Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Calanidae ( Family )
            Calanus ( Genus )
Calanus propinquus  Brady, 1883   (F,M)
Syn.: Calanus aculeatus Brady,1918;
no C. propinquus : Sewell, 1948 (p.395, 555); Ramirez, 1969 (p.35, figs.F,M)
Ref.:
Brady, 1883 (p.34, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (part., p.91, 129, figs.F,M) ; Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (part., p.15); Giesbrecht, 1902 (p.16, figs.F,M); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.190, Rem.F,M); Farran, 1929 (p.207, 214, Rem.); Vervoort, 1951 (p.27, figs.F,M, Rem.); 1957 (p.26, Rem.); Tanaka, 1960 (p.10, figs.F, juv.F); Tanaka, 1964 (p.5); Vervoort, 1965 b (p.384, figs.F,M); ? Ramirez, 1966 (p.5, figs.F,M); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.66, 67, 69, 234); Bradford, 1971 b (p.15, figs.F,M, Rem.); Marshall & Orr, 1972 (p.8); Brodsky, 1972 (1975) (p.9, 71, 87, 117, figs.); Vyshkvartzeva, 1972 (1975) (p.188, fig.); Bradford & Jillett, 1974 (p.6); Vyshkvartzeva, 1976 (p.14); 1977 a (p.97, figs.); Séret, 1979 (p.20, figs.F,M, Rem.); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.618, figs.F,M); Schnack, 1982 (p.144, fig.Md); Fleminger, 1985 (p.275, 285, Table 1, 4, Rem.:A1); Prado Por, 1986 (p.517); Bradford, 1988 (p.74, 76); Razouls, 1994 (p.25, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1994, figs.F,M, fig.98); Menshenina & Melnikov, 1995 (p.129); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.877, 907, figs.F,M); Michels & Schnack-Schiel, 2005 (p.483, , fig.2: Md); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.62, Rem.); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 2, Appendix 1, biogeography from Southern Ocean)
Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresFemale: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, Head (lateral); 3, genital segment (ventral); 4, Th5 and Urosome (lateral); 5, P1; 6, P2; 7, P5; 8, internal side of basipodite 1 of P5; issued from : Brodsky K.A. in Issled. Fauny Morei, 1972, 12 (20): 5-110. 9, P5; 10, internal side of basipodite 1 of P5; issued from : Brady in Rep. scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23): 1-142. 11, genital segment; issued from : Brodsky, 1972


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir, 102, 1994. [p.32, Fig.10].
Female: A, habitus (lateral left side); B, P5.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.8, Fig.24].
Male: 24, P5 (anterior surface).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19. [Taf.8, Fig.32].
Male: 32, inner border of basipodal segment 1 of P5 (anterior surface).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from K. Hulsemann in Invert. Taxon., 1994, 8. [p.1477, Fig.28, N].
Female: N, urosome (left: ventral); right: dorsal). Pore signature schematic by pooled samples (symbols are considerably larger than pores): Filled circle: 100 % presence; open circle: 95-99 % presence; triangle: 50-89 % presence. n = 12.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.28, Fig.15].
Female (from 51°11'S, 11°17'E): a, habitus (lateral); b, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (dorsal; caudal setae omitted); c, idem (lateral).
Nota : Rostrum composed of 2 slender filaments, slightly swollen at the basal portion (frontal organ). Head and 1st thoracic segment separated, 4th and 5th separated. Proportional lengths of cephalothorax and abdome as 82 :24. Postero-lateral thoracic border broadly triangular, covering the beginning of the genital segment, laterally the apex is produced into a bluntly pointed, triangular, minute flap. Urosome 4-segmented ; proportional lengths with t caudal rami 32 :20 :16 :10 :22 = 100. Anal flap small. Caudal rami about twice as long as wide, carrying 4 marginal setae of subequal length on each ramus, all densely plumose, in addition 1 small, haired, internal seta and 1 short external seta. A1 25-segmented (separation between the 8th and 9th indistinct) reach the apex of the caudal rami ; the 23th and 24th segments have curoous and remarkably long and plumose, thick setae.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.29, Fig.16].
Female: a, genital somite (ventral); b, forehead (dorsal); c, left Mx1.
Nota: Genital segment ventrally with slightly elevated genital swelling, 2 small circular receptacles open on the genital sxelling and are covered by a rather small, squarish genital flap.Mx1 big, with a distinct 1st and 2nd outer lobe, the latter with a strong, haired seta ; arrangement and number of setae as in Calanus simillimus.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.30, Fig.17].
Female: a, left A2; b, left Md (mandibular palp); c, left Md (cutting edge); d, left Mx2; e, left Mxp.
Nota: A2 with endopodal segment, about 5 times as long as wide, distal portion of external margin haired. Md with the 2nd basal segment elongate, with 4 setae on the internal margin ; 1st endopodal segment with a big, sack-like tubercle, carrying 4 setae ; 2 nd endopodal segment broad at the apex with 9 marginal setae plus 2 additional setae on the posterior surface ; of the exopod the first two segments apparently fused, there are totally 6 setae of which the apiical segment carries 2. Mx2 is as Calanus simillimus, the ventral border carries a haired seta, not greatly arched.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.32, Fig.18].
Female: a, right P2; b, right P3; c, right P4. (The anterior surface of all feet has been figured).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.33, Fig.19].
Female: a, right P1 (anterior); b, right P5 (anterior); c, inner edge of the 1st basal segment of the left P5 (showing the arrangement of the teeth).
Nota: P5, compared with Calanus simillimus, have differently arranged teeth along the inner edge of the 1st basal segment ; each segment has a curved row of 15 small teeth and a basal group of 3 much bigger teeth ; the outer edge spine on the 3rd exopodal segment divides the margin in proportions of 5 :3.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.34, Fig.20].
Male (from 64°29'S, 9°39'W): a, habitus (lateral); b, P5 (posterior); c, inner edge of the 1st basal segment of P5. (lt = left foot, rt = right foot).
Nota : The general shape of the body differs considerably from that of the female, especially in dorsal aspect. Head and 1st thoracic segment separated by a weak line, 4th and 5th well separated. Cephalon in lateral view smoothly rounded, vaulted, with a distinct chitinous knob opposite place of attachment of A2. Cephalothorax and abdomen proportional lengths as 8 :3. Postero-lateral margin of last thoracic segment produced into rounded flaps, covering the 1st urosomal segment, extreme apex of that margin bluntly pointed (points of lateral thoracic margin more distinctly visible in dorsal aspect). Urosome 5-segmented, proportional lengths with the caudal rami 13 :19 :17 :15 :9 :17 = 100. A1 22-segmented (1st-2nd and 3rd-5th segments completely fused, the line separating the 8th-9th and 24th-25th indistinct), reach beyond the caudal rami by the last 2 or 3 segments. P5 resemble those of Calanus simillimus ; the left le gis slightly longer than the abdomen of the male ; the 1st basal segment on the left side is slightly longer than that on the right, inner edge with a row of 20 small teeth of uniform length ; 16 are found on the right side


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.35, Fig.21].
Male: a-b, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively).
Nota: Genital segment slightly asymmetrical, produced on the left side). Caudal rami about twice as mong as wide, with 4 marginal setae of subaqual size on each ramus, in addition 1 small, curved internal seta and 1 short external seta, all setae densely plumose.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.36, Fig.22].
Male: a, right Md (mandibular palp); b, Md (cutting edge); c, forehead (dorsal); d, right Mx2; e, left A2.
Nota: A2 and oral parts differ from those of the female in some minor details : in the A2, the exopod is of reduced length ; the mandibular palp has a short and squarish 2nd basal segment, theendopod, of which the first two segments are separated, has remarkably strong setae ; the manducatory plate is of reduced size, but the teeth are strong, they are, however, differently arranged. Mx1 is almost as in the female, the 11 setae on the exopod are stronger ; Mxp is reduced in size, especially the 1st basal segment, which is very short, the 2nd basal segment has a row of teeth like hairs on the basal portion of its internal margin.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.38, Fig.23].
Male: a, left Mx1; b, right Mxp.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.39, Fig.24].
Male: a-d, P1 to P4 (right feet, anterior surface).
Nota: P1 to P4 are almost as in the female.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Michels & S.B. Schnack-Schiel in Mar. Biol., 2005, 146. [p.486, Fig.2].
Mandibular gnathobase.
a, c: Female (from Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas); .
d, Male.
a, c: left gnathobase from cranial; b: right gnathobase from distal; V: ventral tooth, C1-C4: central teeth, D1-D3: dorsal teeth, B: dorsal bristle. C4 and dorsal teeth in panel a and ventral tooth in panel c are damaged.
Scale bars 0.020 mm.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Copepoden. Res. voyage du S. Y. Belgica. Rapports scientifiques, Zoologie, 1902. [Taf. I, Figs.1-8].
Female (from Antarctic): 1-2, forehead (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); 4, last thoracic segment and genital segment (lateral); 5, exopodite 3 of P2; 8, basipodite of P5 (inner margin).

Male: 6, exopodite 3 of P4; 7, P5 (anterior).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 18 of morphological figuresissued from : N.V. Vyshkvartzeva in Issled. Fauny Moreï, 1972, 12 (20). [p.166, Fig.5].
Femele Md: 3, masticatory edge (lateral aspect).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.S. Brady in Rep. Scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23). [Pl. XIV, Figs.10, 11].
Male: 10, P5; 11, terminal spines of one swimming feet.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.S. Brady in Rep. Scient. Results Voy. Challenger, Zool., 1883, 8 (23). [Pl. II, Figs. 1-7].
Female: 1- 2, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively); 3, A1; 4, endopod of A2; 5, Md; 6, P5 (serratures distorted); 6a, serratures more highly magnified; 7, caudal ramus with setae.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 21 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Razouls (pers. coll.).
Female (dorsal and lateral) from Kerguelen Islands, 26 October 1995.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : S.B. Schnack in Crustacean Issue, 1989, 6. [p.144, Fig.7: 5].
5, Calanus propinquus (from Antarctic): Cutting edge of Md.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 8, Fig.14].
Female: 14, exopodite 3 of P3 (anterior view).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 24 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 8, Fig.22].
Female: 22, P5 (inner margin of B1).
B1 : c0xa.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 25 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.15, Figs.8, 9].
Male (from 71°15'S - McMurdo Sound, 165°48'E - 179°35'W): 8, P5.

Female: 9, P5.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Copepoden. Res. voyage du S. Y. Belgica. Rapports scientifiques, Zoologie, 1902. [Taf. I, Figs. 1-8].
Female (S Peter Ist Island): 1, forehead (dorsal); 2, same (lateral); 3, last thoracic segment and urosome; 4, last thoracic segment and genital segment (lateral); 5, exopodal segment 3 of P2; 8, inner margin of basipod segment 1 (= coxa)

Male: 6, exopodal segment 3 of P4; 7, P5 (anterior view).


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 27 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [Pl. I].
Female (from 66°05'S-67°03'S, 44°10'E-40°44'E): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, head (lateral); 3, genital segment (ventral); 4, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral); 5, P1; 6, P2; 7, P5; 8, inner margin of coxa of P5.

Nota: Posterior margin of the last thoracic segment produced triangularly reaching the middle of the genital segment.
Proportional lengths of abdominal segments and caudal rami 32 : 19 : 14 : 11 : 24 = 100.
Genital segment about as long as wide, produced slightly below. Genital flap squarish.
Caudal rami about 2 times as long as wide. Caudal setae are of crimson-red colour.
A1 24-segmented, extends to the end of caudal rami by last 2 or 3 segments. Total length of A1 measured 5.45 mm.

Remark: Immature specimens of C. propinquus are easily confused with tjhe immatures of C. simillimus.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 28 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p.11].
Female: The outer marginal spine on the 3rd exopodal segment of the P2 to P4 divides the outer margin in the proportions which differ slightly from those given by Girebrecht and Vervoort, in the table herewith.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 29 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p.11].
Female: Proportional lengths of the 3rd exopodal segment and the terminal spine of the swimming legs P1 to P4, in the table herewith.


Species Calanus propinquus - Plate 30 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Spec. Publs. Seto mar. biol. Lab., 10, 1960 [p.11].
Female: Proportional lengths of segments of A1.

Nota: An adult female measuring 5.05 mm had an abnormal structure in the A1. The distal 6 segments were missing The 19th segment had about 15 long setae on the distal margin of the segment. A similar example has been reported by Steuer (1910) in Paracalanus parvus.

Compl. Ref.:
Hardy & Gunther, 1935 (1936) (p.123, Rem., distribution charts); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Sewell, 1948 (p.516, 548, 565, 569, 572, 574); Baker, 1954 (p.203, 211, fig.5); Fagetti, 1962 (p.6); Brodsky, 1964 (p.105, fig.1, spatial distribution); Murano, 1965 (p.91, fig.2, abundance, geographic distribution); Voronina, 1968 (p.277, Rem.: p.278); 1970 (p.162, spatial distribution); 1972 (p.336, vertical distribution); 1972 a (p.415, vertical distribution); Rudyakov, 1972 (p.886, Table 1, 2, 3: sinking rate); Björnberg, 1973 (p.283, 384); Voronina & Sukhanova, 1976 (1977) (p.614, food composition); Vladimirskaya, 1978 (p.202, vertical distribution, age composition); Arashkevich, 1978 (p.118, Table: diets); Voronina & al., 1978 (p.512, distribution); Ikeda & Hing Fay, 1981 (1982) (p.921, metabolism, ammonia excretion, O:N ratio); Ikeda & Mitchell, 1982 (p.283, metabolism); Biggs, 1982 (p.55, Table 2: NH4 excretion, O2 consumption); Schnack, 1983 (p.63, feeding); De Decker, 1984 (p.315); Schnack & al., 1985 (p.256, fig.4); Bamstedt & Tande, 1985 (p.259, Table 2: literature data respiration & escretion); Hubold, 1985 (p.43, Table 1, predation by fish); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents); Dearborn & al., 1986 (p.1, predation by benthic star); Zmijewska, 1987 (tab.2a); Hopkins & Torres, 1988 (tab.1); Ward, 1989 (tab.2); Ferrari & Dearborn, 1989 (p.1315, predator); Atkinson & al., 1990 (p.1213, tab.1); Tucker & Burton, 1990 (p.591, tab.1, fig.4, seasonal, spatial variations); Drits & al., 1990 (p.740, diel rhythm feeding); Atkinson, 1991 (p.79, antarctic zonation, seasonal change, vertical distribution); Santos & Ramirez, 1991 (p.79, 80, 82, 83); Rau & al., 1991 (p.1, isotopic forms vs feeding); Schnack-Schiel & al., 1991 (p.17, life cycle); Conover & Huntley, 1991 (p.1, Table 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 13, polar seas comparison); Atkinson & al., 1992 a (p.49, feeding rates, vertical migration); Siegel & al., 1992 (p.18, tab.34); Huntley & Lopez, 1992 (p.201, Table A1, B1, egg-adult weight, temperature-dependent production, growth rate); Vuorinen & Bonsdorff, 1992 (p.679, dispersion index); Kurbjeweit & al., 1993 (p.255, fig.2); Hagen & al., 1993 (p.135, lipid storage); Bathmann & al., 1993 (p.333, chart distribution, sex ratio, grazing); Drits & al., 1993 (p.13, feeding, metabolism, composition); Marin & Schnack-Schiel, 1993 (p.35, vertical distribution); Zmijewska, 1993 (p.73, seasonal and vertical distributions, life history); Kosobokova, 1994 (p.219); Hosie & Cochran, 1994 (p.21); Schnack-Schiel & Hagen, 1994 (p.1543, life cycle); Atkinson, 1994 a (p.1, feeding); Metz & Schnack-Schiel, 1995 (p.71, feeding); Donnelly & al., 1994 (p.171, chemical composition); Kattner & al., 1994 (p.637, lipid composition); Atkinson & Shreeve, 1995 (p.1291, vertical distribution, grazing); Ward & al., 1995 (p.195, abundance, biomass, vertical distribution); Knox & al., 1996 (tab.1); Atkinson, 1996 (p.85, feeding); Atkinson & al. 1996 (p.195, feeding v.s. phytoplankton bloom); Hagen & Schnack-Schiel, 1996 (p.139, seasonal lipid, maturity); Froneman & al., 1996 (p.15, nutrition, grazing); Pakhomov & McQuaid, 1996 (p.271, abundance, ditribution, seabirds); Zmijewska & al., 1997 (p.127); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Beaumont & Hosie, 1997 (p.121, spatial distribution); Fransz & Gonzalez, 1997 (p.395, weight-length, biomass v.s. N-S transect); Vuorinen & al., 1997 (p.280); Spiridonov & Kosobokova, 1997 (p.233, spatial distribution, vertical migration); Froneman & al., 1997 (p.201, abundance, grazing); Elwers & Dahms, 1998 (p.150, 151); Atkinson, 1998 (p.289, Table 1, biological data); Atkinson & al., 1999 (p.63, Krill-copepod interactions, fig.7: diel migration); Tirelli & Mayzaud, 1999 (p.197, gut evacuation); Atkinson & Sinclair, 2000 (p.46, 50, 51, 55, zonal distribution); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, 5, Appendix); Pakhomov & al., 2000 (p.1663, Table 1, 2, transect Cape Town-SANAE antarctic base); Voronina & al., 2001 (p.401); Chiba & al., 2001 (p.95, tab.4, 7); Pasternak Schnack-Schiel, 2001 (p.25); Li & al., 2001 (p.894, tab.1); Ward & al., 2002 (p.2183, tab.2); Ward & al., 2003 (p.121, tab.4); Hunt, 2004 (p.1, 74, fig. 4.7, Rem.: p.97, fig.5.10: seasonal abundance); Fuentes & Schnack-Schiel, 2005 (p.253); Calbet & al., 2005 (p.1195, tab.3); Ward & al., 2006 (p.83: tab.4); Schultes & al., 2006 (p.21, fig.1); Hunt & Hosie, 2006 (p.1182, seasonal succession, indicator); Tsujimoto & al., 2006 (p.140, Table1); Deibel & Daly, 2007 (p.271, Table 6a, 6b, 7a, Fig.5, Rem.: Antarctic polynyas); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2008 (p.1045: Tab.2); Kiko & al., 2008 (p.1000, Table 3); Ward & al., 2008 (p.241, Tabls, Appendix II ); Takahashi & al., 2010 (p.317, Table 3, 4); Sartoris & al., 2010 (p.1860, fig.1, Rem.: cation percentages in hemolymph); Swadling & al., 2010 (p.887, abundance, indicator species); Yang & al., 2011 (p.1065, fig.2b); Yang & al., 2011 a (p.921, Table 2, inter-annual variation 1999-2006); Marrari & al., 2011 (p.1614, Table 2, Fig.2A, 5, 6); Ward & al., 2012 (p.78, Table A1, B1, C1, abundance, weight); Yang G. & al., 2013 (p.1701, fig.4, Table 2, feeding); Schründer & al., 2013 (p.1, sodium/ammonium and ph effects in the hemolymph); Ojima & al., 2013 (p.1293, Table 2, 3, abundance)
NZ: 5

Distribution map of Calanus propinquus by geographical zones
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 3Issued from : M.I. Zmijewska in Oceanologia, 1993, 35. [Fig. 3.2].
Diel changes in abundance distribution (ind./ m2) of Calanus propinquus (from Croker Passage, Antarctic Peninsula) adult female and male during 3 austral season.
N = night; D = day.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 4Issued from : K.A. Brodsky in Inf. Bull. Soviet antarct. Exped., 1. [p.108, Fig.1].
1 - Antarctic convergence; 2 - northern boundary of range of Calanus propinquus ; 3 - boundaries of range of Calanus simillimus; 4 - southern boundary of tropical zone.

Nota: The Antarctic zone, with a northern boundary at the northernmost limit of the distribution of C. propinquus (Region D). The antarctic convergence passes very close to the northern boundary of the antarctic plankton zone, coinciding in those places where the temperature gradient is very great and deviating in places where temperature gradients are smaller.
See Nota in Calanus simillimus.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 5Issued from : A. Atkinson in Mar. Biol., 1991, 109. [p.82, Fig.2]
Calanus propinquus. Mean abundance (nos./1000 m) of vertical haul) in top 1 000 m within five water types. bars represent standard errors of means, calculated from assumed Poisson distribution.
Estimated contributions to total copepod biomass in study area: 3 %.

Nota: Water types:
1- Either in sub-Antarctic zone or in vicinity of subantarctic front.
2- Within polar frontal zone.
3- In vicinity of polar front.
4- Within Antarctic zone.
5- Within Weddell Sea or in Weddell-Scotia confluence.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 6Issued from : A. Atkinson in Mar. Biol., 1991, 109. [p.80, Fig.1].
Positions of 72 stations sampled in Scotia Sea. The Scotia Sea, containing majority of stations, is bordered on east by a chain of oceanic islands and on west by Drake Passage (between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula.
Mean positions of oceanic fronts, and zones which they separate are drawn from Gordon (1967).
SAF: subantarctic front.
PFZ: polar frontal zone.
PF: polar front.
AZ: Antarctic zone.
WSC: Weddell-Scotia confluence.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 7Issued from : A. Atkinson in Mar. Biol., 1991, 109. [p.82, Fig.3].
Calanus propinquus. Mean vertical distribution during four seasons. Values are numbers/250 m of vertical haul.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 8Issued from : A. Atkinson & J.D. Sinclair in Polar Biol., 2000, 23. [p.50, Fig.3]
Calanus propinquus from Scotia Sea.
Median and interquartile ranges of copepods (nos /m2) in the five water zones; from north to south these are SAF Subantractic Front area, PFZ Polar frontal Zone, PF Polar Front area, AZ Antarctic Zone, WSC Weddell-Scotia Confluence area/ East Wind Drift.
Numbers on the plots are upper interquartiles where these could not be scaled.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 9Issued from : V.A. Spiridonov & K.N. Kosobokova in Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 1997, 157. [p.236, Fig.2 (modified)].
Abundance of Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Rhincalanus giga (A) along the Greenwich transect in the upper 0 to 500 m water layer from subantarctic to Antarctic continent (stations 571 to 606), and stage composition C2 to C5 (B), in early to mid-winter.
PF: Polar front; ACC: Antarctic Circumpolar Current; WF: Weddell Front; MR: Maud Rise; CWB: Continental Water Boundary.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 10Issued from : S.B. Schnack-Schiel & W. Hagen in J. Plankton Res., 1994, 16 (11). [p.1551, Fig.6].
Vertical distribution of C. propinquus from eastern Weddell Sea, as a percent of total numbers and temperature profile within the upper 1000 m.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 11Issued from : M. Murano inThe Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1965. Coll. Rep., 1964, Vol.3. [p.101, Fig.2].
The quantitative distribution of Calanus propinquus Brady, gathered by NORPAC net, hauls vertically up to the water surface from a depth of 200 m between December, 1961 and February, 1962.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 12issued from A. de C. Baker in 'Discovery' Rep., 1954, 27. [p.215, Fig.5].
Occurrence of Calanus propinquus in all longitudes around Antarctic zone of the Southern Ocean.
The percentage frequency of occurrence in samples taken within every 20° of longitude.

Nota: During the 'Discovery' investigations some thousands of plankton samples have been taken from stations spread over the whole of the Southern Ocean at all seasons of the year, the majority south of the Antarctic Convergence. An arbitrary selection of samples has been made from hauls between the surface and a depth of 250 m, which means that they have been taken from within the limits of the Antarctic surface water.
Compare with Calanus simillimus.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 13Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.200, Fig.3].
Abundance and biomass (g dry mass/m3) profiles for the shelf station (54°48'S, 38°15'W) in January 1990.
Values on the horizontal axes at the base represent abundance and the one above biomass. Solid line = midday haul; hatched line = midnight haul.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 14Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.198, Fig.1, A (modified C.R.)].
Temperature profile for the shelf station at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°48'S, 38°15'W) in January 1990.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 15Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.202, Fig.4, A].
Abundance (10/m3) and biomass (g dry mass/m3) profiles at the oceanic station from the shelf break in water 4000 m deep off Bird Island, South Georgia (53°04'S, 39°51'W) in January 1990.
Values on the horizontal axes at the base of each profile represent abundance and the one above biomass. Solid line = midday haul; hatched line = midnight haul.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 16Issued from : P. Ward, A. Atkinson, A.W.A. Murray, A.G. Wood, R. Williams & S. Poulet in Polar Biol., 1995, 15. [p.198, Fig.1, B (modified C.R.)].
Profile temperature-depth at the oceanic stations from the shelf break in water 4000 m deep off Bird Island, South Georgia, in January 1990.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 17Issued from : N.M. Voronina & I.N. Sukhanova in Oceanology, 1977, 16 (6). [p.615].
Frequency of encounter of various groups of diatom algae in the character of leading objects in the food pellet (% of number of digestive tracts with food).
Data from stations between 57°S-69°43'S.
The animals utilize all diatom species from 5 to 300 µm in size, the only animal food found there were tintinnids and radiolarians in negligible quantity.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 18Issued from : N.M. Voronina in Antarctic Ecology, M.W. Holdgate (edit.), 1970, I. [p.170, Fig.7].
The northern boundaries of distribution of three copepod species in the 500-0 m layer in the second part of the summer.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 19Issued from : N.M. Voronina in Antarctic Ecology, M.W. Holdgate (edit.), 1970, I. [p.169, Fig.6].
The northern boundaries of distribution of three copepod species in the 500-0 m layer at different times.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 20Issued from : K.M. Swadling, So. Kawaguchi & G.W. Hosie in Deep-Sea Research II, 2010, 57. [p.897, Fig.6 (continued)].
Distribution of indicator species Calanoides propinquus and Calanus simillimus from the BROKE-West survey (southwest Indian Ocean) during January-February 2006.
Sampling with a RMT1 net (mesh aperture: 315 µm), oblque tow from the surface to 200 m.
The survey area was located predominantly within the seasonal ice zone, and in the month prior to the survey there was considerable ice coverage over the western section but none over the east.
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 21Issued from : K.M. Swadling, So. Kawaguchi & G.W. Hosie in Deep-Sea Research II, 2010, 57. [p.888, Fig.1].
Map showing sampling sites along six north-south transects.Indicates the locations of the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front and the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Data from Orsi et al. (1995) and Williams et al. (2010).
The Antarctic coastline data is from the Antarctic Digital Database version 4.0c Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research 1993-2003.
Thin lines indicate bathymetric contours (IOC and IHO and BODC, Centenary Edition of the GEBCO Digital Atlas 2003).
Species Calanus propinquus - Distribution map 22Issued from : A.C. Hardy & E.R. Gunther in Discovery Reports, 1935 (1936), 11. [p.131, Fig.60].
Charts showing the distribution of Calanus propinquus in the upper layers of waters at stations in the 1926-7 surveys around South Georgia.
The squares represent the average numbers per 50 m vertical haul from 250 m (or less at shallow-water stations) to the surface with N 70 V nets.
Loc:
Antarct. (King George Is., Potter Cove, Gerlache & Bransfield Straits, Bellingshausen Sea, S Peter 1st Island, Peninsula, South Georgia, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, off Halley Bay, Lazarev Sea, Atlant. SW, SE, Prydz Bay, Lützow-Holm Bay, Indian, Pacif. SW, SE, McMurdo Sound), sub-Antarct. (SW Atlant., Indian, Davis station-Gardner Is., Pacif. (SW, SE), off S South Africa, Namibia, ? G. of Guinea, Bermuda (in Wilson, 1936 c, p.89), Caribbean (in Wilson, 1942 a, p.173), Argentina, Rio de Janeiro, Chile (Valparaiso)
N: 176
Lg.:
(10) F: 5,5-5; (25) F: 6-4,95; M: 5,3-4,75; (31) F: 5,3-4,8; M: 4,95-4,85; (33) F: 4,9-5,3; M: 5,2; (35) F: 5,5-5,3; (66) F: 5,54-5,5; (114) F: 5,2; (196) F: 5,1; 4,95; ? (322) F: 2,25; M: 2 [Mar del Plata]; {F: 4,80-6,00; M: 4,75-5,30}
Rem.: Epipelagic, sometimes deeper.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-1000 m.
Sometimes confused with Calanus simillimus, but of larger size. After Bradford-Grieve & al. (1999, p.907) the seta of A1 segment 23 female longer than last 8 segments.
The tropical or subtropical localisations given by Wilson (1942 a, p.173) seem doubtful and are not transferred to the matrix, just like its indication in the Mediterranean (Malta) by Thompson (1888 d (p.139), although two species (Ctenocalanus citer and Spinocalanus terranovae) only known from the Antarctic were recently observed there (off SE Malta, NE Levantin Basin).
Ramirez (1966) indicates sizes more conform to those of C. simillimus.
Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.33) notes this species as common Antarctic copepod usually found south of the Antarctic Convergence. Nevertheless this species may also be found occasionally north of this boundary .
Last update : 19/06/2014
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