Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Calanus ( Genus )
Calanus glacialis  Jaschnov, 1955   (F,M)
Syn.: Calanus finmarchicus : Damas & Koefoed, 1907 (part., p.382, tab.II, III); ? Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.13); Brodsky, 1950 (1972) (p.87, figs.F,M);
Calanus finmarchicus glacialis : Kun, 1969 (p.995, fig.F, Rem., chart); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.110, 115, 118, figs.)
Ref.:
Grainger, 1961 (p.663, figs.F,M, Rem.); Jaschnov, 1961 a (p.1326, biogeo); Brodsky, 1961 (p.14, fig.F); Jaschnov, 1963 (p.1005, fig.F, biogeo); Matthews, 1966 (p.479, Rem.); 1967 a (p.159, Rev.); Park, 1968 (p.530, figs.F, Rem.); Minoda, 1971 (p.9); Shih & al., 1971 (p.35, 201, 202: Rem.); Vidal, 1971 a (p.11, 21, figs.F,M); Frost, 1971 (p.23, figs.M, Rem.); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.63, 80,); Vyshkvartzeva, 1972 (1975) (p.188, figs.); Williams, 1972 (p.53, figs.F, carte); Frost, 1974 (p.77, figs.F,M, Rev.); Bradford & Jillett, 1974 (p.6); Jaschnov, 1975 (p.33, figs.F,M); Vyshkvartzeva, 1976 (p.14 & suiv., figs.); Fleminger & Hülsemann, 1977 (p.233, figs.F,M, geographical range-taxonomic divergence); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.156, figs.F,M, Rem.); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, cell nucleus); Fleminger, 1985 (p.275, 285, Table 4, Rem.: A1); Bradford, 1988 (p.76, Rem.); Schnack, 1989 (p.137, fig.7: Md); Bucklin & al., 1995 (p.658); Harris, 1996 (p.95, 98); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.738, Pl.66: F,M); Sundt & Melle, 1998 (p.207, fig.2, 3, Rem.: mitochondrial sequence); Melle & Skjoldal, 1998 (p.211, Rem.); Lindeque & al., 1999 (p.91, Biomol.); Bucklin & al., 1999 (p.239, molecular systematic); Bucklin & al., 2000 (p.1237, Rem.: molecular genetic analysis); G. Harding, 2004 (p.9, figs.F,M); Dalpadado & al., 2008 (p.2266, Fig.2: Md, Table 2, 3); Nelson & al., 2009 (p.129, molecular genetic); Gabrielsen & al., 2012 (p.1621, identification problem)
Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1968, 66 (3). [p.531, Pl.1, Figs.1-2].
Female: (subtropical-tropical Central North Pacific): 1, urosome (dorsal); 2, inner margins of coxae of P5.

Nota: The proportional lengths of prosome and urosome are about 3.5-3.7:1.The genital segment is wider than long (53:47). the inner margin of the coxa of P5 has 17 to 29 teeth. The 3rd endopodal segment of P5 has 5 or 6 setae.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1477, Fig.28, B].
Female: B: urosome (left: ventral); right: dorsal). Pore signature schematic by pooled samples (symbols are considerably larger than pores): Filled circle: 100 % presence; open circle: 95-99 % presence; triangle: 50-89 % presence. n =50.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [p.58, Fig.4].
Female (from N Atlantic): Lateral view (i) and ventral view (ii) of three urosomes showing the variation in shape of the spermathecae and the prominent operculum.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [Plate XVII].
Female (from N Atlantic): lateral view of the urosome of the three species C. helgolandicus, C.finmarchicus and C. glacialis showing the differences in shape of their spemathecae. The edge of the operculum is easily seen in C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [Plate XVIII, XIX].
Female (from N Atlantic):
Above: Ventral view of the urosomes of the three species showing the obvious differences in shape of the spermathecae. The genital pore is in a more posterior position in C. glacialis than in the other two species.
Below: A dorsal view of the spermathecae still attached to the basal plate. The spermatophore sac secretion which precedes the extrusion of the spermatozoa, is clearly seen in the spermathecae of C. finmarchicus. The lobed appearance of the spermathecal sacs of C. helgolandicus is also shown.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.24, Fig.1]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans: Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea and Central Arctic Ocean.
Male P5 of C. glacialis: A, limits of length measurements of left exopodal segments; B, 2nd basipodal segment and proximal exopodal and endopodal segments of left leg showing condyles (arrows) used as limits of segment length measurements; C, limits of length measurements of left endopodal segments.
D: Male P5 of C. finmarchicus (prosome length 2.61 mm; exopodal segment 1: endopodal segment 2 length ratio 2.06.
E: Male P5 of C. glacialis (prosome length 3.71 mm; exopodal segment 1:endopodal segment 2 length ratio 2.07.
All drawings are anterior views; complete armature and total length of all setae not shown.
Scales are 0.2 mm.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.25, Fig.2]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements)
Length of exopodal segment 1 (Re1) of the male P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).
Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.26, Fig.3]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Length of exopodal segment 2 (Re2) of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.27, Fig.4]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Length of exopodal segment 3 (Re3) of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.27, Fig.5]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Length of endopodal segment 2 (Ri2) of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.28, Fig.6]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Exopodal segment 1:endopodal segment 2 (Re1:Ri2) length ratio of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : N.V. Vyshkvartzeva in Issed. Fauny Moreď, 1972, 12 (20). [p.164, Fig.3].
Femele: Md (mastcatory edge with codification of the teeth).


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : N.V. Vyshkvartzeva in Issled. Fauny Moreď, 1972, 12 (20). [p.166, Fig.5, 2a, 2b].
Femele Md (masticatory edge): 1a, lateral view; 2b, another view (disstema).


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Chihara & M. Murano in An Illustrated Guide to Marine Plankton in Japan, 1997 [p.745, Pl. 66]. After Frost, 1974
Female: a-b, forehead with ocular (lateral and ventral, respectively).
1 : photoreceptors.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : S.B. Schnack in Crustacean Issue, 1989, 6. [p.144, Fig.7: 2].
2, Calanus glacialis (from Arctic): Cutting edge of Md.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky in Zool. Zh., 1959, 38, 10. [p.1541, Fig.3].
Comparison of coxopodite inner edge of P5 female for Calanus glacialis (1), Calanus finmarchicus (2) and Calanus helgolandicus (3).

Nota:
Calanus glacialis : Dentate plate on coxopodite has very short, blunt teeth and is sligh curved in central position. Teeth are close together, without spaces, numbering 30-34.
Calanus finmarchicus : Dentate plate on coxopodite has short, blunt teeth, with small spacings. Teeth-line not curved. Number of teeth 29-30.
Calanus helgolandicus : Dentate plate on coxopodite very characteristic; teeth have more or less parallel edges, are relatively small, strongly marked curve in middle of line; distal part of plate has closely set, elongated teeth; spaces between teeth only in central part of line, teeth here are rounded, not flat. Number of teeth 28 (according to Jaschnov most specimens from the North Sea had 28-33 teeth).


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky in Zool. Zh., 1959, 38, 10. [p.1542, Fig.4].
Comparison of left leg of P5 for Calanus glacialis (1), Calanus finmarchicus (2) and Calanus helgolandicus (3).

Nota:
Calanus glacialis : In segments of exopodite of left leg, the relation of width of 1st and 2nd segments to length of corresponding segments is 1 : 3. Left endopodite reaches almost half the length of the 2nd segment of the exopodite of the same leg.
Calanus finmarchicus : Relation of width to length of 1st and 2nd segments of exopodite of left leg is 1 : 2.5. Left endopodite extends beyond middle of 2nd segment of exopodite.
Calanus helgolandicus : Relation od width to length of 1st and 2nd segments of exopodite of left leg is 1 : 2.5. left endopodite reaches distal limit of first third of 2nd segment of exopodite of same leg.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : B.J. Hansen, K. Degnes, I.B. Řverjordet, D. Altin & T.R. Střrseth in Polar Biol., 2013, 36. [p.1578, Fig.1, B].
Calanus glacialis Stage V from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79°N, 12°E)


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.243, Fig.6 c].
Pore signature patterns of female urosome (ventral view shown below, dorsal view of genital segment and segment 2 (above).
Specimens (n = 50) from North Atlantic localities. Data include sample of 30 specimens from Arctic Ocean north of Alaska (Ice Flow, Beaufort Sea
Filled circles: integumental pore present in all specimens examined; open circles: pore present in from 90 to 99% of specimens examined; crosses: pore present in from 50 to 79% of specimens examined. Symbols used to indicate pores are not proportionate to actual pore size (latter range from 1 to 3 µm in diameter).

Nota: The distribution of integumental organs on the urosome of adult females was determined in specimens selected at random from samples representing a variety of localities within the North Atlantic distribution.
Compare with Calanus helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus.

Compl. Ref.:
Jaschnov, 1958 (p.838, fig.2); Grainger, 1961 (p.663, fig.); Grice, 1962 a (p.101, 102); 1963 a (p.495); Grainger, 1963 (p.66, Table I, II, fig.5, 6, 7, 9, chart, size); Mullin, 1963 (p.239, grazing rate); M.W. Johnson, 1963 (p.89, Table 1, 2); Brodsky, 1964 (p.105, 107); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223); Harding, 1966 (p.17, 65, 66, 71); Pertsova, 1967 (p.240); Dunbar & Harding, 1968 (p.319); Conover & Corner, 1968 (p.49, 59, respiration & nitrogen excretion); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.53, 58, 94, 262, 266); Mullin, 1969 (p.308, Table I: estimates of production); Jaschnov, 1970 (p.199, geographic chart); Corkett, 1972 (p.171, eggs: development rate); Beaudouin J., 1973 (p.69); Landry, 1975 a (p.434, Rem.: p.437, fig.3); Kolosova, 1975 (p.92, fig. 3, Table 1); 1978 (p.320); Kosobokova, 1980 (p.84, caloric value); Huntley, 1981 (p.831, ingestion rate vs. food concentration); Buchanan & Sekerak, 1982 (p.41, vertical distribution); van der Spoel & Heyman, 1983 (p.62, fig.78); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, body size vs. nucleus counts); Hassel, 1983 (p. 1, fig.3, abundance, distribution); Huntley & al., 1983 (p.143, Table 2, 3); Herman A.W., 1983 (p.709, vertical abundance vs. Chl.a); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4, Rem.); Sameoto, 1984 (p.213, Table 1, fig.3, 6, 8); Arashkevich & Drits, 1984 (p.247, feeding, fecal pellet length); 1984 a (p.513, ingestion rate v.s. food particle size); Peruyeva, 1984 (p.253, Table 1, feeding); Bamstedt, 1984 (p.257, feeding); Smith & al., 1985 (p.693); Bamstedt & Tande, 1985 (p.259, respiration, excretion, Table 2: literature data); Tande & Bagmstedt, 1985 (p.251, gut contents excretion)); Head & al., 1985 (p.281, gut pigment analysis); Conover & al., 1986 (p.878, Table1, filtration rate); Head & al., 1986 (p.271, grazing); Hirche, 1987 (p.347, activity, respiration v.s. temperature); Hirche & Bohrer, 1987 (p.11, egg production); Conover & al., 1988 (p.267, Table I, IV, grazing respiration, excretion); Runge & Ingram, 1988 (p.280, grazing); Head & al., 1988 (p.333, Table 1, 2, gut analysis, defecation rate); S.L. Smith, 1988 (p.145, feeding, respiration, ammonium, excretion, ice-edge effect); McLaren & al., 1988 (p.275, DNA content, development rate: egg-nauplius); Tande, 1988 a (p.457, respiration, excretion, gut evacuation v.s. temperature); Tande & Henderson, 1988 (p.333, lipid composition); McLaren & al., 1989 (p.560, life history, annual production); Ikeda & Skjoldal, 1989 (p.173, oxygen consumption, N & P excretion, O:N vs. body weight); Hirche, 1989 (p.311, egg production); Estep & al., 1990 (p.235, grazing); S.L. Smith, 1990 (p.59, egg production, lipid, gut content); Hansen B. & al., 1990 (p.5, grazing); Conover & al., 1991 (p.177); Hirche, 1991 (p.351); Hirche & al., 1991 (p.477, Fig.3, 6, 7, 8, Table 2); Conover & Huntley, 1991 (p.1, fig. 2, 3, 5, Table 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, polar seas comparison); Hirche & Mumm, 1992 (p.S485, geographic distribution, egg production); Head, 1992 (p.583, gut pigment destruction); Herman, 1992 (p.395, fig.8 b, size distribution by OPC); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table 1, A1, eggs, egg-adult weight, temperature-dependent production); Escribano & McLaren, 1992 (p.77, food-temperature-length-weigt); Hirche & Kattner, 1993 (p.615, egg production, lipid content); Mumm, 1993 (tab.1, fig.2); Richter, 1994 (tab.4.1a); Pedersen & al., 1995 (p.266, tabl.II); Petryashov & al., 1995 (tab.1); Ashjian & al., 1995, p.4371, Fig.4, 5, 6, Table 2, 4); DFO, 1996 (p.1, fig.6, interannual abundance); Albers & al., 1996 (p.347, lipids v.s. diet); Hanssen, 1997 (tab.3.1); Daly, 1997 (p.319, Table 4, fecal pellets); Hirche & Kwasniewski, 1997 (p.299, Table 1, 2, 4, 5, Fig.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13); Ashjian & al., 1997 (p.279, Table 1, 2, Figs. 2, 3, 4 A,D); Niehoff, 1998 (p.53, gonad maturation); Melle & Skjoldal, 1998 (p.211, egg production, development); Weslawski & Legezynska, 1998 (p.1238); Sameoto & al., 1998 (p.1, 7, figs. 8, 9, spatial distribution, interannual variation); Kosobokova & al., 1998 (tab.2); Mumm & al., 1998 (p.189, Figs.3, 4); Conover & Gustavson, 1999 (p.41, tab.6); B.W. Hansen & al., 1999 (p.233, seasonal abundance & biomass); Thibault & al., 1999 (p.1391); Kosobokova, 1999 (p.254, life history; Kosobokova & Hirche, 2000 (p.2029, tab.2); DFO, 2000 a (p.1, Rem.: p.8, fig., interannual variations); Musaeva & Suntsov, 2001 (p.511); Hill & al., 2001 (p.279, fig.2: phylogeny); Madsen & al., 2001 (p.75, development & production vs. annual); Fortier M. & al., 2001 (p.1263, fig.6, 7, diel vertical migration); Lischka & al., 2001 (p.186); Sameoto, 2001 (p.749, Table 4, Rem.: decadal changes); Johns & al., 2001 (p.2121, Rem: long-term series); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.1692); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Auel & Hagen, 2002 (p.1013, tab. 2, 3); Pasternak & al., 2002 (p.147, fig.8, Table 4, feeding activity vs. egg production, faecal pellets); Ringuette & al., 2002 (p.5081, Table 1, 2, Fig.6, population dynamic); Arashkevich & al., 2002 (p.125, seasonal & regional variations); Pertsova & Kosobokova, 2002 (p.226, interannual vatiation); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Astthorsson & Gislason, 2003 (p.843); Kosobokova & al., 2003 (p.697, tab.2); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2003 (p.769, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, Table 2, 3); Ashjian & al., 2003 (p.1235, figs.); Gislason & Astthorsson, 2004 (p.472, tab.1); Lindeque & al., 2004 (p.121, fig.2); CPR, 2004 (p.50, fig.138); Beaugrand, 2004 (p.3, fig.4); Veistheim & al., 2005 (p.382, tab.2, fig.1); Dmoch & Walczowski, 2005 (p.102 + poster); Thor & al., 2005 (p.341); Hopcroft & al., 2005 (p.198, table 2); Arnkvaern & al., 2005 (p.528, dynamic); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2006 (p.101, tab.1); Lindeque & al., 2006 (p.221); Hop & al., 2006 (p.182, Table 4, 5: inter-annual variability, fig.17); Tamelander & al., 2006 (p.231, isotopic composition); Deibel & Daly; 2007 (p.271, Table 1, 2, 3, 5, Rem.: Arctic polynyas); Walkusz & al., 2007 (p.43); Daase & al., 2007 (p.903, abundance/T°S); Wold & al., 2007 (p.655, Rem/ Lipids composition); Falk-Petersen & al., 2007 (p.147, Table 9.1); Orlova & al., 2007 (p.145, climate effects); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.63, Rem.); Olli & al., 2007 (p.84, Rem.: ice drift); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2007 (p.2716, Table 2); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2007 (p.2729, geographic distribution); Riser & al;, 2007 (p.719, faecal pellet, Table 2)Lane & al., 2008 (p.97, Tab.4, 6, fig.8); Humphrey, 2008 (p.83: Appendix A); Jensen & al., 2008 (p.99, pyrene effect); Pasternak & al., 2008 (p.2245, Table 1, 2, 3, grazing); Darnis & al., 2008 (p.994, Table 1, figs.8, 9); Falk-Petersen & al., 2008 (p.2275, depth distribution); Walkusz & al., 2008 (p.1, Table 3, abundance); Sřreide & al., 2008 (p.2225, feeding strategy); Tamelander & al., 2008 (p.2330, fig.3, Table 1, organic matter); Madsen & al., 2008 (p.177, egg production); Madsen & al., 2008 (p.63, development, production); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2008 (p.2210, Table 2, 3, 5, fig.4, biomass, composition vs climatic regimes); Pepin & al., 2008 (p.1, 9, figs. 21, 26, 30, 31, 32, 34, interannual variations); Harvey & Devine, 2009 (Table 4 & others); Campbell & al., 2009 (p.1274, Table 2, 3, figs.3, 5, 6, grazing); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2009 a (p.11, Table 2, abundance); Hopcroft & al., 2009 (p.9, Table 3); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2009 (p.265, Table 4, fig.9: chart, biomass); Kosobokova & Hopcroft, 2010 (p.96, Table 1, fig.7); Homma & Yamaguchi, 2010 (p.965, Table 2); Head & Pepin, 2010 (p.1633, inter-decadal variability); Hopcroft & al., 2010 (p.27, Table 1, 2); Bucklin & al., 2010 (p.40, Table 1, Biol mol.); Templeton, 2010 (p.1, p.15: fig.12, interannual variations); Kwasniewski & al., 2010 (p.72, Table 2, abundance vs hydrography); Tang & al., 2011 (p.77, composition & biomass); Dünweber & al., 2010 (p.11, biomass, gut content); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2010 (p.991, Table 2); 2011 a (p.1231, Table 2: abundance, biomass); Dvoretsky V.G., 2011 (p.361, abundance, stage composition); Kosobokova & al, 2011 (p.29, Table 2, figs.4, 6, Rem.: Arctic basins); Forest & al., 2011 (p.161, biomass, chemical composition); Hansen B.H. & al., 2011 (p.704, ecotoxicology); Pomerleau & al., 2011 (p.1779, Table III, IV, V, VI, VII); Homma & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, abundance, feeding pattern: suspension feeders); Swalethorp & al., 2011 (p.429, grazing, egg production and life strategies); Pepin & al., 2011 (p.273, Table 2, seasonal abundance); Matsuno & al., 2012 (Table 1, 2, 3, fig.4, 7); Forest & al., 2012 (p.1301, figs.7, 8); Carstensen & al., 2012 (p.951, Fig.2, 9, biomass); DiBacco & al., 2012 (p.483, Table S1, ballast water transport); Tammilehto & al., 2012 (p.165, nutition, algal toxicity); Dalpadado & al., 2012 (p.1, abundance vs. climate change); Pasternak & al., 2012 (p.377, feeding rate: Stage V); Klok & al., 2012 (p.24, ecotoxicology); Trudnowska & al., 2012 (p.18, Table 1, abundance vs hydrography); Weydmann & al., 2012 (p.39, egg production vs pH); Freese & al., 2012 (p.66, enzyme activity vs temperature & pH); Kwasniewski & al., 2012 (p.890, interannual variability); Gusmao & al., 2013 (p.279, fig.1, sex ratio vs predators, fig.4: seasonal variation of sex ratio); Hansen B.H. & al., 2013 (p.1577, metabolism); Hsiao & Fang, 2013 (p.175, Table 2: Hg bioaccumulation); Pasternak & al., 2013 (p.547, egg production); Questel & al., 2013 (p.23, Table 3, interannual abundance & biomass, 2008-2010); Peijnenburg & Goetze, 2013 (p.2765, genetic data); Pepin, 2013 (p.119, fig.3, abundance vs transect); Hansen B.W. & al., 2013 (p.276, toxicity effect, gene expression); Usov & al., 2013 (p.1, interannual abundance vs temperature 1961-2010)
NZ: 5

Distribution map of Calanus glacialis by geographical zones
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 2
Chart of 1996
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 3issued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [p.55, Fig.1].
Ditribution of stages V and VI in the North Atlantic from the Continuous Plankton Recorder.
The chart show the average abundance and distrubution derived from more than 43.000 samples taken a depth of 10 m during 1958 to 1968. The samples were assigned to rectangles of 1° lat. by 2° long. The boundary of the sampled area (defined as those rectangles sampled in more than 5 months) is shown by the straight lines in the chart; within this area the average abundance in each rectangle is shown by circular symbols; the presence of the species in the occasional samples outside this area is indicated by plus signs. The absence (in the sampled area) indicates that the species was not found in CPR.
large and small filled in circles and open circles, respectively, are used to indicate the following categories of abundance (average numbers per sample of 3.3 m3: >0.08 : 0.08-0.03 : <0.03
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 4issued from : N. Mumm, H. Auel, H. Hanssen, W. Hagen, C. Richter & H.-J. Hirche in Polar Biol., 1998, 20. [p.192, Fig.1, p.194, Fig.3]
Fig.1 after Diepenbroek & al., 1997; Station map, the dark line connects stations of different expeditions to a transpolar transect (AB: Amundsen Basin, BS: Barents Sea; GL: Greenland; GS: Greenland Sea; LR: Lomonov Ridge; MB: Makarov Basin; MJP: Morris Jessup Plateau; NB: Nansen Basin; NG: Nansen-Gakkel Ridge; SB: Spitsbergen; WSC: West Spitsbergen Current; YP: Yermak Plateau

Fig.3: Biomass share (% of total mesozooplankton dry mass) of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and other taxa in 0- to 500 m depth of different Arctic regions (DM total: mean total dry mass).
Note the co-occuring of the three species, but the the different abundance according to the basins.
C. finmarchicus reached a maximum abundance in the WSC, this form was the dominant species in the West Spitsbergen Current and south of the central Nansen Basin.
Note C. glacialis is more important towards the north than the south.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 5issued from : M.C. Kun Zool. Zh., 1969, 48 (7). [p.1000, Fig.3].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis (1), pacificus (2) and sinicus (3) (as Calanus finmarchicus glacialis, pacificus and sinicus in the Japan Sea.
Most cold-water form indicator of the Primorsky Current (C. glacialis. C. pacificus form of the zone where warm and cold weters mix up. C. sinicus form of the Yellow Sea which is carried , primarly, into the East China Sea and, then, into the Sea of Japan and, thus can serve as an indicator of the Yellow Sea waters.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 6issued from : W.A. Jaschnov in Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol., 1970, 55 (2). [p.200, Fig.1]
Distribution of Calanus glacialis from literary sources (as C. finmarchicus) and unpublished data.
Solid lines indicate the position of the convergence zones. Arrows denote some of the currents. Dark circles indicate occurrence in reproduction areas, semi-dark circles in immigrated areas and white circles in expatriation areas (usual single findings).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 7issued from : E.H. Grainger in J. Fish. Bd. Canada, 1961, 18 (5). [p.673, Fig.6].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus in northern North America.
Circles indicate collection first reported by the author, squares collections described by others (mostly Jespersen, 1934). Arrows denote principal water movements.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 8issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.77, Fig.5].
Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Numbers of a few stations are shown.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 9issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.78, Fig.6].
Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Numbers of a few stations are shown.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 10issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.79, Fig.7].
Labrador and southeast Canadian waters. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 11issued from : I.A. McLaren, M.J. Tremblay, C.J. Corkett & J.C. Roff in Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989, 46. [p.578, Fig.16].
Relative abundances of stages of Calanus glacialis in samples from Browns Bank (42°35'N, 65°50'W), the samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 70-80 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.202 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh). and Emerald Bank (43°30'N, 63°00'W), the samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 25 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.250 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh)..
Bars are No.-100/m3 for Emerald and No./haul for Browns Bank.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 12Issued from : J.E. Sřreide, S. Falk-Petersen, E.N. Hegseth, H. Hop, M.L. Carroll, K.A. Hobson & K. Blachowiak-Samolyk in Deep-Sea Res., II, 2008, 55. [p.2228, Fig.1].
Study sites in the Svalbard region. The biomass (dry-weight b/m2) of the population of Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus (CI-adult) is shown for the main sampling locations (data from Stn. NK2 is missing) and the Atlantic and Arctic water masses are indicated by arrows (WCS: west Spitsbergen Current). The location of the ice edge (defined as 30% ice concentrations) is indicated for selected dates.

Nota: Stable isotope and fatty acid trophic marker techniques were employed together to assess trophic level, carbon sources (phytoplankton vs. ice algae), and diet of the three Calanus species.
Patterns in absolute fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition revealed that diatoms were the most important food for C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, followed by Phaeocystis, whereas diatoms, Phaeocystis and other small autotrophic flagellates were equally important for C. finmarchicus. During periods of lower algal biomass, only C. glacialis exhibited evidence of significant dietary switch, with a trophic level indicative of omnivory.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 13Issued from : S. Falk-Petersen & al. in Deep-Sea Res., 2008, 55. [p.2282, Table 5].
Arctic Ocean, Ice Stations 1 (82°N, 11°E) on 2 September 2004, and 2 (82°30'N, 21°E) on 4 September 2004: Depth distribution of mesozooplankton in the upper 1200 m.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 14Issued from : S. Falk-Petersen & al. in Deep-Sea Res., 2008, 55. [p.2281, Fig.8].
Arctic Ocean, Ice Stations 1 (82°N, 11°E) on 2 September 2004, and 2 (82°30'N, 21°E) on 4 September 2004: Temperature (black profile), relative fluorescence values (red line), salinity (dotted line).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 15Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Mřller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.83, Fig.4]
Calanus glacialis (from the continental slope off Fyllas Bank to the inner part of Godthabsfjord, SW Greenland, corresponding to stations 0 to 20) in the summer (2008).
Contour plots of biomass (mg C/m3) of all developmental stages collected from 4 to 9 strata with a multinet samples (300 µm mesh aperture)
Dots are mid-points of sampling intervals. Numbers on top are stations. Hatched area = bottom topography.

Compare this distribution with the other dominant large zooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus hyperboreus and Metridia longa for the same transect.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 16Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Mřller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.79, Fig.1]
Station positions along Godthabsfjord in southwestern Greenland.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 17Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Mřller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.81, Fig.2]
Contour plots of water temperature (°C), salinity, density (kg/m3) and chlorophyll a (mg/m3) along the transect of Godthabsfjord.
Distances were measured from Station o. Note the different contour line scales for different panels.
Hatched area in each panel represents bottom topography.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 18Issued from : DFO in DRO Sci. Stock Status Rep. G3-02 (2000). [p.8].
Abundance of C. glacialis in Emerald Basin (Nova Scotia) during the years 1982 to 1998.
Nota: Compare with Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus finmarchicus.
See in Sameoto & al., 1997.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 19Issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.245, Table 4].
Length of prosome (mm) and number of teeth on coxopodite of P5 in adult females selected at random from samples used to determine urosome pore signature.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 20Issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.241, Fig.5 c].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis sensu stricto in North Atlantic and adjacent seas based on published litterature (squares: Edinburg Oceanographic Laboratory, 1973; open triangles: Jaschnov, 1970; present records: circles). Stippled areas approximate inhabited region beyond or at perimeter of North Atlantic Ocean.

Nota: In view of their present geographical distributions, large-scale seasonally recurrent sympatry of C. helgolandicus and C. glacialis occurrs only in the western North Atlantic where hydrographic circulations annually bring Labrador water, indigenous boreal water and warm temperature water into confluence
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 21Issued from : A.W. Herman in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1983, 28 (4). [p.710, Fig.1].
(a) Volume distribution of copepods from a batfish sample as measured by microscope. Dominant copepods identified in the northeastern Baffin Bay: 3 Calanus finmarchicus (stage V), 4 Calanus glacialis (stage V), 5 Calanus hyperboreus (stage V); 6 Calanus hyperboreus (stage VI). Low abundances were found among 1 Pseudocalanus minutus and 2 C. hyperboreus (stage III).
(b) Volume distribution from the same sample as in panel a, measured by the electronic zooplankton counter.

Nota: The study area extends from 75° to 76°N and 68° to 72°W, from 30 July to 2 August 1980
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 22Issued from : N. Usov, I. Kutcheva, I. Primakov & D. Martynova in Hydrobiologia, 2013, 706. [p.18, Fig.3].
Long-term dynamics of monthly temperature, salinity and Calanus glacialis abundance in the layer of 0-10 m in Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) from 1961 to 2010. Sampling from water layers (0-10, 10-25, and 25-45 m) using a standard Juday net (mesh size 200 µm).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 23Issued from : N. Usov, I. Kutcheva, I. Primakov & D. Martynova in Hydrobiologia, 2013, 706. [p.17, Fig.2 & p.23, Fig.7].
Long-term average of Chl a and seasonal dynamics of Calanus glacialis in Chupa Inlet (White Sea).
Loc:
Arct. (all polar basins), Nansen Basin, Amundsen basin, Barrow Strait, Arct. (Fletcher's Ice Is.), Fram Strait, Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago, White Sea, Chupa Inlet, Barents Sea, Franz Josef Land, Pechora Sea, Laptev Sea, Lomonosov Ridge, Chukchi Sea, SE Beaufort Sea, Canada Basin), Devon Island, Amundsen Gulf, Barrow Strait, Fram Strait, Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen), Svalbard, Greenland Sea, Baffin Bay, Disko Bay, off shore Godthabsfjord, Davis Strait, Labrador Sea, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Browns Bank, Emerald Basin, G. of St. Lauwrence, Rimouski, off Newfoundland, Gulf of Maine (rare), Atlant. NE & NW (temperate), Norway (fjords), off Bear Island, Kouriles-Kamtchatka, Okhotsk Sea, Bering Sea, S Aleutian Basin, off N Hawaii
N: 203
Lg.:
(72) F: 4,3-3,4; M: 3,7-3,1; (329) F: 5,46-3,6; M: 5,36-3,9; (339) F: 5,05; (796) F: 5,6-4,7; M: 4,35-5,55; (866) F: 3,3-5,5; M: 3,9-5,4; (1099) F: 4,25-6,0; {F: 3,30-6,00; M: 3,10-5,60}
Rem.: Certain confusions exist in the literature between C. glacialis and C. marshallae on one side (Pacific Ocean) and between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis on the other (Atlantic Ocean) (Cf. Park, 1974, p.77 & followings).
For Frost (1971, p.29) C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis are distinct species and disagrees with the opinions of Aurich (1966) and Matthews (1967) who worked primarily with the female taxonomic characters developped by Jaschnov (1955, 1957).
This polar species seems to have increased recently in the NW Atlantic, till 39° latitude (Johns & al., 2001) off Georges Bank and in the Central North Pacific till 30° ( Park, 1968).
Last update : 28/10/2014
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