Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina metallina  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Saphirina metallina : Brady, 1883 (p.128, figs.F,M); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.125, fig.M)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.620, 644, 775, figs.M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.240); A. Scott, 1909 (p.255, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.360); Pesta, 1920 (p.640, fig.M); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 290); Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.284, Rem., figs.F,M); Rose, 1929 (p.61); 1933 a (p.311, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.129); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.124, figs.F); Wilson, 1942 a (p.206, fig.M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.43); Sewell, 1947 (p.266); Moore, 1949 (p.64); Pucher, 1952 (p.102); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.73, Rem.M); Chiba, 1956 (p.10, figs.F); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.310); 1957 a (p.12); Marques, 1958 a (p.137, figs.M); Fagetti, 1962 (p.47); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.611, figs.F,M, Rem.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.103); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.116, figs.F,M); Vilela, 1968 (p.34, figs.F); Ramirez, 1969 (p.95, figs.M, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.229); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.607, 671, figs.M); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.116, figs.F,M); Baessa de Aguiar, 1986 (1989) (p.62, figs.F,M); Chae & Nishida, 1994 (p.205, 208, fig.M, integumental structure, pattern color); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.990, Pl.226: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.230); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 972, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.238, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.378, figs.F,M, Rem.); Gur & al., 2015 (p.8408, cuticular structure vs reflectance, figs.1, 2, 3); Gur & al., 2016 (p.1393, figs. 1, 2, 3, 6,color change vs physical mechanism)
Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.94, Lam. XIX, figs. 159, 163].
Male (from off Mar del Plata): 159, habitus (dorsal); 163, A2.
Scale bars in mm: 0.6 (159); 0.3 (163).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.612, Fig.32].
Male (from Strait of Messina): habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.612, Fig.33].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, A2.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.116, Fig.71].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, caudal rami (dorsal); c, A2; d, P2; e, endopodal segment 3 of P2; f, P4.

Male: g, habitus (dorsal); h, caudal rami (dorsal); i, A2; j, P2; k, endopodal segment 3 of P2; l, P4.

Scale bars in mm.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Chae & S. Nishida in Mar. Biol., 1994 (119). [p.208, Table 2, C).
Specific color for the male observed with reflected and transmitted light.

Nota: Color observed with reflected (R )and transmitted light (T): Metallic gold or silver, strong reflexion, rapidly changing (R); Gold at pigment sites, broad spectrum, red, yellow, blue, magenta and violet where cuticles overlap (T).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Chae & S. Nishida in Mar. Biol., 1994 (119). [p.208, Table 2, E-H).
Specific color for the male observed with reflected and transmitted light. E-H, the same individual as in (C), showing color change due to the specimen's slight movement.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 67, Figs.14-18].
Female: 14, A2; 15, P2; 16, habitus (dorsal); 17, P4; 18, P1.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.285, Fig.18].
Female: 3, A2.

Male: 1, caudal ramus (dorsal); 2, A1.
hy = hyaline margin.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.52].
Male: 52, habirus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.48].
Male: 48, Abdomen (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.47].
Male: 47, A1.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.49, 50, 51].
Male: 49, P1 (endopod); 50, P4; 51, P3 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Figs.53, 54 , 55].
Male: 53, Mx1; 54, Mxp; 55, A2.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.56].
Male: 56, P2 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : P.E. Lapernat & C. Razouls in Vie Milieu, 2002, 52 (1). [p.27, Pl. V, fig.2].
Female (from off Malta, Mediterranean Sea): 2, Md.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : D. Gur, B. Leshem, M. Pierantoni, V. Farstey, D. Oron, S. Weiner & L. Addadi in J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137. [p.8409, Fig.1]
Ultrastructure of Sapphirina metallina. (a) Light microscope image viewed through the dorsal surface showing an array of tightly packed hexagonal crystals. Inset: Fourier transform of the image demonstrating the regular packing.
(b, c) Cryo-SEM micrographs of a high-pressure-frozen, freeze-fractured S. metallina copepod: (b) Transverse view showing the guanine crystals aligned perpendicular to the dorsal surface of the animal. The iridophores (Ir) are located just beneath the animal chitin procutile (Pc). Inset: schematic representation of the position of the crystal-containing cells (Ir) relative to the copepod anatomy. The copepod is presented in dorsal view. The right-hand side is a schematic representation of the cross section of the region indicated, which corresponds to the cryo-SEM micrograph.
(c) Dorsal view showing the tightly packed perfectly hexagonal crystals and the alternating layers of guanine crystals and cytoplasm beneath the procuticle.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : D. Gur, B. Leshem, M. Pierantoni, V. Farstey, D. Oron, S. Weiner & L. Addadi in J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2015, 137. [p.8410, Fig.2, a-d].
Reflectance and structural properties of individual copepods: (a-d) Sapphirina metallina
Column 1 (left) shows light microscope images of representative sapphitinid male specimens and column 2 their measured reflectances. Column 4 shows representative cryo-SEM images of the crystal-cytoplasm layer arrays and column 3 the simulated reflectance spectra.
The simulated reflectance was calculated on the basis of thecytoplasm (Cy) and crystal (Cr) thicknesses measured in cryo-SEM images from many differently colored specimens.
The results of these measurements are shown in column 3 for each color.
The measured reflectance en each spectrum is normalized to a silver mirror; the measured reflectance of (d) was also normalized to the crystal coverage area because of the lack of uniformity of the specimen.
The seeming disagreement between the measured and calculated reflectance spectra at short wavelengths in (c) and (d) is due to the short-wavelength edge of the light source


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 18 of morphological figuresssued from : D. Gur, B. Leshem, V. Farstey, D. Oron, L. Addadi & S. Weiner in Adv. Funct. Mater., 2016, 26 [p.1394, Fig.1, A, B).
Optical response (reflection mode) of sapphirinid male of Sapphirina metallina to either dark or light conditions. A: dark-adapted; B: light-adapted.


Species Sapphirina metallina - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : D. Gur, B. Leshem, V. Farstey, D. Oron, L. Addadi & S. Weiner in Adv. Funct. Mater., 2016, 26. [p.1396, Fig.3, A, B).
The reflectance and structural properties that accompany the male sapphirinid color change.
C: dark-adapted; D, light-adapted. Column I: light microscope images of the specimens; column II: measured reflectance; column III: simulated reflectance spectrum. The simulated reflectance was calculed based on the cytoplasm (Cy) and the crystal (Cr) thickness measured in cryo-SEM images: Dark-adaptated Cy: 190 ± 8 nm, Cr: 72 ± 4 nm. Light-adaptated Cy: 135 ± 5 nm, Cr: 69 nm ± 5 nm.
Column IV: representative cryo-SEM images of the crystal-cytoplasm layer arrays.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.346, 462, 515); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.322); King & Hida, 1955 (p.11); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.10, 16); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Björnberg, 1963 (p.88, Rem.); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Mazza, 1966 (p.73); 1967 (p.344); Pavlova, 1966 (p.45); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.78); Delalo, 1968 (p.139); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Binet & al., 1972 (p.69); Björnberg, 1973 (p.370, 389); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.557); Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 599); Dessier, 1979 (p.207); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.42); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Böttger-Schnack & al., 1989 (p.1089) ; Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Lozano, 1991 (p.173); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.108); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.93); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Chae & al., 1996 (p.20); Böttger-Schnack, 1997 (p.409); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.1,4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Lapernat, 1999 (p.38, Rem.); 2000 (tabl.3, 4); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 5, Appendix); Lapernat & Razouls, 2001 (tab.1); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Shimode & Shirayama, 2004 (tab.2); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.490, tab.2); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.164: tab.1); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Williamson & McGowan, 2010 (p.273, Table III, Pacific central gyres: N & S); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Guo & al., 2011 (p.567, table 2, indicator); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Gur & al., 2015 (p.8408, cuticular structure vs reflectance, figs.1, 2, 3); Gur & al., 2016 (p.1393, figs. 1, 2, 3, 6,color change vs physical mechanism)
NZ: 19

Distribution map of Sapphirina metallina by geographical zones
Species Sapphirina metallina - Distribution map 4issued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.327, Fig.58].
Zoogeographical distribution of S. metallina.
Species Sapphirina metallina - Distribution map 5issued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.116, Table 57].
Vertical distribution of Sappjirina metallina at the ''40-Mile Station'' in the Florida Current ( E Miami: ± 25°35'N, 79°27'W; depth 738 m).
SL 55: 21 VII 1958. B: during midnight.
Loc:
Antarct. (Indian: continent, very rare) (in Wolfenden, 1911), South Africa (E), Angola, Congo, off St. Helena Is. (N & SE), off Trindade Is., off Ascension Is., G. of Guinea, Ivorian shelf, Dakar, off Cape Verde Is. (S, N & NW), off Mauritania, Canary Is., off Madeira, Lisboa, Rio de Janeiro, Guadeloupe, Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, Yucatan, Venezuela, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), off SW Azores, Medit. (Algiers Bay, Ligurian Sea, Napoli, Strait of Messina, off Malta, N & S Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin), Red Sea, G. of Aden, off Socotra, Arabian Sea, Maldive Is., Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Indian, India (Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is. (Nankaurie Harbour), W Australia, Straits of Malacca, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, G. of Thailand, Viet-Nam, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Taiwan Strait, South China Sea), Taiwan (E, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon), S. Japan (Kuchinoerabu Is.), Japan, off Kamtchatka, Pacif. (W equatorial), Pacific (central gyres: N & S), Australia (Great Barrier), New Zealand, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, off S Hawaii, California, W Baja California, W Mexico , G. of Tehuantepec, Clipperton Is., Galapagos, Peru, N Chile
N: 124
Lg.:
(34) F: 2,04-1,92; M: 1,98-1,92; (35) F: 2,22; (46) M: 1,9; (91) F: ± 1,2; (135) F: 2,3; (180) F: 2,26-2,07; M: 2,14-2; (254) M: 2,1; (327) F: 2,12; (340) F: 2,1-1,8; M: 2; (449) F: 2,3; M: 1,9; (458) F: 2; 1,87; M: 2,08; 1,96; (530) M: 3; (531) M: 2,8; (618) M: 2,18; (648) F: 2,52-1,68; M: 2,58-1,61; (705) F: 2,112-1,942; M: 2,093-1,867; (788) F: 1,72-1,62; M: 1,7-1,5; (794) F: 2,5-1,3; M: 2,3-2; (805) F: 2,39-1,2; M: 2,39-1,4; (991) F: 1,68-2,52; M: 1,61-2,58; (1023) F: 1,86; M: 1,86; {F: 1,20-2,52; M: 1,40-3,00}
Rem.: epi-mesopelagic, (off Malta: 2000-3000 m).
Sampling depth (Antarct.) : 1200 m. Overall Depth Range: 0-500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 12/04/2016
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