Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Oithonidae ( Family )
        Oithona ( Genus )
Oithona simplex  Farran, 1913   (F,M)
Ref.:
Farran, 1913 a (p.187, figs.F); Rosendorn, 1917 (p.303); 1917 a (p.44, Rem.F,M, figs.M); Früchtl, 1924 b (p.73, Rem.); Gurney, 1927 (p.160, Rem.); Kiefer, 1929 g (p.9, Rem.F,M); Sewell, 1948 (p.461); Lindberg, 1955 a (p.466: Rem.); Marques, 1957 (p.41); Tanaka, 1960 (p.64, figs.F,M); Grice, 1960 a (p.488, figs.12-18); Rem); Herbst, 1964 (p.157, Rem.); Gonzalez & Bowman, 1965 (p.274, figs.F, Rem.); Wellershaus, 1970 (p.477, 478); Björnberg, 1972 (p.83, figs., Rem.N); Chen & al., 1974 (p.34, figs.F,M, p.74: Rem.); Nishida & al., 1977 (p.151, figs. F,M, Rem.); Shuvalov, 1980 (p.162, figs.F, Rem.M); Ferrari & Bowman, 1980 (p.19, figs.F,M, Rem.); Sazhina, 1985 (p.92, figs.N); Nishida, 1985 a (p.88, Redescr.F, figs.F, Rem.F,M, 2 forms, p.140); Nishida, 1986 (p.386); Valentin & al., 1987 (p.1202); Gaughan & Potter, 1995 (p.121); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.939, Pl.197,201: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.886, 967, figs.F); McKinnon, 2000 (p.108, Rem.); Conway & al., 2003 (p.205, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.78, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Oithona simplex - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : F.D. Ferrari & T.E. Bowman in Smiths. Contr. Zool., 1980, 312. [p.20, Fig.12].
Female (from Caribbean area): a, Habitus (lateral right side); b, urosome (lateralright side); c, P4.Br>Nota: Prosome /Urosome = 1.6. Endopodal segments 2 and 3 of P4 with internal setae without curvature of flange. Knob near genital opening with small, thin spine medially, a smaller spine ventrally, and a tiny spine dorsally.

Male: d, posterior part of cephalosome with \"pore signature\".
Nota: Prosome/Urosome = 1.5. Cephalosome similar to female, without flap.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : F.D. Ferrari & T.E. Bowman in Smiths. Contr. Zool., 1980, 312. [p.24, Fig.15 g-h].
Male (SEM): g, \"pore signature\" (right side, X1800); h, single pore.
Nota: Individual pores without well-developed ridges; integument slightly thickened anteriorly and posteriorly.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.92, Fig.52]. As Oithona simplex typical form.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, thoracic segment 5 and genital segment (dorsal); d, P6; e, thoracic segment 5 and genital segment (lateral right side); f, A1; g, Md (mandibular palp); h, Md (biting edge); i, Mx1.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosome segments and caudal ramus 12:36:16:16:8:11.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.93, Fig.53]. As Oithona simplex typical form.
Female: a, A2; b, Mxp; c, Mx2; d, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal); e, P1; f, P2; g, P3; h, P4.

Nota after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, p.79): Setal formula on outer margin (in first) and inner margin (in second) of exopod segments (from proximal to distal) of P1 to P4:
P1: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 4.
P2: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 5
P3: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 5.
P4: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 5.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.94, Fig.54]. As Oithona simplex typical form.
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, thoracic segment 5 and genital segment (ventral); c, idem (lateral left side); d, last urosomal segments and caudal rami (dorsal); e, A2; f, Md; g, Mx1; h, Mx2; i, Mxp.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.95, Fig.55]. As Oithona simplex typical form.
Male: a, forehead; b, A1; c, P1; d, P2; e, P4.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.97, Fig.56]. As Oithona simplex long form.
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead); c, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal); d, idem (ventral); e, A2; f, Md (mandibular palp); g, Md (biting edge); h, Mx1.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosome segments and caudal ramus 11:33:15:16:11:13.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.98, Fig.57]. As Oithona simplex long form.
Female: a, A1; b, Mx2; c, Mxp; d, P1; e, P2; f, P3; g, P4.
Nota: Mxp as in typical form but endopodal segment with 1 more minute seta. 2


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.96, Table 4].
Structure of Md, Mx1 and P1 of female Oithona simplex reported by workers.
Ri = endopodite; Re = exopodite.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.3, Figs.4-9].
Female (from China Seas): 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, P1; 6, P2; 7, P3; 8, P4.

Male: 9, habitus (dorsal).


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1913. [Plate XXIX, Figs.10-14].
Female (from Christmas Island, Indian): 10, forehead (lateral); 11, habitus (dorsal); 12, urosome (dorsal); 13, P3; 14, P4.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1913. [Plate XXX, Figs.1-2].
Female: 1, A1; 2, P1.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Bull. mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb., 1960, 10 (4). [p.486, Figs.12-18].
Female (from NE Gulf of Mexico: off Alligator Harbor): 12, habitus (dorsal); 13, urosome (dorsal); 14, P1; 15, P2; 16, P3; 17, P4.
Nota: Rostrum absent. Exopod segments 1-3 of P4 with 1, 1, 3 spines, respectively.

Male: 18, habitus (dorsal).
Nota: Exopod segments 1-3 of P1 with 1, 1, 3 spines, respectively. Exopod segments 1-3 of P4 with 1, 1, 3 spines, respectively.

Remarks: The specimens of the Gulf of Mexico diverge slightly from those described by Farran (1913) in two respects. The 1st segment of the endopod of P1 has 1 seta and the 2nd segment of the exopod of P4 has 1 inner seta. These segments in Farran have 0 and 2 setae, respectively.. Rosendorn (1917) stated that the endopod of P1 consists of 3 segments and not 2 as shown by Farran. There is also some confusion regarding the number of setae on the 3rd endopodal segment of P4; Rosendorn apparently misinterpreted Farran's method of presenting the number and position of the setae on the various endopodal segments of the swimming legs.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.45, Fig.26].
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, urosome (dorsal); c, Md; d, Mx1; e, exopod of P1; f, exopod of P2.
Nota: Proportion of lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 62.16, Urosome : 37.84 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 6 : 9 : 5 : 5.5 : 5 : 2.5 : 4. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae), P1 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; P2 : 1, 1, 3 Se; P3 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; P4 : 1, 1, 3 Se.

Female: Proportion of lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 65.85, Urosome : 34.15 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 6 : 20 : 9 : 10 : 4.5 : 9. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae), P1 : 1, 1, 3 Se; P2 : 1, 1, 3 Se; P3 : 1, 1, 3 Se; P4 : 1, 1, 3 Se.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : V.S. Shuvalov in Opred. Faune SSSR, Nauka, Leningrad, 1980, 125. [p.157, Fig.45].
Female: A-B, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively); C-D, cephalon (lateral and dorsal, respectively); E, urosome.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.192, Fig.64, 10-14].
Female: 10, forehead (lateral); 11, habitus (dorsal); 12, urosome (dorsal); 13, P3; 14, P4.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida, O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 1977, 24 (2). [p.152, Fig.23, a-h].
female (off Sagami Bay) and adjacent waters: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, Md; d, Mx1; e, P1; f, P2; g, P3; h, P4.

Nota: Formulae of exopod P1 to P4 (outer setae in first, inner setae in second). P1: 1,1,3; 1,1,4. P2: 1,1,3; 1,1,5. P3: 1,1,3; 1,1,5. P4: 1,1,3; 1,1,5;
Prosome length/urosome length = 1.82


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida, O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 1977, 24 (2). [p.152, Fig.23, i-n].
Male (off Sagami Suruga Bay): i, habitus (dorsal); j, forehead (lateral); k, P1; l, P2; m, P3; n, P4.

Nota: Prosome length/urosome length = 2.00.
P1-P4 armed as in female.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [Pl. XXVIII, 1-6].
Female (from South China Sea and Indian Ocean): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, P1; 3, P2; 4, P3; 5, P4.
Nota: Prosome and urosome in the proportional lengths 65 to 35.
Rostrum absent.
Urosomal segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 12 : 35 : 15 : 15 : 8 = 100.
Caudal rami divergent, 2 times as long as broad.

Male: 6, habitus (dorsal).
Nota: Prosome and urosome in the proportional lengths 64 to 44.
Urosomal segments and caudal rami in proportional lengths 16 : 22 : 17 : 15 : 15 : 5 : 10 = 100.
The A1 has the knee-joint between the segments 11 and 12.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 65].
Female: Proportional lengths of segments of A1.

Nota: A1 short, extends to the level of the posterior end of the 2nd thoracic segment.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 65].
Female: Number of outer marginal spines and inner marginal setae of the exopodal segments of the swimming legs P1 to P4.


Species Oithona simplex - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p. 65].
Female: Number of the inner and outer marginal setae on the endopodal segments of the swimming legs P1 to P4.

Compl. Ref.:
V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Shmeleva, 1964 a (p.1068); 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Pavlova, 1966 (p.44); Delalo, 1968 (p.138, as simplix); Newbury & Bartholomew, 1976 (p.373, production); Ferrari, 1977 (p.410); Dessier, 1979 (p.134, 201, 207); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Greze & al., 1985 (p.8); Turner, 1986 (p.289, fig. 7: pellet-content): Böttger-Schnack al., 1989 (p.1089); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Dai & al., 1991 (tab.1); McKinnon, 1991 (p.471); Böttger-Schnack, 1992 (p.304); Lopes, 1994 (tab.1); Suarez Morales, 1994 b (tab.1); Gaughan & Potter, 1995 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75); Gouda & Panigrahy, 1995 (p.206); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.92); 1996 (p.1088); McKinnon & Ayukai, 1996 (p.595); Hopcroft & Roff, 1996 (p.789, diel egg production); Böttger-Schnack, 1997 (p.410); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.103); Hopcroft & al., 1998 (tab.2); Lopes & al., 1998 (p.195); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.112); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Ueda & al., 2000 (tab.1); McKinnon & al., 2003 (p.105, tab.2, fig.11); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.398, tab.1); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.486, tab.2, 3, abundance, Rem., p.495, tab.8); Lo & al., 2004 (p.468, tab.2); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.164: tab.1); Porri & al., (p.714); Selifonova & al., 2008 (p.305, Tabl. 2); Ohtsuka & al., 2008 (p.115, Table 4, 5, Rem.); Osaka and Kitakyushu Harbors); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.843: Tab.1, p.846: Tab. II, fig.7); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl. II); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Saitoh & al., 2011 (p.85, Table 4, 5); Selifonova, 2011 (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Johan & al., 2012 (p.647, Table 1, 2, fig.2, salinity range); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Zamora-Terol & Saiz, 2013 (p.376, Rem.: Table 3, egg production); Melo Jùnior & al., 2013 (p.363, Table 2, egg production); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, seasonal variation); Gubanova & al., 2013 (in press, p.4, Table 2); Jungbluth & Lenz, 2013 (p.630, Table I)
NZ: 15

Distribution map of Oithona simplex by geographical zones
Species Oithona simplex - Distribution map 4Issued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.140, Fig.91].
Indo-Pacific geographical distribution of Oithona simplex.
Dotted line: AC, Arctic Convergence; SC, Subtropical Convergence. Arrows indicate the stations where the typical short form occured
Species Oithona simplex - Distribution map 5issued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [Taf. I].
The genus Oithona: Distribution of species sampled during the Deutsche Tiefsee Expedition 1898-99.
The size of symbols indicates the relative quantitty of the species.
Species Oithona simplex - Distribution map 6issued from : A.A. Shmeleva in Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 1965, 65 (n°1351). [Table 6: 39]. Oithona simplex (from South Adriatic).
Dimensions, volume and Weight wet. Means for 50-60 specimens. Volume and weight calculated by geometrical method. Assumed that the specific gravity of the Copepod body is equal to 1, then the volume will correspond to the weight.
Loc:
sub-Antarct. (Atlant. SE), South Africa (E), Brazil (S, Guarau estuary, Paranagua estuary, Cabo Frio, mouth of Amazon), Congo, Caraïbes, Yucatan (Chetumal Bay), Porto Rico, Jamaica, G. of Mexico, off W Mississipi River mouth, Floride, off Cap Finisterre, Médit. (Alboran Sea, NW, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantin Basin, W Black Sea), Canal of Suez, Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Indian, India E (Rushikulya estuary, Gulf of Mannar), Christmas Is., Perai River estuary (Penang), Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Sarawak: Bintulu coast, Is. Aru, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (E, W, Tapong Bay), Xiamen Harbour, Japan, Australia (Exmouth Gulf, Wilson Inlet, G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier), New Caledonia, Samoa Is., Palau Is., Pacif. (tropical), Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, SE Pacif.
N: 68
Lg.:
(66) F: 0,44-0,3; M: 0,43-0,375; (109) F: 0,44-0,37; M: 0,47-0,37; (155) F: 0,46-0,43; M: 0,39; (179) F: 0,43-0,36; (434) F: 0,42-0,35; (624) F: 0,41-0,37; (634) F: 0,42-0,38; (649) F: 0,41; M: 0,37; (788) F: 0,44-0,4; M: 0,43-0,4 [grande forme]; 0,35-0,31 [petite forme]; (880) F: 0,30-0,44; M: 0,37-0,40; (991) F: 0,36-0,42; M: 0,39-0,41; (1047) F: 0,45; {F: 0,30-0,46; M: 0,31-0,47}
Rem.: epipelagic - ?.
This species appears less erratic than its locality records, given by the consulted authors may assume. The species is under-represented in the sampling nets because of the mesh size used.
.
Oithona simplex quinquesetosa Früchtl,1923 (M)
Ref.: Früchtl, 1923 (p.455); 1924 b (p.74); Sewell, 1948 (p.377)
Loc.: Is. Aru
.
Oithona simplex Form typical (short form) Nishida,1985 (F,M)
Ref.: Nishida, 1985 a (p.91, figs.F,M: short form)
Loc.: Indien N, G. Arabe
Lg.: (627) F: 0,39-0,36; M: 0,41-0,39
.
Oithona simplex Large form Nishida,1985 (F)
Ref.: Nishida, 1985 a (p.96, Descr.F, figs.F: large form)
Lg.: (627) F: 0,4-0,38.
See in Oithona robertsoni Table 2 from McKinnon (2000, p.108).
See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 15/09/2014
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