issued from : C.T. Achuthankutty, N. Ramaiah & G. Padmavati in Pelagic biogeograpgy ICoPB II. Proc. 2nd Intern. Conf. Final report of SCOR/IOC working group 93, 9-14 July 1995. Workshop Report No. 142, Unesco, 1998. [p.8, Fig.6]. Salinity ranges for A. spinicauda in coastal and estuarine waters of Goa (India). Shaded area indicates the range of higher abundance.
Issued from : T. Yoshida, C.-F. Liong, A.M. Majid, T. Toda & B.H.R. Othman in Zoological Studies, 2012, 51 (5). [p.651, Fig.3]. Geographical records of A. pacifica, A. spinicauda, A. erythraea occurrences throughout the East Asian region.
S Korea, Japan, Tanabe Bay, Hong-Kong, Taiwan (N), Taiwan Strait (Amoy), Taiwan (S), Viet-Nam (Baie de Cauda), China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Xiamen Harbour], Arabian Sea, Ceylan, India (Saurashtra coast, W, Bombay, Mandovi-Zuari estuary, Goa, S, Burhabalanga estuary, Chilka Lake, Hooghly estuary, Mandarmani, Parangipettai coast), S South Africa (Richard's Bay Harbour and Mhlathuze Estuary), Ceylan, Mer d'Oman, Is. Nicobar, G. du Bengale, Birmanie, Kurau Riv., Straits of Malacca, Indonésie-Malaisie, Pacif. W (équatorial)
± brackish, estuary-neritic. The locality records in the Chinese and Korean seas seem to be confirmed. After Shanthi & Ramanibai (2011, p.135) the dominance of specis in the near shore waters from Cooum and Adyar (SE India) can be considered as an indicator of pollution status.
For Itoh (1970 a, fig.2, from co-ordonates) the Itoh's index value from mandibular gnathobase = 840.
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