Species Card of Copepod
Harpacticoida ( Order )
    Thalestroidea ( Superfamily )
        Miraciidae ( Family )
            Macrosetella ( Genus )
Macrosetella gracilis  (Dana, 1848)   (F,M)
Syn.: Setella gracilis Dana, 1848; Claus, 1863 (p.136, figs.F); Brady, 1883 (p.108, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.559, 775, figs.F,M); Wheeler, 1901 (p.188, figs.F,M); I.C. Thompson, 1903 a (p.33); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.109); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.364); Mori, 1929 (p.201, figs.F); Farran, 1929 (p.211, 298); Steuer, 1935 (p.393, fig.F); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.115, figs.F,M); Chen & al., 1974 (p.68, figs.F,M); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75);
Setella longicauda (M) Dana, 1848
Ref.:
A. Scott, 1909 (p.230, Rem.); Pesta, 1912 a (p.56, fig.F); 1913 (p.33); Früchtl, 1924 b (p.104); Rose, 1929 (p.53); Wilson, 1932 a (p.281, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.288, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.208); Steuer, 1935 a (p.393, fig.F, carte); Farran, 1936 a (p.123); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.106, figs.F,M); Sewell, 1940 (p.141); Sewell, 1947 (p.290); Lang, 1948 a (p.770, figs.F,M); Moore, 1949 (p.62); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.161, figs.F,M); Krishnaswamy, 1957 (p.14, Rem.); Marques, 1958 a (p.142); Tanaka, 1960 (p.92); Fish, 1962 (p.29); Tanaka, 1964 (p.17); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.105, figs.F,M); Björnberg, 1965 a (p.512, figs.N, juv.); Ramirez, 1969 (p.99, fig.F); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.251); Shih & al., 1971 (p.53); Razouls, 1972 (p.96, Annexe: p.145); Marques, 1973 (p.255); 1975 (p.49); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.677, figs.F,M); Marques, 1982 (p.768); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.269, figs.F, M); Boxshall, 1979 (p.237, figs.F,M); Sazhina, 1985 (p.100, figs.N); Böttger-Schnack, 1989 (p.33, Rem.); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.409); Kim & al., 1993 (p.271); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1994 (p.231, figs.F,M, N, Juv.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.956, Pl.208: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.886, 968, figs.F,M, p.876: chart); Al-Yamani & Prusova, 2003 (p.115, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.211, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.345: figs.F); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.58, 84, Rem., Table XX, XXI); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.130, Pl. 98, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.111, figs.F,M, Rem.); Al-Yamani & al., 2011 (p.122, figs.F,M)
Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.98, Lam. XX, figs. 170].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 170, habitus (lateral right side).
Scale bar in mm: 0.8.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.24, Figs.3-6]. As Setella gracilis.
Female (from China Seas): 3, habitus (lateral left side); 4, P5.

Male: 5, habitus (lateral left side); 6, P5.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : F.Y. Al-Yamani & I. Prusova in Common Copepods Northwestern Arabian Gulf : Identification Guide. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, 2003. [p.114, Fig.43].
Female: A, habitus (lateral right side); B, P5.

Male: C, habitus (lateral right side); D, P5.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1967, 1 Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. [p106, Figs.772-774].
Female: 772, habitus (lateral); 773, P5.

Male: 774, P5.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : F. Giron-Reguer in Thèse Fac. Sc. Paris, 1963. [Fig26].
Female (from Alboran Sea): anterior part of cephalosome.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : G.A. Boxshall in Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 1979, 35 (3). [p.237].Female and Male from 18°N, 25°W.
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.
Nota: Cephalosome prolonged anteriorly, without cuticular lenses. Rostrum large,clearly delimited at base and ventrally directed. Caudal rami about 8 times longer than wide. A1 8-segmented in both sexes with aesthetes on segments 4 and 8. A2 with allobasis in female and apparently with separate basis and 2-segmented endopod in male; exopod absent in both sexes. Md and Mx1 both comprising a toothed blade and a single seta representing the palp. Mx2 with 1 (male) and 2 (female) endites. P5 female with 4 setae on basoendopod and 6 setae on exopod. P5 male with 2 setae on basoendopod and 4 setae on exopod.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. VIII, Figs. 8-10]. As Setella gracilis.
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 8, P4; 9, habitus (lateral); 10, P5.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 64, Figs.1-5]. As Setella gracilis.
Female: 2, A2; 4, P5; 5, habitus (lateral).

Male: 1, habitus (lateral; 3, P5.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Fig.3]. As Setella gracilis.
Female: 3, A1.
Aes = aesthetasc.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.9, 15]. As Setella gracilis.
Female: 9, Md: 15, Mx1.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.10, 11]. As Setella gracilis.
Female: 10, Mxp; 11, Mx2.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Fig.12]. As Setella gracilis.
Female: 12, P3.
Ri1 = endopodal segment 1; Re2 = exopodal segment 1; St = terminal seta; Si = inner seta; Se = outer seta.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.6, 7]. As Setella gracilis.
Female: 6, P5; 7, anal segment and caudal rami. (dorsal).


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Fig.4]. As Setella gracilis.
Male: 4, habitus (lateral).


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.1, 2]. As Setella gracilis.
Male: 1, A2; 2, A1.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.5, 8]. As Setella gracilis.
Male: 5, P5; 8, genital segment.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Fig.4]. As Setella gracilis.
Male: 13, P1; 14, P2.


Species Macrosetella gracilis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : Y. Al-Yamani, V. Skryabin, A. Gubanova, S. khvorov & I. Prusova in Marine Zooplankton Practical Guide for the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, 2, 2011. [p.123, Fig.273]
Female (from Kuwait); a-b, habitus (left lateral and dorsal).

Compl. Ref.:
Wilson, 1932 (p.38); 1942 a (p.193); Sewell, 1948 (p.325, 515); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.262); Yamazi, 1958 (p.153, Rem.); Heinrich, 1961 (p.92); Fagetti, 1962 (p.40); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.11, 16); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.57); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Grice, 1963 a (p.496); Gaudy, 1963 (p.30, Rem.); Björnberg, 1963 (p.68, Rem.); De Decker, 1964 (p.16, 22, 29, 32); De Decker, 1964 a (p.157); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); El-Maghraby, 1965 (p.58, Appendix); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.36, Table III); Mazza, 1966 (p.73); Pavlova, 1966 (p.45); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.742, geographic distribution, Rem.); Séguin, 1968 (p.488); Delalo, 1968 (p.138); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Salah, 1971 (p.320); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.329, 376); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Palet, 1975 (p.660); Vives & al., 1975 (p.54, tab.II, III); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Dessier, 1979 (p.201, 207); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Sreekumaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493), Vives, 1982 (p.295); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Turner & Dagg, 1983 (p.17, 22); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.9); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1043); De Decker, 1984 (p.318, 354: chart); 1984 a (p.157); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.40); Binet, 1985 (p.85, tab.3); Sarkar & al., 1986 (p.178); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Dessier, 1988 (tabl.1); Böttger-Schnack & Schnack, 1989 (p.17); Böttger-Schnack, 1989 (p.33); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Mitra & al., 1990 (fig.3); Böttger-Schnack, 1991 (p.309); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); McKinnon, 1991 (p.471); O'Neil & Roman, 1994 (p.235); Godhantaraman, 1994 (tab.6, 7); Kouwenberg, 1994 (tab.1); Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.93); 1996 (p.1088); Webber & al., 1996 (tab.1); O'Neil & al., 1996 (p.89, ingestion); Böttger-Schnack, 1997 (p.410); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Sharaf & Al-Ghais, 1997 (tab.1); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.103); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.349); Hopcroft & al., 1998 (tab.2); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1,2); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.1,2,3,4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Harvey & al., 1999 (p.1, 49: Appendix 5, in ballast water vessel); Siokou-Frangou, 1999 (p.478); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Hsieh & al., 2004 (p.398, tab.1); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.486, tab.2, 3, abundance, Rem., p.495, tab.8); Chang & Fang, 2004 (p.456, tab.1); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Gallienne & al., 2004 (p.5, tab.3); Kazmi, 2004 (p.230); Choi & al., 2005 (p.710: Tab.III); Baker & al., 2005 (tabl.); Smith & Madhupratap, 2005 (p.214, tab.4,5); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.485, tab.1); Berasategui & al., 2006 (p.485: fig.2); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.78, Rem., chart); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.25); Eberl & Carpenter, 2007 (p.205); Eberl & al., 2007 (p.33, genetic diversity); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Rakhesh & al., 2008 (p.154, abundance vs stations); Humphrey, 2008 (p.85: Appendix A); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.514, 524); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Pagano, 2009 (p.115); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl.II); Tseng & al., 2009 (p.327, fig.5, feeding); Cornils & al., 2010 (p.2076, Table 3); Hernandez-Trujillo & al., 2010 (p.913, Table 2); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1, fig.5 a); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.430); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Salah S. & al., 2011 (Tableau 1); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Pepin & al., 2011 (p.273, Table 2, seasonal abundance); Selifonova, 2011 (p.77, Table 1, alien species in Black Sea); Shiganova & al., 2012 (p.61, Table 4); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Jose & al., 2012 (p.20, fig.3 a,b,c: % vs monsoon); DiBacco & al., 2012 (p.483, Table S1, ballast water transport); Zizah & al., 2012 (p.79, Tableau I, Rem.: p.86); Johan & al., 2012 (2013) (p.1, Table 1); Miloslavic & al., 2012 (p.165, Table 2, transect distribution); Tseng & al., 2012 (p.621, Table 3: abundance); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Melo Jùnior & al., 2013 (p.363, Table 2, egg production); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Rakhesh & al., 2013 (p.7, Table 1, abundance vs stations); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, 5, 6, fig.11, seasonal variation); Peijnenburg & Goetze, 2013 (p.2765, genetic data); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance)
NZ: 21

Distribution map of Macrosetella gracilis by geographical zones
Loc:
sub-Antarct. (Indian), South Africa (off Cape of Good Hope, E & W), Namibia, Angola, Baia Farta, Congo, G. of Guinea, Dakar, off E St. Paul Is., off Cape Verde Is., off Mauritania, Morocco, Cap Ghir, Canary Is., off Madeira, off SW Azores, Argentina, Brazil (S, Ubatuba, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Macaé, off Natal), off Amazon, Barbada Is., Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, Yucatan, Jamaica, E Costa Rica, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Chesapeake Bay, Long Island, G. of Maine, off Woods Hole, Newfoundland, Iceland, Faroe, North Sea, Ibero-morocco Bay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, Castellon, Banyuls, G. of Lion, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhénian Sea, Messine, Gulf of Taranto, NW Tunisia NW, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Black Sea, Lebanon Basin, Egypt coast, Alexandrie), Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Araby (South coast), Arabian Gulf, off Madagascar S, Mascarene Basin, Mauritius, Rodrigues Is. - Seychelles, Indian, India (Saurashtra coast, Mangalore coast, S, Lawson's Bay, Mandarmani creek, Hooghly estuary), E India (coastal, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay, Godavari region, Kakinada Bay), Bay of Bengal, Straits of Malacca, G. of Thailand, Indonesia-Malaysia, Sarawak: Bintulu coast, SW Celebes, Philippines, Viet-Nam, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW, E, S, W, Kaohsiung Harbor, NW, NE), Okinawa, S Korea, S Japan Sea, Japan, Tanabe Bay, Bering Sea, Aleutian, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), N New Zealand, New Caledonia, Is. Fidji, Hawaii, California, W Baja California (Bahia Magdalena), Gulf of California, G. of Tehuantepec, W Costa Rica, Clipperton Is., off Chile
N: 214
Lg.:
(34) F: 1,52-1,25; M: 1,2-1,08; (46) F: 1,5-1,4; M: 1,3-1,16; (66) F: 1,57-0,94; M: 1,25-0,94; (91) F: 1,5-1,2; M: 1,3-1,15; (104) F: 1,4; M: 1,1; (109) F: 1,3-1,2; M: 1,2-1; (138) F: 1,5-1,21; M: 1,16-1,13; (180) F: 1,7; (188) F: 1,5-1,4; M: 1,3-1,16; (237) F: 1,8; M: 1,25; (254) F: 1,45*; (332) F: 1,64-1,23; (336) F: 1,64-1,32; M: 1,63-1,48; (618) F: 1,66; (651) F: 1,68-1,33; M: 1,39-1,12; (721) [Red Sea-Indian] F: 1,6-0,88; M: 1,34-0,86; [Okinawa] F: 1,62-1,22; M: 1,22-1,18 ; (786) F: 1,4-1,3; (937) F: 1,22; M: 1,01; (991) F: 0,98-1,62; M: 0,88-1,30; {F: 0,88-1,80; M: 0,86-1,63}
* : without caudal setae, 325 mm with caudal setae.
Rem.: epipelagic; oceanic
Sampling depth (sub-Antarct.) : 400-3000 m. Sargasso Sea: 0-1000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S").
Observed in the ballast waters of ships in San Francisco.
See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 27/09/2014
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