Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Calanus ( Genus )
Calanus glacialis  Jaschnov, 1955   (F,M)
Syn.: Calanus finmarchicus : Damas & Koefoed, 1907 (part., p.382, tab.II, III); ? Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.13); Brodsky, 1950 (1972) (p.87, figs.F,M);
Calanus finmarchicus glacialis : Kun, 1969 (p.995, fig.F, Rem., chart); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.110, 115, 118, figs.)
Ref.:
Grainger, 1961 (p.663, figs.F,M, Rem.); Jaschnov, 1961 a (p.1326, biogeo); Brodsky, 1961 (p.14, fig.F); Jaschnov, 1963 (p.1005, fig.F, biogeo); Matthews, 1966 (p.479, Rem.); 1967 a (p.159, Rev.); Park, 1968 (p.530, figs.F, Rem.); Minoda, 1971 (p.9); Shih & al., 1971 (p.35, 201, 202: Rem.); Vidal, 1971 a (p.11, 21, figs.F,M); Frost, 1971 (p.23, figs.M, Rem.); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.63, 80,); Vyshkvartzeva, 1972 (1975) (p.188, figs.); Williams, 1972 (p.53, figs.F, carte); Frost, 1974 (p.77, figs.F,M, Rev.); Bradford & Jillett, 1974 (p.6); Jaschnov, 1975 (p.33, figs.F,M); Vyshkvartzeva, 1976 (p.14 & suiv., figs.); Fleminger & Hülsemann, 1977 (p.233, figs.F,M, geographical range-taxonomic divergence); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.156, figs.F,M, Rem.); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, cell nucleus); Fleminger, 1985 (p.275, 285, Table 4, Rem.: A1); Bradford, 1988 (p.76, Rem.); Nishida, 1989 (p.173, table 1: dorsal hump); Schnack, 1989 (p.137, fig.7: Md); Bucklin & al., 1995 (p.658); Harris, 1996 (p.95, 98); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.738, Pl.66: F,M); Sundt & Melle, 1998 (p.207, fig.2, 3, Rem.: mitochondrial sequence); Melle & Skjoldal, 1998 (p.211, Rem.); Lindeque & al., 1999 (p.91, Biomol.); Bucklin & al., 1999 (p.239, molecular systematic); Bucklin & al., 2000 (p.1237, Rem.: molecular genetic analysis); G. Harding, 2004 (p.9, figs.F,M); Dalpadado & al., 2008 (p.2266, Fig.2: Md, Table 2, 3); Nelson & al., 2009 (p.129, molecular genetic); Gabrielsen & al., 2012 (p.1621, identification problem)
Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1968, 66 (3). [p.531, Pl.1, Figs.1-2].
Female: (subtropical-tropical Central North Pacific): 1, urosome (dorsal); 2, inner margins of coxae of P5.

Nota: The proportional lengths of prosome and urosome are about 3.5-3.7:1.The genital segment is wider than long (53:47). the inner margin of the coxa of P5 has 17 to 29 teeth. The 3rd endopodal segment of P5 has 5 or 6 setae.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1477, Fig.28, B].
Female: B: urosome (left: ventral); right: dorsal). Pore signature schematic by pooled samples (symbols are considerably larger than pores): Filled circle: 100 % presence; open circle: 95-99 % presence; triangle: 50-89 % presence. n =50.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [p.58, Fig.4].
Female (from N Atlantic): Lateral view (i) and ventral view (ii) of three urosomes showing the variation in shape of the spermathecae and the prominent operculum.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [Plate XVII].
Female (from N Atlantic): lateral view of the urosome of the three species C. helgolandicus, C.finmarchicus and C. glacialis showing the differences in shape of their spemathecae. The edge of the operculum is easily seen in C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [Plate XVIII, XIX].
Female (from N Atlantic):
Above: Ventral view of the urosomes of the three species showing the obvious differences in shape of the spermathecae. The genital pore is in a more posterior position in C. glacialis than in the other two species.
Below: A dorsal view of the spermathecae still attached to the basal plate. The spermatophore sac secretion which precedes the extrusion of the spermatozoa, is clearly seen in the spermathecae of C. finmarchicus. The lobed appearance of the spermathecal sacs of C. helgolandicus is also shown.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.24, Fig.1]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans: Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea and Central Arctic Ocean.
Male P5 of C. glacialis: A, limits of length measurements of left exopodal segments; B, 2nd basipodal segment and proximal exopodal and endopodal segments of left leg showing condyles (arrows) used as limits of segment length measurements; C, limits of length measurements of left endopodal segments.
D: Male P5 of C. finmarchicus (prosome length 2.61 mm; exopodal segment 1: endopodal segment 2 length ratio 2.06.
E: Male P5 of C. glacialis (prosome length 3.71 mm; exopodal segment 1:endopodal segment 2 length ratio 2.07.
All drawings are anterior views; complete armature and total length of all setae not shown.
Scales are 0.2 mm.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.25, Fig.2]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements)
Length of exopodal segment 1 (Re1) of the male P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).
Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.26, Fig.3]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Length of exopodal segment 2 (Re2) of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.27, Fig.4]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Length of exopodal segment 3 (Re3) of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.27, Fig.5]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Length of endopodal segment 2 (Ri2) of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : B.W. Frost in J. Fish. Res.Bd. Canada, 1971, 28. [p.28, Fig.6]. Morphometric analysis of adult males fitting the descriptions of and calanus glacialis from samples scattered throughout the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans (see Fig.1 for the measurements).
Exopodal segment 1:endopodal segment 2 (Re1:Ri2) length ratio of the male left P5 plotted against prosome length (solid dots: C. finmarchicus; open circles: C. glacialis).

Equations of least-squares regression lines and correlation coefficients (parentheses).
The prosome was measured in lateral view from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of the last thoracic segment.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : N.V. Vyshkvartzeva in Issed. Fauny Moreï, 1972, 12 (20). [p.164, Fig.3].
Femele: Md (mastcatory edge with codification of the teeth).


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : N.V. Vyshkvartzeva in Issled. Fauny Moreï, 1972, 12 (20). [p.166, Fig.5, 2a, 2b].
Femele Md (masticatory edge): 1a, lateral view; 2b, another view (disstema).


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Chihara & M. Murano in An Illustrated Guide to Marine Plankton in Japan, 1997 [p.745, Pl. 66]. After Frost, 1974
Female: a-b, forehead with ocular (lateral and ventral, respectively).
1 : photoreceptors.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : S.B. Schnack in Crustacean Issue, 1989, 6. [p.144, Fig.7: 2].
2, Calanus glacialis (from Arctic): Cutting edge of Md.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky in Zool. Zh., 1959, 38, 10. [p.1541, Fig.3].
Comparison of coxopodite inner edge of P5 female for Calanus glacialis (1), Calanus finmarchicus (2) and Calanus helgolandicus (3).

Nota:
Calanus glacialis : Dentate plate on coxopodite has very short, blunt teeth and is sligh curved in central position. Teeth are close together, without spaces, numbering 30-34.
Calanus finmarchicus : Dentate plate on coxopodite has short, blunt teeth, with small spacings. Teeth-line not curved. Number of teeth 29-30.
Calanus helgolandicus : Dentate plate on coxopodite very characteristic; teeth have more or less parallel edges, are relatively small, strongly marked curve in middle of line; distal part of plate has closely set, elongated teeth; spaces between teeth only in central part of line, teeth here are rounded, not flat. Number of teeth 28 (according to Jaschnov most specimens from the North Sea had 28-33 teeth).


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : K.A. Brodsky in Zool. Zh., 1959, 38, 10. [p.1542, Fig.4].
Comparison of left leg of P5 male for Calanus glacialis (1), Calanus finmarchicus (2) and Calanus helgolandicus (3).

Nota:
Calanus glacialis : In segments of exopodite of left leg, the relation of width of 1st and 2nd segments to length of corresponding segments is 1 : 3. Left endopodite reaches almost half the length of the 2nd segment of the exopodite of the same leg.
Calanus finmarchicus : Relation of width to length of 1st and 2nd segments of exopodite of left leg is 1 : 2.5. Left endopodite extends beyond middle of 2nd segment of exopodite.
Calanus helgolandicus : Relation od width to length of 1st and 2nd segments of exopodite of left leg is 1 : 2.5. left endopodite reaches distal limit of first third of 2nd segment of exopodite of same leg.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : B.J. Hansen, K. Degnes, I.B. Øverjordet, D. Altin & T.R. Størseth in Polar Biol., 2013, 36. [p.1578, Fig.1, B].
Calanus glacialis Stage V from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79°N, 12°E)


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.243, Fig.6 c].
Pore signature patterns of female urosome (ventral view shown below, dorsal view of genital segment and segment 2 (above).
Specimens (n = 50) from North Atlantic localities. Data include sample of 30 specimens from Arctic Ocean north of Alaska (Ice Flow, Beaufort Sea
Filled circles: integumental pore present in all specimens examined; open circles: pore present in from 90 to 99% of specimens examined; crosses: pore present in from 50 to 79% of specimens examined. Symbols used to indicate pores are not proportionate to actual pore size (latter range from 1 to 3 µm in diameter).

Nota: The distribution of integumental organs on the urosome of adult females was determined in specimens selected at random from samples representing a variety of localities within the North Atlantic distribution.
Compare with Calanus helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus.


Species Calanus glacialis - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : K. Brodsky in Inform. Ser. 33. New Zealand Depart. Sc. Indust. Res., 1961. [p.13, Pl. 4, fig. 1].
Male (from Arctic Basin): 1, left P5.

Nota: left endopod reaches almost 1/2 the length of the 2nd exopodal segment of the leg.. The proportion of breadth to length of the 1st and 2nd exiopodal segments of the left leg is 1 : 3.

Compl. Ref.:
Jaschnov, 1958 (p.838, fig.2); Grainger, 1961 (p.663, fig.); Grice, 1962 a (p.101, 102); 1963 a (p.495); Grainger, 1963 (p.66, Table I, II, fig.5, 6, 7, 9, chart, size); Mullin, 1963 (p.239, grazing rate); M.W. Johnson, 1963 (p.89, Table 1, 2); Brodsky, 1964 (p.105, 107); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223); Harding, 1966 (p.17, 65, 66, 71); Pertsova, 1967 (p.240); Dunbar & Harding, 1968 (p.319); Conover & Corner, 1968 (p.49, 59, respiration & nitrogen excretion); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.53, 58, 94, 262, 266); Mullin, 1969 (p.308, Table I: estimates of production); Jaschnov, 1970 (p.199, geographic chart); Corkett, 1972 (p.171, eggs: development rate); Beaudouin J., 1973 (p.69); Landry, 1975 a (p.434, Rem.: p.437, fig.3); Kolosova, 1975 (p.92, fig. 3, Table 1); 1978 (p.320); Kosobokova, 1980 (p.84, caloric value); Huntley, 1981 (p.831, ingestion rate vs. food concentration); Buchanan & Sekerak, 1982 (p.41, vertical distribution); van der Spoel & Heyman, 1983 (p.62, fig.78); McLaren & Marcogliese, 1983 (p.721, body size vs. nucleus counts); Hassel, 1983 (p. 1, fig.3, abundance, distribution); Huntley & al., 1983 (p.143, Table 2, 3); Herman A.W., 1983 (p.709, vertical abundance vs. Chl.a); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.4, Rem.); Sameoto, 1984 (p.213, Table 1, fig.3, 6, 8); Arashkevich & Drits, 1984 (p.247, feeding, fecal pellet length); 1984 a (p.513, ingestion rate v.s. food particle size); Peruyeva, 1984 (p.253, Table 1, feeding); Bamstedt, 1984 (p.257, feeding); Smith & al., 1985 (p.693); Bamstedt & Tande, 1985 (p.259, respiration, excretion, Table 2: literature data); Tande & Bagmstedt, 1985 (p.251, gut contents excretion)); Head & al., 1985 (p.281, gut pigment analysis); Conover & al., 1986 (p.878, Table1, filtration rate); Head & al., 1986 (p.271, grazing); Hirche, 1987 (p.347, activity, respiration v.s. temperature); Hirche & Bohrer, 1987 (p.11, egg production); Conover & al., 1988 (p.267, Table I, IV, grazing respiration, excretion); Runge & Ingram, 1988 (p.280, grazing); Head & al., 1988 (p.333, Table 1, 2, gut analysis, defecation rate); S.L. Smith, 1988 (p.145, feeding, respiration, ammonium, excretion, ice-edge effect); McLaren & al., 1988 (p.275, DNA content, development rate: egg-nauplius); Tande, 1988 a (p.457, respiration, excretion, gut evacuation v.s. temperature); Tande & Henderson, 1988 (p.333, lipid composition); McLaren & al., 1989 (p.560, life history, annual production); Ikeda & Skjoldal, 1989 (p.173, oxygen consumption, N & P excretion, O:N vs. body weight); Hirche, 1989 (p.311, egg production); Estep & al., 1990 (p.235, grazing); S.L. Smith, 1990 (p.59, egg production, lipid, gut content); Hansen B. & al., 1990 (p.5, grazing); Conover & al., 1991 (p.177); Hirche, 1991 (p.351); Hirche & al., 1991 (p.477, Fig.3, 6, 7, 8, Table 2); Conover & Huntley, 1991 (p.1, fig. 2, 3, 5, Table 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, polar seas comparison); Hirche & Mumm, 1992 (p.S485, geographic distribution, egg production); Head, 1992 (p.583, gut pigment destruction); Herman, 1992 (p.395, fig.8 b, size distribution by OPC); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table 1, A1, eggs, egg-adult weight, temperature-dependent production); Escribano & McLaren, 1992 (p.77, food-temperature-length-weigt); Hirche & Kattner, 1993 (p.615, egg production, lipid content); Mumm, 1993 (tab.1, fig.2); Richter, 1994 (tab.4.1a); Pedersen & al., 1995 (p.266, tabl.II); Petryashov & al., 1995 (tab.1); Ashjian & al., 1995, p.4371, Fig.4, 5, 6, Table 2, 4); DFO, 1996 (p.1, fig.6, interannual abundance); Albers & al., 1996 (p.347, lipids v.s. diet); Hanssen, 1997 (tab.3.1); Daly, 1997 (p.319, Table 4, fecal pellets); Hirche & Kwasniewski, 1997 (p.299, Table 1, 2, 4, 5, Fig.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13); Ashjian & al., 1997 (p.279, Table 1, 2, Figs. 2, 3, 4 A,D); Niehoff, 1998 (p.53, gonad maturation); Melle & Skjoldal, 1998 (p.211, egg production, development); Weslawski & Legezynska, 1998 (p.1238); Sameoto & al., 1998 (p.1, 7, figs. 8, 9, spatial distribution, interannual variation); Kosobokova & al., 1998 (tab.2); Mumm & al., 1998 (p.189, Figs.3, 4); Conover & Gustavson, 1999 (p.41, tab.6); B.W. Hansen & al., 1999 (p.233, seasonal abundance & biomass); Thibault & al., 1999 (p.1391); Kosobokova, 1999 (p.254, life history; Kosobokova & Hirche, 2000 (p.2029, tab.2); DFO, 2000 a (p.1, Rem.: p.8, fig., interannual variations); Musaeva & Suntsov, 2001 (p.511); Hill & al., 2001 (p.279, fig.2: phylogeny); Madsen & al., 2001 (p.75, development & production vs. annual); Fortier M. & al., 2001 (p.1263, fig.6, 7, diel vertical migration); Lischka & al., 2001 (p.186); Sameoto, 2001 (p.749, Table 4, Rem.: decadal changes); Johns & al., 2001 (p.2121, Rem: long-term series); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.1692); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Auel & Hagen, 2002 (p.1013, tab. 2, 3); Pasternak & al., 2002 (p.147, fig.8, Table 4, feeding activity vs. egg production, faecal pellets); Ringuette & al., 2002 (p.5081, Table 1, 2, Fig.6, population dynamic); Arashkevich & al., 2002 (p.125, seasonal & regional variations); Pertsova & Kosobokova, 2002 (p.226, interannual vatiation); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Astthorsson & Gislason, 2003 (p.843); Kosobokova & al., 2003 (p.697, tab.2); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2003 (p.769, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, Table 2, 3); Ashjian & al., 2003 (p.1235, figs.); Gislason & Astthorsson, 2004 (p.472, tab.1); Lindeque & al., 2004 (p.121, fig.2); CPR, 2004 (p.50, fig.138); Beaugrand, 2004 (p.3, fig.4); Veistheim & al., 2005 (p.382, tab.2, fig.1); Dmoch & Walczowski, 2005 (p.102 + poster); Thor & al., 2005 (p.341); Hopcroft & al., 2005 (p.198, table 2); Plourde & al., 2005 (p.3411, egg production vs season and region); Arnkvaern & al., 2005 (p.528, dynamic); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2006 (p.101, tab.1); Lindeque & al., 2006 (p.221); Hop & al., 2006 (p.182, Table 4, 5: inter-annual variability, fig.17); Tamelander & al., 2006 (p.231, isotopic composition); Willis & al., 2006 (p.39, Table 2, advection vs changes in community structure); Deibel & Daly; 2007 (p.271, Table 1, 2, 3, 5, Rem.: Arctic polynyas); Walkusz & al., 2007 (p.43); Daase & al., 2007 (p.903, abundance/T°S); Wold & al., 2007 (p.655, Rem/ Lipids composition); Falk-Petersen & al., 2007 (p.147, Table 9.1); Kattner & al., 2007 (p.1628, Table 1, Rem.: p.1634, seasonal pulsing phytoplankton vs dominance); Orlova & al., 2007 (p.145, climate effects); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.63, Rem.); Olli & al., 2007 (p.84, Rem.: ice drift); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2007 (p.2716, Table 2); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2007 (p.2729, geographic distribution); Riser & al;, 2007 (p.719, faecal pellet, Table 2); Head & Sameoto, 2007 (p.2686, abundance vs interdecadal variability); Kattner & al., 2007 (p.1628, Rem.: p.1634, seasonal pulsing phytoplankton vs dominance); Lane & al., 2008 (p.97, Tab.4, 6, fig.8); Humphrey, 2008 (p.83: Appendix A); Jensen & al., 2008 (p.99, pyrene effect); Pasternak & al., 2008 (p.2245, Table 1, 2, 3, grazing); Darnis & al., 2008 (p.994, Table 1, figs.8, 9); Falk-Petersen & al., 2008 (p.2275, depth distribution); Walkusz & al., 2008 (p.1, Table 3, abundance); Søreide & al., 2008 (p.2225, feeding strategy); Tamelander & al., 2008 (p.2330, fig.3, Table 1, organic matter); Madsen & al., 2008 (p.177, egg production); Madsen & al., 2008 (p.63, development, production); Blachowiak-Samolyk & al., 2008 (p.2210, Table 2, 3, 5, fig.4, biomass, composition vs climatic regimes); Pepin & al., 2008 (p.1, 9, figs. 21, 26, 30, 31, 32, 34, interannual variations); Harvey & Devine, 2009 (Table 4 & others); Campbell & al., 2009 (p.1274, Table 2, 3, figs.3, 5, 6, 7, grazing); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2009 a (p.11, Table 2, abundance); Norrbin & al., 2009 (p.1945, Table 4, 5, abundance); Hopcroft & al., 2009 (p.9, Table 3); Kosobokova & Hirche, 2009 (p.265, Table 4, fig.9: chart, biomass); Kosobokova & Hopcroft, 2010 (p.96, Table 1, fig.7); Homma & Yamaguchi, 2010 (p.965, Table 2); Head & Pepin, 2010 (p.1633, inter-decadal variability); Hopcroft & al., 2010 (p.27, Table 1, 2); Bucklin & al., 2010 (p.40, Table 1, Biol mol.); Templeton, 2010 (p.1, p.15: fig.12, interannual variations); Kwasniewski & al., 2010 (p.72, Table 2, abundance vs hydrography); Hsiao & al., 2010 (p.179, Table III, trace metal concentration); Tang & al., 2011 (p.77, composition & biomass); Leu & al., 2011 (p.18, figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, biomass, egg production, depth distribution, vs sea ice); Dünweber & al., 2010 (p.11, biomass, gut content); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2010 (p.991, Table 2); 2011 a (p.1231, Table 2: abundance, biomass); Dvoretsky V.G., 2011 (p.361, abundance, stage composition); Kosobokova & al, 2011 (p.29, Table 2, figs.4, 6, Rem.: Arctic basins); Forest & al., 2011 (p.161, biomass, chemical composition); Hansen B.H. & al., 2011 (p.704, ecotoxicology); Pomerleau & al., 2011 (p.1779, Table III, IV, V, VI, VII); Homma & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, abundance, feeding pattern: suspension feeders); Swalethorp & al., 2011 (p.429, grazing, egg production and life strategies); Pepin & al., 2011 (p.273, Table 2, seasonal abundance); Matsuno & al., 2011 (p.1349, Table 1, fig.5, abundance vs years); Hirche & Kosobokova, 2011 (p.2359, Table 3, abundance, biomass %); Wold & al., 2011 (p.1929, vertical distribution, seasonal lipid composition); Hjorth & Nielsen, 2011 (p.1339, fecal pellets production, egg production); Tang K.W. & al., 2011 (p.666, Figs.1, 2, 3, gut O2 profiles by microelectrodes); Matsuno & al., 2012 (Table 1, 2, 3, fig.4, 7); Forest & al., 2012 (p.1301, figs.7, 8); Carstensen & al., 2012 (p.951, Fig.2, 9, biomass); DiBacco & al., 2012 (p.483, Table S1, ballast water transport); Tammilehto & al., 2012 (p.165, nutition, algal toxicity); Dalpadado & al., 2012 (p.1, abundance vs. climate change); Pasternak & al., 2012 (p.377, feeding rate: Stage V); Klok & al., 2012 (p.24, ecotoxicology); Trudnowska & al., 2012 (p.18, Table 1, abundance vs hydrography); Weydmann & al., 2012 (p.39, egg production vs pH); Freese & al., 2012 (p.66, enzyme activity vs temperature & pH); Kwasniewski & al., 2012 (p.890, interannual variability); Berge & al., 2012 (p.191, evolution vs predation pressure by extinct baleen whales); Alvarez-Fernandez & al., 2012 (p.21, Rem.: Table 1); Parrish & al., 2012 (p.356, nutrition, lipids vs protists); Kjellerup & al., 2012 (p.87, egg , fecal pellet production vs temperature & food); Ji & al., 2012 (p.40, Table 1, fig.2: development, life history, biogeography); Demontigny & al., 2012 (p.221, Table II, fig.5, abundance, prey by ichthyoplankton); Persson & al., 2012 (p.71, climate effects); Sampei & al., 2012 (p.90, Table 1, 2, abundance in sediment trap); Gusmao & al., 2013 (p.279, fig.1, sex ratio vs predators, fig.4: seasonal variation of sex ratio); Hansen B.H. & al., 2013 (p.1577, metabolism); Hsiao & Fang, 2013 (p.175, Table 2: Hg bioaccumulation); Pasternak & al., 2013 (p.547, egg production); Questel & al., 2013 (p.23, Table 3, interannual abundance & biomass, 2008-2010); Peijnenburg & Goetze, 2013 (p.2765, genetic data); Pepin, 2013 (p.119, fig.3, abundance vs transect); Hansen B.W. & al., 2013 (p.276, toxicity effect, gene expression); Usov & al., 2013 (p.1, interannual abundance vs temperature 1961-2010); Kwasniewski & al., 2013 (p.83, Table 2, 3, abundance); Grenvald & al., 2013 (p.184, hatching success vs. pyrene toxicity); Dvoretsky & Dvoretsky, 2013 a (p.205, Table 2, % abundance); Arendt & al., 2013 (p.105, fig.3, abundance);
NZ: 5

Distribution map of Calanus glacialis by geographical zones
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 2
Chart of 1996
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 3issued from : R. Williams in Bull. mar. Ecol., 1972, 8. [p.55, Fig.1].
Ditribution of stages V and VI in the North Atlantic from the Continuous Plankton Recorder.
The chart show the average abundance and distrubution derived from more than 43.000 samples taken a depth of 10 m during 1958 to 1968. The samples were assigned to rectangles of 1° lat. by 2° long. The boundary of the sampled area (defined as those rectangles sampled in more than 5 months) is shown by the straight lines in the chart; within this area the average abundance in each rectangle is shown by circular symbols; the presence of the species in the occasional samples outside this area is indicated by plus signs. The absence (in the sampled area) indicates that the species was not found in CPR.
large and small filled in circles and open circles, respectively, are used to indicate the following categories of abundance (average numbers per sample of 3.3 m3: >0.08 : 0.08-0.03 : <0.03
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 4issued from : N. Mumm, H. Auel, H. Hanssen, W. Hagen, C. Richter & H.-J. Hirche in Polar Biol., 1998, 20. [p.192, Fig.1, p.194, Fig.3]
Fig.1 after Diepenbroek & al., 1997; Station map, the dark line connects stations of different expeditions to a transpolar transect (AB: Amundsen Basin, BS: Barents Sea; GL: Greenland; GS: Greenland Sea; LR: Lomonov Ridge; MB: Makarov Basin; MJP: Morris Jessup Plateau; NB: Nansen Basin; NG: Nansen-Gakkel Ridge; SB: Spitsbergen; WSC: West Spitsbergen Current; YP: Yermak Plateau

Fig.3: Biomass share (% of total mesozooplankton dry mass) of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and other taxa in 0- to 500 m depth of different Arctic regions (DM total: mean total dry mass).
Note the co-occuring of the three species, but the the different abundance according to the basins.
C. finmarchicus reached a maximum abundance in the WSC, this form was the dominant species in the West Spitsbergen Current and south of the central Nansen Basin.
Note C. glacialis is more important towards the north than the south.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 5issued from : M.C. Kun Zool. Zh., 1969, 48 (7). [p.1000, Fig.3].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis (1), pacificus (2) and sinicus (3) (as Calanus finmarchicus glacialis, pacificus and sinicus in the Japan Sea.
Most cold-water form indicator of the Primorsky Current (C. glacialis. C. pacificus form of the zone where warm and cold weters mix up. C. sinicus form of the Yellow Sea which is carried , primarly, into the East China Sea and, then, into the Sea of Japan and, thus can serve as an indicator of the Yellow Sea waters.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 6issued from : W.A. Jaschnov in Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol., 1970, 55 (2). [p.200, Fig.1]
Distribution of Calanus glacialis from literary sources (as C. finmarchicus) and unpublished data.
Solid lines indicate the position of the convergence zones. Arrows denote some of the currents. Dark circles indicate occurrence in reproduction areas, semi-dark circles in immigrated areas and white circles in expatriation areas (usual single findings).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 7issued from : E.H. Grainger in J. Fish. Bd. Canada, 1961, 18 (5). [p.673, Fig.6].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus in northern North America.
Circles indicate collection first reported by the author, squares collections described by others (mostly Jespersen, 1934). Arrows denote principal water movements.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 8issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.77, Fig.5].
Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Numbers of a few stations are shown.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 9issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.78, Fig.6].
Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Numbers of a few stations are shown.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 10issued from : E.H. Grainger in R. Soc. Canada, Spec. Publs., 1963, 5. [p.79, Fig.7].
Labrador and southeast Canadian waters. White circles show stations where C. glacialis occurred without C. finmarchicus, stipped and black circles relative occurrence of all copepodites stages of C. glacialis (stipped) and C. finmarchicus (black) at stations where both species occurred.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 11issued from : I.A. McLaren, M.J. Tremblay, C.J. Corkett & J.C. Roff in Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1989, 46. [p.578, Fig.16].
Relative abundances of stages of Calanus glacialis in samples from Browns Bank (42°35'N, 65°50'W), the samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 70-80 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.202 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh). and Emerald Bank (43°30'N, 63°00'W), the samples were obtained by vertical hauls from near bottom (usually 25 m) by Hensen-type nets (one of 0.250 mm mesh and the other of 0.064 mm mesh)..
Bars are No.-100/m3 for Emerald and No./haul for Browns Bank.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 12Issued from : J.E. Søreide, S. Falk-Petersen, E.N. Hegseth, H. Hop, M.L. Carroll, K.A. Hobson & K. Blachowiak-Samolyk in Deep-Sea Res., II, 2008, 55. [p.2228, Fig.1].
Study sites in the Svalbard region. The biomass (dry-weight b/m2) of the population of Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus (CI-adult) is shown for the main sampling locations (data from Stn. NK2 is missing) and the Atlantic and Arctic water masses are indicated by arrows (WCS: west Spitsbergen Current). The location of the ice edge (defined as 30% ice concentrations) is indicated for selected dates.

Nota: Stable isotope and fatty acid trophic marker techniques were employed together to assess trophic level, carbon sources (phytoplankton vs. ice algae), and diet of the three Calanus species.
Patterns in absolute fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition revealed that diatoms were the most important food for C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, followed by Phaeocystis, whereas diatoms, Phaeocystis and other small autotrophic flagellates were equally important for C. finmarchicus. During periods of lower algal biomass, only C. glacialis exhibited evidence of significant dietary switch, with a trophic level indicative of omnivory.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 13Issued from : S. Falk-Petersen & al. in Deep-Sea Res., 2008, 55. [p.2282, Table 5].
Arctic Ocean, Ice Stations 1 (82°N, 11°E) on 2 September 2004, and 2 (82°30'N, 21°E) on 4 September 2004: Depth distribution of mesozooplankton in the upper 1200 m.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 14Issued from : S. Falk-Petersen & al. in Deep-Sea Res., 2008, 55. [p.2281, Fig.8].
Arctic Ocean, Ice Stations 1 (82°N, 11°E) on 2 September 2004, and 2 (82°30'N, 21°E) on 4 September 2004: Temperature (black profile), relative fluorescence values (red line), salinity (dotted line).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 15Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Møller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.83, Fig.4]
Calanus glacialis (from the continental slope off Fyllas Bank to the inner part of Godthabsfjord, SW Greenland, corresponding to stations 0 to 20) in the summer (2008).
Contour plots of biomass (mg C/m3) of all developmental stages collected from 4 to 9 strata with a multinet samples (300 µm mesh aperture)
Dots are mid-points of sampling intervals. Numbers on top are stations. Hatched area = bottom topography.

Compare this distribution with the other dominant large zooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus hyperboreus and Metridia longa for the same transect.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 16Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Møller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.79, Fig.1]
Station positions along Godthabsfjord in southwestern Greenland.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 17Issued from : K.W. Tang, T.G. Nielsen, P. Munk, J. Mortensen, E.F. Møller, K.E. Arendt, K. Tönnesson, T. Juul-Pedersen in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 2011, 434. [p.81, Fig.2]
Contour plots of water temperature (°C), salinity, density (kg/m3) and chlorophyll a (mg/m3) along the transect of Godthabsfjord.
Distances were measured from Station o. Note the different contour line scales for different panels.
Hatched area in each panel represents bottom topography.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 18Issued from : DFO in DRO Sci. Stock Status Rep. G3-02 (2000). [p.8].
Abundance of C. glacialis in Emerald Basin (Nova Scotia) during the years 1982 to 1998.
Nota: Compare with Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus finmarchicus.
See in Sameoto & al., 1997.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 19Issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.245, Table 4].
Length of prosome (mm) and number of teeth on coxopodite of P5 in adult females selected at random from samples used to determine urosome pore signature.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 20Issued from : A. Fleminger & K. Hulsemann in Mar. Biol., 1977, 40. [p.241, Fig.5 c].
Distribution of Calanus glacialis sensu stricto in North Atlantic and adjacent seas based on published litterature (squares: Edinburg Oceanographic Laboratory, 1973; open triangles: Jaschnov, 1970; present records: circles). Stippled areas approximate inhabited region beyond or at perimeter of North Atlantic Ocean.

Nota: In view of their present geographical distributions, large-scale seasonally recurrent sympatry of C. helgolandicus and C. glacialis occurrs only in the western North Atlantic where hydrographic circulations annually bring Labrador water, indigenous boreal water and warm temperature water into confluence
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 21Issued from : A.W. Herman in Limnol. Oceanogr., 1983, 28 (4). [p.710, Fig.1].
(a) Volume distribution of copepods from a batfish sample as measured by microscope. Dominant copepods identified in the northeastern Baffin Bay: 3 Calanus finmarchicus (stage V), 4 Calanus glacialis (stage V), 5 Calanus hyperboreus (stage V); 6 Calanus hyperboreus (stage VI). Low abundances were found among 1 Pseudocalanus minutus and 2 C. hyperboreus (stage III).
(b) Volume distribution from the same sample as in panel a, measured by the electronic zooplankton counter.

Nota: The study area extends from 75° to 76°N and 68° to 72°W, from 30 July to 2 August 1980
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 22Issued from : N. Usov, I. Kutcheva, I. Primakov & D. Martynova in Hydrobiologia, 2013, 706. [p.18, Fig.3].
Long-term dynamics of monthly temperature, salinity and Calanus glacialis abundance in the layer of 0-10 m in Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) from 1961 to 2010. Sampling from water layers (0-10, 10-25, and 25-45 m) using a standard Juday net (mesh size 200 µm).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 23Issued from : N. Usov, I. Kutcheva, I. Primakov & D. Martynova in Hydrobiologia, 2013, 706. [p.17, Fig.2 & p.23, Fig.7].
Long-term average of Chl a and seasonal dynamics of Calanus glacialis in Chupa Inlet (White Sea).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 24Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.24, Fig. 6].
Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus Biomass (dry matter g per m2) in Rijpfjorden (80°15'N, 22°E) in 2007 and 2008.This study was performed in 2007 and in 2008 in Rijpfjorden (Svalbard) for the project CLEOPATRA (Climate effects on planktonic food quality and trophic transfer in Arctic marginal ice zone).

Nota: The relatively shallow fjord (max. 250 m deep) opens towards the Arctic Ocean. It is characterized by cold Arctic water masses and is covered by sea ice up to 9 months a year.
The zooplankton community is dominated by C. glacialis, making up >90% of the zooplankton biomass.
Zooplanktion was sampled vertically with WP2 closing nets.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 25Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.29, Fig. 12].
Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus abundance (a) and biomass (b) in Rijpfjorden in August/September 2003-2008 (nd = no data).
Samples were collected vertically with a multiple plankton sampler MPS consisting of five closing nets (mesh size 180-200 µm in 2003, and sampled with a WP2 net opening (mesh size similar). Samples were collected close to the mooring; bottom sampling depths ranged from 195 to 245 m. The abundance and biomass data were integrated from 5 m above the sea floor to the surface.
C. finmarchicus overwinters as CV and mainly has a 1-year life cycle north of the polar front. Highter sea-water temperature and longer ice-free periods are assumed to favor the boreal C. finmarchicus over the larger and more energy-rich Arctic C. glacialis. These species start their gonad development during winter, using reserves accumulated during the previous year. To successfully complete reproduction, however, C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus rely to different extents on the access to fresh food. The boreal C. finmarchicus is completely dependent on pelagic algae, whereas C. glacialis is able to actively feed upon the ice algal bloom and use this high quality food source to fuel gonad maturation and egg production. They can even spawn using exclusively their lipid reserves, but gonad maturation and egg production increase dramatically when fresh algal food is available.
The accelerating decrease of Arctic sea ice extent and thickness over the last decade (Stroeve & al., 2007; Camiso & al., 2008) has far-reaching consequences for the underwater light climate and thus the timing, quantity, and quality of primary production (Arrigo & al., 2008). As algae are intimately linked to the ice cover, them to be flexible and respond fast to a new climatic regime, but this flexibility may be less manifested in consumers and higher trophic levels with complex life history adaptations. Thinner ice and earlier ice breakup may thus lead to a temporal mismatch between the timing of the bloom and the zooplankton production. (Melle & Skjoldal, 1998; hansen & al., 2003). Less ice will also cause a shift in primary production from ice algae to phytoplankton (Hegseth, 1998), with a shorter temporal difference between the ice algal and phytoplankton blooms (Søreide & al., 2010). It is therefore unclear whether an elevated primary production really yields a corresponding increase in secondary production.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 26Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.25, Fig. 7].
Calanus glacialis egg, nauplii, and copepodite abundances in Rijpfjorden from March to October (nd = not determined).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 27Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.22, Table 3].
Measurement of Calanus glacialis egg production in Rijpfjorden in 2007 and 2008.Egg production rates were estimated from 24-h incubations in 2007, which in 2008 were improved to 3-4 day incubations (see in Smith, 1990) at close to in situ temperatures.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 28Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.26, Fig. 8].
Calanus glacialis copepodite stage composition in Rijpfjorden from March to October 2007 and August 2008.
C = copepodite stage; CAM = adult male; CAF = adult female.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 29Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.27, Fig. 10].
Total lipid content of Calanus glacialis CV in Rijpfjorden in 2007 and 2008.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 30Issued from : E. Leu, J.E. Søreide, D.O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen & J. Berge in Progress in Oceanography, 2011, 90. [p.23, Fig. 3].
Temperature and fluorescence profiles measured from September 2006 to September 2007 and September 2007 to August 2008 in Rijpfjorden by a mooring equipped with temperature loggers spaced through the water column.
Phytoplankton chlorophyll a (Chl a) was measured by a fluorometer placed at 17-m depth at the mooring, with measured values indicated on the right y-axis. The duration and timing of ice cover and the ice algal and phytoplankton blooms are indicated in the plots.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 31Issued from : M. Hjorth & T.G. Nielsen in Mar. Biol., 2011, 158. [p.1342, Fig. 2, d-f].
Cumulated specific faecal pellet production (SPP) in C. glacialis during exposure to six concentrations of pyrene at three temperatures (from left to right: 0.5 , 5 and 8°C).Asterisks denote a significant different (P <0.05) development from control.
Sampling of copepods conducted from 23 to 25 April 2008 in Disko Bay (69°15'N, 53°33'W)
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 32Issued from : M. Hjorth & T.G. Nielsen in Mar. Biol., 2011, 158. [p.1343, Fig. 3, d-f].
Cumulated specific egg production (SEP) in C. glacialis during exposure to six concentrations of pyrene at three temperatures (from left to right: 0.5 , 5 and 8°C).Asterisks denote a significant different (P <0.05) development from control.
Sampling of copepods conducted from 23 to 25 April 2008 in Disko Bay (69°15'N, 53°33'W)
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 33Issued from : M. Hjorth & T.G. Nielsen in Mar. Biol., 2011, 158. [p.1344, Fig. 5].
Hatching data for each species at the three water temperature, pooled across pyrene treatments and exposure times..
Sampling of copepods conducted from 23 to 25 April 2008 in Disko Bay (69°15'N, 53°33'W).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 34Issued from : M. Hjorth & T.G. Nielsen in Mar. Biol., 2011, 158. [p.1341, Table 1].
Size, carbon and lipid content of adult females of Calanus glacialis and carbon content of eggs and faecal pellets.
Sampling of copepods conducted from 23 to 25 April 2008 in Disko Bay (69°15'N, 53°33'W).
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 35Issued from : H.-J. Hirche & K. Kosobokova in Deep-Sea Research II, 2007, p.2742, Fig.8].
Egg production rates of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus at different temperatures and optimum food concentrations. Vertical bars ± SD.

Specimens collected in the Norwegian Sea at 9°C in June 1989, , incubated at five temperatures after acclimatation at 0°C for 4-7 days. They laid eggs in regular intervals during ca. 2 weeks.
Egg production rate increased exponentially with temperature over the range between - 1.5 and 8°C.

Nota: Comparison of the congeners C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis shows that the latter is at present better adaptated to life in the Arctic, because it can better utilize the patchy and mostly late phytoplankton occurrence that is often assocuated with polynyas such as the Northwater polynya in Baffin Bay (see Ringuette & al., 2000), Northeast Water polynya East Greenland shelf (see Hirche & al., 1994; Ashjan & al., 1995, 1997; Hirche & Kwasniewski, 1997), and Laptev Sea polynya (see Kosobokova & Hirche, 2011). Females of C. glacialis are long-lived (see Kosobokova, 1999) and are able to spawn if fed after long starvation periods (see Hirche, 1989). The use of ice algae (see Runge & Ingram, 1988) further expands its growth period.
In both the White Sea and the Lurefjord, 5°C seems to be a strong threshold above which dormancy is induced in female C. glacialis. Under continuing warming and strenthening of the Atlantic inflow, a replacement of C. glacialis by C. finmarchicus may happen first only in the later part of the year, when surface temperatures are surpassing this limit.
Species Calanus glacialis - Distribution map 36Issued from : L. Stempniewicz, K. Blachowiak-Samolyk & J.M. Weslawski in Deep-Sea Research, 2007, 54. [p. 2941, Fig .3].
Average % of Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus (stages CIV-VI + females) found in net tows (ind per m3) in water masses influenced by cold Sorkapp Current (Arctic water from South Spitsbergen), by warm West Spitsbergen Current (Atlantic water) and in the little Auk (little pinguin: plankton-eating seabirds) diet (diagram based on data from Karnovsky & al., 2003).
Loc:
Arct. (all polar basins), Nansen Basin, Amundsen basin, Barrow Strait, Arct. (Fletcher's Ice Is.), Fram Strait, Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago, Rijpfjorden, White Sea, Chupa Inlet, Barents Sea, Franz Josef Land, Pechora Sea, Laptev Sea, Lomonosov Ridge, Chukchi Sea, SE Beaufort Sea, Canada Basin), Devon Island, Amundsen Gulf, Barrow Strait, Fram Strait, Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen), Svalbard, Greenland Sea, Baffin Bay, Disko Bay, Nuuk, off shore Godthabsfjord, Davis Strait, Labrador Sea, Nova Scotia, Halifax, Browns Bank, Emerald Basin, G. of St. Lauwrence, Rimouski, off Newfoundland, Gulf of Maine (rare), NE & NW Atlant. (temperate), Norway (fjords), off Bear Island, Kuril-Kamchatka, Okhotsk Sea, Bering Sea, S Aleutian Basin, off N Hawaii
N: 227
Lg.:
(72) F: 4,3-3,4; M: 3,7-3,1; (329) F: 5,46-3,6; M: 5,36-3,9; (339) F: 5,05; (796) F: 5,6-4,7; M: 4,35-5,55; (866) F: 3,3-5,5; M: 3,9-5,4; (1099) F: 4,25-6,0; (1191) F: 3,69-3,94; {F: 3,30-6,00; M: 3,10-5,60}

The mean female size is 4.651 mm (n = 11; SD = 0.9506), and the mean male size is 4.408 mm (n = 8; SD = 0.9201). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.96.
Rem.: Certain confusions exist in the literature between C. glacialis and C. marshallae on one side (Pacific Ocean) and between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis on the other (Atlantic Ocean) (Cf. Park, 1974, p.77 & followings).
For Frost (1971, p.29) C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis are distinct species and disagrees with the opinions of Aurich (1966) and Matthews (1967) who worked primarily with the female taxonomic characters developped by Jaschnov (1955, 1957).
This polar species seems to have increased recently in the NW Atlantic, till 39° latitude (Johns & al., 2001) off Georges Bank and in the Central North Pacific till 30° ( Park, 1968).
Last update : 16/04/2016
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