Species Card of Copepod
Monstrilloida ( Order )
    Monstrillidae ( Family )
        Cymbasoma ( Genus )
Cymbasoma bullatum  (A. Scott, 1909)   (M)
Syn.: Thaumaleus bullatus A. Scott, 1909 (p.240, figs.M);
Monstrilla leucopsis : Wilson, 1950 (p.267);
Cymbasoma bullatus : Sekiguchi, 1981 (p.13, figs.M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.1002, Pl.234: M)
Suarez-Morales, 2001 a (p.58, Redescr.M, figs.M); Suarez-Morales, 2007 a (p.26, figs.M, Rem.); 2011 (p.3, fig.M, p.10)
Species Cymbasoma bullatum - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Scott in The Copepoda of the Siboga Expedition Part I. SibogaSiboga-Expeditie XXIX a., 1909. [Pl. LVIII, Figs.9-10]. As Thaumaleus bullatus.
Male (from off Laiwui, Paternoster Islands) ): 7, habitus (dorsal); 8, P5.

Nota: Cephalic segment considerably inflated at the distal end.. It is distinctly shorter than the posterior part of the body.
The frontal margin is broad and rounded with a distinct protuberance in the middle
Abdomen 3-segmented. The 2nd segment is shorter and the anal segment is longer than the others.The dial end of the anal segment is expanded.
Caudal rami short and broad; each ramus with 4 apical setae distinctly swollen at the base.
A1 5-segmented, prehensile, equal to three-fifths of the length of the cephalic segment.
P5 rudimentary and without setae.

Species Cymbasoma bullatum - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belgique, Biologie, 2001, 71. [p.59, Figs.20-23].
Male (from lectotype: coll. Siboga Expedition, St. 142, Paternoster Islands): 20-21, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively); 22, caudal rami (ventral view); 23, sale (dorsal view).

Nota: Cephalothorax representing almost 47% of total body length.
Oral papilla protruding from ventral surface, located at almost 23% of way back.Dorsal ocelli present, close to anteriormost end of head, pigment cups relatively large, separated by a distance less than an eye diameter; poorly developed, almost unpigmented, rounded in dorsal view.
No sensilla observed on anterior part of cephalic region.
1st pedigerous thoracic somite and cephalon fused.
Urosome consisting of 4 somites: 5th pedigerous with no appendages, genital somite (genital complex) and 2 free somites (the last is the anal somite).
Anal somite being the largest of the urosome, representing almost 40% of the urosome.
Caudal rami subquadrate, approximately as long as wide, with 3 terminal and 1 subterminal setae; basal parts of 2 outer setae with rounded swelling (more evident in dorsal view).

Species Cymbasoma bullatum - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belgique, Biologie, 2001, 71. [p.60, Figs.24-29].
Male (paralectotype): 24, right A1 (ventral view: marked using setal nomenclature); 25, right A1 (dorsal view); 26, right A1 (dorsal view); 27, anterior margin of head showing ventral processed (arrowed) (lateral view); 28, 4th pedigerous somite plus urosome, showing genital complex (ventral view); 29, genital complex (ventral view).

Nota: Anterior region of head between antennular bases and oral papilla with one pair of horn-like processes (arrowed in fig.27).
A1 length of lectotype close to 27% of total body length, 67% as long as cephalothorax.
A1 5-segmented, length ratio of segments from 1st to 5th: 15.6 : 23.1 : 13.7 : 26.8 : 20.8 = 100
P5 absent from 5th pedigerous somite.
Genital complex represented by cylindrical structure, moderately elongated in lateral view. Pair of relatively long subterminal digitiform genital lappets present on distal 1/3 of genital structure, both appearing elongated, strongly divergent, distally mammiliform; lappets reaching half way of preanal somite (fig.20). Rounded process present at common basal joint of lappets.

Species Cymbasoma bullatum - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belgique, Biologie, 2001, 71. [p.62, Figs.30-34].
Male: 30, intercoxal plate from P4; 31, P3; 32, P1; 33, endopod of P4; 34, exopod of P4.

Species Cymbasoma bullatum - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belgique, Biologie, 2001, 71. [p.61].
Male: Armature of swimming legs.
Number of setae: Arabic numerals; number of spines: Roman numerals.

Compl. Ref.:
Grygier, 1995 a (p.22, 49, 61)
NZ: 1

Distribution map of Cymbasoma bullatum by geographical zones
Indonesia-Malaysia (Paternoster Is.), Philippines, Japan (Honshu).

Type locality: Paternoster Islands (off Laiwui).
N: 3
(5) M: 1,7; (726) M: 2,1-1,4; (987) M *: 1,62-1,74) ; {M: 1,40-2,10}
* : total body length (measured in dorsal view from anterior end of cephalothorx to posterior margin of anal somite.
Rem.: For Suarez-Morales (2007 a, p.32) several differences are apparent between the japanese specimens and C. bullatum. All these differences indicate that the japanese's specimens belong to a different, probably undescribed species of Cymbasoma.
After Suarez-Morales (2010, p.66), the female of M. leucopsis from the Philippines (Wilson, 1950 at the Caldera Bay anchorage is (after inspection of the specimen) a male assignable to Cymbasoma bullatum. The mediterranean records of this species cannot be verified (Rose, 1933; Isaac, 1975: as M. conjunctiva; Djordjevic, 1963).
Last update : 31/10/2013
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