Species Card of Copepod
Monstrilloida ( Order )
    Monstrillidae ( Family )
        Monstrilla ( Genus )
Monstrilla grandis  Giesbrecht, 1891   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Monstrilla grandis : T. Scott, 1904 (p.243, figs.F,M);
Monstrilla intermedia Kricchagin, 1877;
? Strilloma scotti: Isaac,1975 (n°144/145, p.6, 7, 9, figs.F,M, Rem.);
Monostrilla grandis : Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.586, 590, figs.F,M); ? T. Scott, 1904 (p.243, figs.F,M); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.207, figs.F,M); Gurney, 1927 (p.168, figs.M, Rem.); Candeias, 1932 (p.8, figs.F:?); Rose, 1933 a (p.344, figs.F,M); Dolgopol'skaya, 1948 (p.177, figs.F,M); Shen & Bai, 1956 (p.233, figs.F,M); Fish, 1962 (p.30); Ramirez, 1971 b (p.379, figs.F,M, Rem.); Isaac, 1974 (p.128, figs.F, Rem.F,M); 1974 a (p.131); 1975 (p.9); Zheng Zhong & al.,1984 (1989) (p.272, figs.F,M); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.155, 156, 158, 464, figs.F); Suarez-Morales, 1994 (p.265: Rem.); Grygier, 1995 a (p.9, 48, 66); Oliveira Dias, 1996 (p.255); Suarez-Morales, 2000 (p.107, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.836, figs.F); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.177, figs.F,M, Rem.); Suarez-Morales, 2011 (p.9, 10); Suarez-Morales & al., 2013 (p.620, Descr.M, figs.M, Rem.)
Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : C.-j. Shen & S.-o. Bai in Acta Zool. sin., 1956, 8 (2). [Pl.XIII, Figs.100-105].
Male (from Chefoo, China): 100, habitus (dorsal); 101, A1 (segment ?); 102, P5 and genital segment; 103, idem (lateral left side).

Female: 104, urosome (ventral); 105, thoracic segment 5 (ventral).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution, The Ray Society, 1991. [p.158, Fig. 2.5.1].
Female (from Norfolk, England): A, habitus (lateral); B, cephalothorax (ventral); C, urosome (ventral).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution, The Ray Society, 1991. [p.159, Fig. 2.5.2].
Female: A, P2 (anterior view); B, genital double somite (ventral); C, caudal ramus (dorsal); D, P5 and genital double somite (lateral).
Copulatory pores arrowed in B and D.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Bull. Inst. R. Sci. nat. Belgique, Biologie, 70, 2000. [p.109, Fig.2].
Female (from Toulon Harbor, Mediterranean Sea): A, habitus (dorsal); B, right A1; C, head (lateral); D, P5 (anterior view); E, P5 and genital somite (lateral; digitiform processes arrowed).
Nota: Cephalothorax (incorporating 1st pedigerous somite) accounting for 61 % of total body length. Forehead depressed in dorsal view. Anterior part of cephalothorax with ventral, rounded convex protuberance; another cuticulatr process, formed by a row of 8-11 rounded denticles is located adjacent to the first one forming a linear polip-like structure. Oral papilla lying midventrally 0.52 of way back along cephalothorax. Naupliar eye present. No cuticular ornamentation was observed on the surface of cephalothorax. A1 3-segmented (purported segments 3-5 fused); ratio of length segments 12.5:16.9:70.6 = 100.; A1 slightly longer than 53 % of total body length. P5 bilobed, fused medially; outer lobe with 3 long, plumose seta; inner lobe with 2 setae; all setae biserially setulated; a single finger-like process on distal part of inner margin of outer lobe. Urosome consisting of 5th pedigerous somite, genital double somite, and 2 free abdominal somites; Ratio of length of urosomal somites 31.4:38.5:19.1:11.1 = 100. Caudal rami 1.8 times longer than wide, moderately divergent, bearing 3 terminal, 1 dorsal, and 2 inner setae
Nota: Giesbrecht (1891) original drawings does not observe on the outer lobe of P5 a finger-like process.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : E. Suarez-Morales in Bull. Inst. R. Sci. nat. Belgique, Biologie, 70, 2000. [p.110, Fig.3].
Male (from Toulon Harbor, Mediterranean Sea): A, habitus (dorsal); B, idem (lateral; showing cuticular nipple-like process, arrowed).
Nota: Cephalothorax representing about 47 % of total body length. Oral papilla located at about midway of way back along ventral surface of cephalothorax. Dorsal ocelli present, pigment cups relatively large, separated by the distance of two ocelli diameters, poorly developed, almost unpigmented, rounded in dorsal view. Two strongly chitinized, nipple-like cuticular processes located ventrally anterior to oral papilla (arrowed in fig.B). A1 5-segmented (segment 4 longest). 1st pedigerous somite incorporatd into cephalothorax. P5 represented by a pair of long seta each inserted on a basal lobe. Genital lappets with small subterminal rounded process, posteriorly directed.Urosome consisting of 4 segments (1st pedigerous somite, genital somite, and 2 free somites); ratio of lengths of genital somite and 2 free posterior somites 51.6: 25.8: 23.1 = 100. Caudal rami about 1.8 times longer than wide; each ramus with 2 protuberant processes (1 on outer margin, second on inner margin (arrowed in fig.G); 3 well developed terminal plus 2 additional setae inserted on the outer margin.setae


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.11].
Female: 11, habitus (lateral);


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.17].
Female: 17, urosome (dorsal).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.25].
Female: 25, A1 (anterior view).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.39].
Female: 39, P5.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.2].
Male: 2, habitus (lateral).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.8].
Male: 8, habitus (dorsal).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.19].
Male: 19, urosome (lateral)


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.24].
Male: 24, A1 (dorsal view).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.46, Fig.35].
Male: 35, urosome (ventral).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : M.J. Isaac in J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 1974, 54. [p.129, Fig.1].
Female: A, P5 of British and Chinese specimens; B, P5 of Naples specimens (after Giesbrecht).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Physis, 1971, XXX, 81. [p.382, Lam.II, Figs.2, 4].
Female (from Argentina shelf: 38°30'S, 57°W): 2, habitus (lateral); 4, urosome (ventral), showing P5.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Physis, 1971, XXX, 81. [p.378, Lam.I].
Female: 4, A1.

Male: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, urosome (ventral, showing P5; 3, same (lateral).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : M.J. Grygier & S. Ohtsuka in Zool. J. Linnean Soc., 2008, 152. [p.499, Fig.29].
Female: Dorsal and lateral pore and pit seta patterns, from rear of cephalothorax through genital compound somite.
Symbols: dots (three sizes) = pores; larger circles = pits of pit setae.
Pattern based on SEM and light microscopical examination.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales, A. Carillo & A. Morales-Ramirez in J. Nat. Hist., 2013, 47 (5-12). [p.622, Fig.2]. As Monstrilla aff. grandis.
Male (from Cahuita, Costa Rica): A-B, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively); C, left A1 (dorsal); D, cephalic area showing oral papilla and ventral protuberance (arrowed), lateral view); E, same (ventral).
Scale bars: 100 µm (A, B); 50 µm (C-E).

Nota: Cephalothorax representing up to 44.2% of total body length.
Oral papilla protuberant, located at about midway (0.46) back along ventral surface of cephalothorax.
Pair of relatively small lateral pigment cups well developed, separated by length of less than one eye diameter, moderately pigmented; ventral cup slightly larger than lateral cups.
Wide-based, low rounded process on ventral surface protruding between bases of antennules (arrowed in fig.2 D). 2 pairs of nipple-like cuticular processes on anterior ventral surface between A1 bases and oral papilla (arrowed in fig.2D); additional triplet of nipple-like processes posterior to latter pairs (fig.2D,E).
A1 elongate representing 55% of the body lenth and c.120% as long as cephalothorax, 5-segmented (segment 4 longest).
Incorporated first pedigerous somite and succeding 3 three pedigerous somites.
P5 represented by a pair of long biserially setulated setae each arising from small basal lobe on ventral surface of 5th pedigerous somite; 5th leg's setae (when stretchted backwards) reaching posterior end of anal somite.
Genital apparatus strongly built, with enlarged base protruding ventrally; genital apparatus widely cylindrical, distally branched to form 2 short, rounded lappets each bearing subdistal rounded process posteriorly directed.
Urosme consisting of 5 somites (5th pedigerous somite, genital somite, 2 free postgenital somites, and anal somite. Ratio of lengths of urosomites 25 : 16.2 : 21.6 : 19.3 : 17.8 = 100.
Caudal rami subrectangular, moderately divergent, about twice as long as wide, each bearing 6 setae (3 terminal, 2 outer, and 1 on inner margin; dorsal medial seta shorter and more slender than other setae.

Remarks: The Cahuita's specimen from Costa Rica (Caribbean Sea) was identified as M. grandis based on its possession of an elogate antennule which is close to 60% the length of the body, the presence of a P5 with a fused basal segment armed with a single long plumose seta, the shape and distal process of the genital apparatus and the presence of 6 caudal setae.
There are some characters present in the male Costa Rican specimen that differ slifhtly from those in other known records: The relative length of A1 with respect to the total body length (48.5%: Naples; 54.8%: Argentina; 56.4%: China; 57%: Black Sea; 61.2%: Toulon); the oral papilla is located in slightly different position (44% : Naples; 49%: China; 53%: Toulon; 46%: Cahuita); the relative lengths of 4th antennular segment differ slightly (25.9%: Naples; 20%: Black Sea; 23%: China; 26.6%: Toulon; 24.4%: Argentina; 26.9%: Cahuita); the body size is also somewhat variable, less than 0.8 mm (Naples, Black Sea, Cahuita) up to more than 1.5 mm (Naples, Barbados, Argentina, Brazil, Scotland); the length of the singleP5 seta is similar in all cases, reaching the midlength of the caudal rami (when stretched backwards); in all cases the dorsal caudal seta (VII in Huys & Boxshall, 1991) is thinner and shorter than the others.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales, A. Carillo & A. Morales-Ramirez in J. Nat. Hist., 2013, 47 (5-12). [p.624, Fig.3]. As Monstrilla aff. grandis.
Male: A, P1 (dorsal); B, P2 (ventral); C, P3 (dorsal); D, P4 (dorsal); E, urosome (lateral view), showing P5 and features of genital apparatus, caudal rami cut short; F, same (ventral).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : E. Suarez-Morales, A. Carillo & A. Morales-Ramirez in J. Nat. Hist., 2013, 47 (5-12). [p.625, Table 1].
Female: Formula armature of swimming legs P1 to P4.
Spines denoted by Roman numerals, setae by Arabic numerals from outer margin of any segment given first, separated by a hyphen from the inner margin.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. Scott in Rep. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1904, 12 (3). [Pl. XIII, fig.11]. With doubt.
Female (from Loch Fyne: First of Clyde): 11, habitus (dorsal).


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. Scott in Rep. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1904, 12 (3). [Pl. XiV, fig.9-11]. With doubt
Female: 9, A1; 10, P5; 11, Abdomen and caudal rami.

Nota : A1 moderately stout, scarcely equal to ¼ the length of the body.
P5 sub-cylindrical, about 2 times as long as wide, and with a somewhat bi-lobed extremity. The exterior lobe bears 3 setae, the inner one small but the other 2 elongated. The inner lobe appears to be furnished with only 1 apical seta but the dissection shows what appears to be the base of a seta on the inner margin of this lobe, the seta itself having probably been broken off (the position of this set ais indicated on the drawing by dotted lines.

Nota : Abdomen 3-segmented, but the first, which is larger than the next two combined, divided into two portions by a pseudo-articulation ; the 2nd and 3rd segments sub-equal and together much smaller than the first segment.
Caudal rami each provided with 6 setae, one being situated on the outer edge near the base of the segment while the others spring from the apex ; 1 of the apical setae near the inner edge very small.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 24 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. Scott in Rep. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1904, 12 (3). [Pl. XIII, fig.12]. With doubt.
Male: 12, habitus (dorsal).

Nota : A1 proportionally rather longer than those of the female, 5-segmented, the last segment being hinged to the preceding one.
1st and 2nd segments of abdomen not coalescent as in female.
Armature of the caudal rami similar to that of the female.
P5 resemble very closely to that of M. longicornis


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 25 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. Scott in Rep. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1904, 12 (3). [Pl. XV, fig.2]. With doubt.
Male: 2, abdomen and caudal rami.
lapsus calami in the plate XV, fig.2 indicated as female.


Species Monstrilla grandis - Plate 26 of morphological figuresIssued from : T. Scott in Rep. Fishery Bd Scotl., 1904, 12 (3). [Pl. XV, fig.1]. With doubt.
Male: A1.

Compl. Ref.:
Kovalev, 2003 (p.47); Marques al., 2006 (p.297, tab.III); Dias & Bonecker, 2007 (p.270, 272, fig.3, tab.II); Oliveira Dias & Costa Bonecker, 2007 (p.282: Rem); Brylinski, 2009 (p.253: Tab.1, p.258: Rem.); S.C. Marques & al., 2011 (p.59, Table 1)
NZ: 9

Distribution map of Monstrilla grandis by geographical zones
Loc:
Patagonie, Cap San Antonio, Brésil (Bahia, Recife, Vitoria)), I. Barbade, Porto Rico, E Costa Rica reef, Portugal, Canal de Bristol, Is. Scilly, Manche, off Boulogne coast, Mer du Nord, Portugal (Mondego estuary), Médit. W (Alger, Marseille), Mer Noire, Mer Rouge, Viet-Nam, mers de Chine (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Chefoo), Hokkaido, Chili
N: 28
Lg.:
(46) F: 3,75; M: 1,9-1,7; (277) F:1,8; M: 0,75; (466) F: 2,74-2,35; M: 1,31-0,7; (727) F: 4,25; M: 2; (745) F: 2,363; M: 1,637; (785) F: 4,12; M: 1,77; (828)* F: 1,5-0,8; M: 0,65; 0,61; (995) M: 1,06*; (1120)* M: 0,68; {F: 0,80-4,25; M: 0,61-2,00}
*: caudal rami excluded.
Rem.: In vertical haul 0-22 m.
See remarks for scotti.
Suarez-Morales (2000 c, p.111) remarks: Isaac (1975) included this species in the unvalid genus Strilloma, which was created as an interpretation of the partial separation of the genital double somite present in some species of Monstrilla; this very variable feature ha been considered to have a questionable taxonomical value. Hence, having 3 or 2 somites between the genital and the caudal rami in the male and the female, this species is correctly placed in the genus Monstrilla.
For Suarez-Morales & al. (2013, p.625) the size and morphometric variations found in M. grandis even in geographically adjacent areas (i.e. The Mediterranean), its wide distribution and the idea supposedly cosmopolitan species among Monstrilloida could reperesent species complexes highlights the need for a deeper analysis to define whether this nominal species represents a species complex. It will be useful to determine the status of records of M. grandis from other geographic regions than those of the central and south american coasts which could be conspecific.
Last update : 01/09/2014
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