.

See map showing sampling sites in Calanus propinquus.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 26Issued from : V.G. Dvoretskii & A.G. Dvoretskii inRussian J. Mar. Biol., 2009, 35 (3). [p.261, Table 2].
Indices of morphological variability of Oithona similis (mean ±error of mean) in the White Sea.
Lc: Cephalothorax length; La: overall length of antennule

Sampled with a Juday net (mesh aperture: 168 µm) in June 2001. 1450 specimens examined in total.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 27Issued from : V.G. Dvoretskii & A.G. Dvoretskii inRussian J. Mar. Biol., 2009, 35 (3). [p.259, Table 1].
Hydrological characteristics of distinguished regions in the White Sea in June 2001.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 28Issued from : V.G. Dvoretskii & A.G. Dvoretskii inRussian J. Mar. Biol., 2009, 35 (3). [p.261, Table 3].
Correlation of morphological characteristics of Oithona similis with hydrological conditions in the White Sea.
Temperature and salinity throughout the water column. Correlation analysis: means compared with Mann-Whitney non-parametric test.

Nota: A tendency toward increasing the antennule length along the axix from cold areas with high salinity toward warmer regions with relatively low salinity is clearly noticeable. This is due to a decrease in water density, where temperature increases and salinity goes down.
The morphological variations have adaptative significance and are determined by environmental factors.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 29Issued from : A.F. Volkov in Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2012, 38 (7). [p.483, Fig.6]
Dynamics in the biomass of Oithona similis in the eastern Bering Sea from 2003-2011 years.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 30Issued from : A.F. Volkov in Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2012, 38 (7). [p.490, Fig.11]
Distribution of Oithona similis in the eastern Bering Sea in the fall. Biomass in mg/m3.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 31Issued from : Jan Schulz & coll. in Progr. Oceanogr., 2012, 107; [p.8, Fig.4 [modified]);
Seasonal patterns in the abundance of Acartia longiremis in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea) between March 2002 and May 2003. The scaling is normalised to one and vertical lines indicate sampling dates.
Sampling performed in stacked, 10m intervals from a few meters above the seafloor to the surface with a multinet (Hydro-bios, Kiel, 50 µm mesh size) on nine focus stations.

Compare with annual cycle in Acartia longiremis, Acartia bifilosa, Centropages hamatus, Temora longicornis and other forms.
Species Oithona similis - Distribution map 32Issued from : Jan Schulz & coll. in Progr. Oceanogr., 2012, 107; [p.6, Fig.2].
Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen in the central Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea) at position 55.3016° N, 15.7966° E.
Loc:
Antarct. (King George Is., Potter Cove, Peninsula, Croker Passage, Drake Passage, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, SW Atlant., Syowa station, Indian, Davis station-Gardner Is., Fletcher Lake, Ellis fjord, Pacif. (SW, S, SE), Ross Sea, Prydz Bay, McMurdo Sound, Bellingshausen Sea), sub-Antarct. (N South Georgia, Atlant. (SW, SE), off Prince Edward W, Crozet Is., Indian, Pacif. SW, S, SE), South Africa (E), Saldanha Bay, S Benguela Current, off Tristan da Cunha E, Namibia, Angola (Baia Farta), Congo, off Ste Hélène S, off I. Trinidade, off Ascension Is., Is. du Cap Vert, off Morocco-Mauritania, Cap Ghir, Canary Is., off Madeira, Patagonia, Peninsula Valdés, off Rio de la Plata, Brazil (off Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, Mucuri estuary, Camamu), Barbada Is., G. of Mexico, Cuba, Bermuda, Delaware Bay, Buzzards Bay, Long Island, Chesapeake Bay, Buzzards Bay, Woods Hole, Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, Bay of Fundy, Browns Bank, Emerald Bank, Halifax, off SE Nova Scotia, Bras d'Or Lake, Morrison's Pond, Shédiac Bay, Northumberland Strait, Bedford Basin, Saguenay fjord, upper St. Lawrence estuary, G. du St. Laurent, Bradelle Bank, off E Newfoundland (Flemish Cap), Labrador, Tassiarsuk fjord, W Greenland , N Baffin Sea, Baffin Sea (Lancaster Sound, W Baffin Bay), Smith Sound, Greenland Sea, Fram Strait, Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen Is., Iceland, Faroe, Ireland, Lough Hyne, Norway Sea, Malangen fjord, Hardangerfjord, Akrefjord, Tromsø fjords, Nordvestbanken, White Sea, Barents Sea, Kola Bay, Franz Josef Land, Pechora Sea, Arct. (Ellesmere Is., Canadian abyssal plain, Nansen Basin, Amundsen Basin, Makarov Basin, off Alaska N, Barrow Srrait, Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, off NW Alaska, Canada Basin, Kara Sea, Barents Sea, Lomonosov Ridge, Chupa Inlet, Laptev Sea), Bering Sea (slope and shelf), St. Lawrence Island, Anadyr Strait, Shpanberg Strait, North Sea, Gullmar Fjord, Elbe (estuaire), Bay of Kiel, Lübeck Bay, Gulf of Mecklenburger, Baltic Sea, Bornholm Basin, English Channel, Belon estuary, Arcachon Bay, off Bay of Biscay, S Bay of Biscay, Portugal, Mondego estuary, Galicia (coast), Baie Ibéro-marocaine, Medit. (Mer d'Alboran, Alger, Gulf of Annaba, El Kala shelf, Castellon, Baleares, Banyuls, Thau Lagoon, Marseille, Toulon harbour, Villefranche-s-Mer, Genoaa, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhénienne, Naples, Strait of Messina, Gulf of Taranto, Taranto Harbour, NW Tunisia, G. of Gabès, Adriatic Sea, delta du Po, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Marmara Sea, Black Sea, Sebastopol, Lebanon Basin, Alexandrie), Suez Canal, G. of Suez, Red Sea, Madagascar, Indian, India (Saurashtra coast, S), Parangipettai coast, Bay of Bengal, Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Sarawak: Bintulu coast, Philippines, China Seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Xiamen Harbour), Taiwan Strait, off SW TaiwanTaiwan (S, E, W, Kaohsiung Harbor, N: Mienhua Canyon), S Korea, Japan Sea, Japan, Tanabe Bay, Yatsushiro-kai, Ariake-kai, Seto Inland Sea, W Hokkaido, Pacif. NW & NE, Chukchi Sea, White Sea, Bering Sea, Aléoutiennes, Mer de Beaufort, Arch. de la Nouvelle-Sibérie, Alaska (Auke Bay), Station "P", British Columbia, Hecate Strait, Fjord system (Alice Arm & Hastings Arm), Portland Inlet, Vancouver Is., Dabob Bay, Friday Harbor, Oregon (coast, Yaquina Bay, off Newport), California, Mission Bay (San Francisco), Santa Monica Basin, Baja California (Bahia Magdalena, W), Tomales Bay, W Costa Rica, Clipperton Is., W & E Australia (North West Cape, Grande Barrière, Brisbane River estuary, Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, Melbourne), New Zealand (Kaikoura, Cape Farewell-Taranaki Bight, off Farewell Spit plume), Is. Fidji, Equador, Chile (N-S, Concepcion), Strait of Magellan, Ushuaia.
N: 575
Lg.:
(25) F: 0,95-0,75; (31) F: 1,2-1,15; (34) F: 0,93-0,9; (35) F: 1,08-0,76; (36) F: 0,92-0,8; (45) F: 0,95-0,7; M: 0,7-0,6; (59) F: 0,96-0,69; M: 0,7-0,5; (66) F: 1,05-0,71; M: 0,82-0,75; (46) F: 0,8-0,73; M: 0,61-0,59; (104) F: 0,82; (109) F: 0,8-0,72; M: 0,63-0,5; (114) F: 1,02-0,8; M: 0,7; (116) F: 0,84; M: 0,65; (133) F: 0,9-0,7; M: 0,6-0,5; (141) F: 0,9-0,7; M: 0,6-0,5; (155) F: 0,84-0,69; M: 0,65-0,6; (208) F: 0,8-0,7; M: 0,75-0,73; (246) F: 0,81-0,76; (254) F,M: 1; (334) F: 0,95-0,7; M: 0,7-0,5; (354) F: 0,75-0,68; (373) F: 0,99-0,68; M: 0,75-0,58; (432) F: 1-0,75; (449) F: 0,96-0,73; M: 0,7-0,59; (627) F: 0,96-0,68; (649) F: 0,78; M: 0,67; (796) F: 0,86-0,69; (880) F: 0,78; M: 0,6-0,7; (991) F: 0,68-0,96; M: 0,6-0,7; (1302) F: 0,430-0,533; M: 0,428-0,493; {F: 0,43-1,20; M: 0,43-0,82}
Rem.: epi- to bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-1000 m.
For jespersen (1939, p.79) this species is one of the most frequently occurring copepods in the East Greenland fjords.
Although the geographical distribution of this species seems cosmopolite, the list of studied authors shows that cold septentrional (northern) waters and Antarctic waters are preferable localities, even at a latitude of Taiwan (cf. Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.398, tab.1 & fig.2).
Observed in ballast waters of ships at San Francisco.

Remark concerning Oithona helgolandica: The rough description of Oithona helgolandica was done from a male found near Helgoland, the female was never described other than by synonymy with O. similis Claus,1866. The opinion put forward by Sars (1918, p.207) seems well founded. Under these conditions, the arguments developed by Crisafi (1959) are not retained, and this species is considered as doubtful or a synonym of O. nana as formulated by Rosendorn (1917) and Sars (1918). Nishida & al., 1977 (p.151) consider this form as doubtful. Also the authors after Claus (1863) who cite this form refer most often to Oithona similis.
For Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky (2011, p.129) the mortality rate was significantly higher in the White Sea than in the Barents Sea. The salinity in the White Sea is lower than in the Barents Sea. Five hydrological areas were revealed in the Barents Sea and four hydrological areas in the White Sea.
After Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky (2009 c, p.165) the average body size is correlated negatively with temperature and positively with salinity, while total A1 length , total number of setae, total setae length and relative A1 length correlated negatively with salinity and positively with temperature. These data have an adaptative significance. Gaudy (1971 a) shows a relation between the size and the length of the antennula, linked with the water density in the Gulf of Marseille for Centropages typicus.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
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