Species Card of Copepod
Monstrilloida ( Order )
    Monstrillidae ( Family )
        Cymbasoma ( Genus )
Cymbasoma rigidum  Thompson, 1888   (F,M)
Syn.: Thaumaleus rigidus : T. Scott, 1904 (p.248, figs.F); Pearson, 1906 (p.33); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.213, figs.F); Pesta, 1920 (p.634, fig.F); Rose, 1925 e (p.307); 1927 f (p.18); Davis, 1949 a (p.250); Shih & al., 1971 (p.57); Isaac, 1974 (p.130); 1974 a (p.133, Rem.); 1975 (p.3, 7, 8, figs.F,M); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.8, as T. rigidum); Oliveira Dias, 1996 (p.255);
? Thaumaleus claparedii Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.578, 585, figs.F);
Non Thaumaleus germanicus Timm, 1893 (p.419); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.213, figs.F); Caullery & Mesnil, 1914 (p.19, figs.F, M);
Thaumaleus germinacus : Razouls, 1981 (lapsus calami);
Monstrilla ostroumowi Karavaev, 1894 (1895) (p.33, figs.F);
Monstrilla rigida : Bourne, 1890 b (p.575, figs.F);
? no Haemocera danae Malaquin, 1901 (p.88, 109, fig.F); Sewell, 1949 (p.144, figs.F);
Haemocera danae : Razouls, 1973 (p.467); Razouls & Durand, 1991 (p.75)
Ref.:
Thompson, 1888 b (p.154, Descr.F, figs.F); 1888 d (p.149); Sars, 1921 (p.21, figs.F,M); Wilson, 1932 a (p.396, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.348, figs.F,M); Porumb, 1961 (p.1224, figs.F,M); Threlkeld, 1977 (p.227); Sekiguchi, 1982 (p.28, figs.F); Grygier, 1995 a (p.45, 74); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.1002, Pl.234: F); Suarez-Morales, 2001 (p.247: Rem.); Bernier & al., 2002 (p.651, tab.1, 652, figs.F, Rem.) ; Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.166, figs.F,M, Rem.); Suarez-Morales, 2011 (p.6: Rem)
Species Cymbasoma rigidum - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in The John Murray Expedition, 1933-34, Scientific Reports, IX (2), 1947. [p.143, Fig.40 E-H]. As Haemocra danae. With doubt.
Female (from Nankauri Harbour, Nicobar Is.): E, habitus (lateral left side); F, urosome (ventral); G, A1; H, P5.
Nota: Head and 1st thoracic segment fused. Mouth situated far forward near the anterior end; the pre-oral and post-oral parts of the cephalon being in the ptoportion of 12 to 43. A pair of well-developed eyes, with hemispherical lenses and brown pigment, occupied a grat prt of the anterior region of the head (dorsal view). Proportional lengths of the various segments of the body as: 562: 90:82:86:56:60:15:15:34 = 100. Genital segment twice the length of the two following segments together. Caudal rami divergent, slightly longer than the two preceeding segments together, each ramus bears 3 setae, of approximately equal length. A1 are about equal in length to the pre-oral region of the cephalon;, composed of 4 segments: 12:28:14:46 = 100. P5 have a rounded projection on the inner border about half-way along their length, no seta arises from the inner projection, the distal end carries 3 setae of about equal length


Species Cymbasoma rigidum - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway, with short descriptions and figures of all the species, 1921a, 8. [Pl. XI].
Female (from West coast of Norway). Urs, urosome (dorsal).


Species Cymbasoma rigidum - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway, with short descriptions and figures of all the species, 1921a, 8. [Pl. X, 2].
Male (from West coast of Norway). Urs, urosome (ventral).


Species Cymbasoma rigidum - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Helgol. Mar. Res., 2006, 60. [p.178, Fig.5].
Structural patterns of the P5 of C. rigidum reported and depicted in the litterature between 1890 and 2002.
Nota: There are strong variations in this appendage, the main ones were found on the length and development of the inner lobe.
1 - structure very long, reaching the distal end of the outer lobe as in C. rigidum (recorded as Monstrilla rigidum by Bourne (1890) from Plymouth and Jersey, England.
2 - structure extremely short, weakly developed inner lobe, as in Scott (1904) from Scotland, G. of St. Lawrence (Canada).
3 - structure intermediate reported by Sekiguchi (1982) from Ago Bay (Japan).
Another variable character of the P5 is the relative length of the inner terminal seta of the outer lobe; it can be nearly as long as the other setae, as in (Timm, 1896), and in reports of C. rigidum by Bourne (1890) and Scott (1904). A short inner seta (about half the length of the other two setae) is present in the specimens reported by Sars (1921), C.B. Wilson (1932), Sekiguchi (1982) and bernier & al. (2002). It seems unlikely that all these mixed patterns can be reliably associated to a single species. It is necessary to obtain and analyse specimens from the type locality (Madeira, Canary Islands) in order to establish a neo-type of C. rigidum.


Species Cymbasoma rigidum - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Helgol. Mar. Res., 2006, 60. [p.177, Table 1].
Comparative analysis of characters used in the identification of Cymbasoma rigidum and related forms.

Compl. Ref.:
I.C. Thompson, 1888 d (p.149); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.197); Marcus, 1970 (p.11); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.98, 105); Holmes, 2001 (p.61); Kazmi, 2004 (p.231); Dias & Bonecker, 2007 (p.270, 272, fig.3, tab.II); Oliveira Dias & Costa Bonecker, 2007 (p.282: Rem); Oliveira Dias & al., 2008 (p.248, tab.1)
NZ: 12

Distribution map of Cymbasoma rigidum by geographical zones
Loc:
Guinée Portugaise, Canaries (Tenerife), Brésil (Natal-SaoSebastiao), Bahia, G. du Maine, off Woods Hole, Baie de Fundy, G. du St. Laurent S, Irlande W & E, Norvège W, Mer du Nord, Manche, Médit. (Alger, Banyuls, Malte, Adriatique N, Mer Noire), Mer Arabe, Philippines, Viet-Nam, Japon, Polynésie (Takapoto Atoll), G. d'Alaska
N: 19 ?
Lg.:
(45) F: 2,5-2,2; M: 1,75-1,5; (449) F: 2,7-2,2; (663) F: 2,5; M: 1,75; (723) F: 1,4; (727) F: 2,7; (734) F: 3,175; (735) F: 0,88-0,75; M: 0,79-0,57; (907) F: 2,16; (995) M: 0,93*; (997) M: 0,52-1,13*; {F: 0,75-3,18; M: 0,52-1,75}
*: caudal rami excluded.
Rem.: According to Sewell (1949, p.145) the synonymy establishes by Sars (1921, p.21) between Haemocera danae and Cymbasoma rigidum is not valid.
For Isaac (1974, p.137) the development was described by Malaquin (1901) as Haemocera danae in the gregarious serpulid polychaete Salmacina dysteri (Huxley).
For Suarez-Morales (2006, p.171, Rem.: p.178-179) Cymbasoma rigidum would have to be assigned to different species or represents a complex of different morphotypes. The morphology of P5 reported in the litterature shows a strong variation ( length and development of the inner lobe; relative length of the inner terminal seta of the outer lobe; the length of A1 ) as its cosmopolitan geographical range. It seems unlikely that all these mixed patterns can be reliably associated to a single species. After the authors (2011, p.6) the nominal species is known to contain at least four distinct taxa and most records should be revised.
Last update : 25/08/2013
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