Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Centropagidae ( Family )
            Centropages ( Genus )
Centropages velificatus  (Oliveira, 1947)   (F,M)
Syn.: Manaia velificata Oliveira, 1946 (1947) (p.466, Descr.F, figs.F);
Centropages furcatus : Björnberg, 1963 (p.42, Rem.); ? Krumme & Liang, 2004 (p.407, tab.1);
Clausocalanus velificatus : Hopcroft & al., 1998 (tab.2, lapsus calami)
Vervoort, 1964 b (p.308); 1965 (p.90, Rem.); Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1973 (p.345, figs.F,M, Rem., carte); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.605, 644, figs.F,M); Fleminger, 1975 (p.397); Turner & Dagg, 1983 (p.16); Tester & Turner, 1988 (p.211); Grant, 1988 (p.227); Blades-Eckelbarger & Marcus, 1992 (p.41, figs. eggs); Bundy & Paffenhöfer, 1993 (p.3, figs.F); Chen & Marcus, 1997 (p.587, Rem: egg); Lopez-Salgado & Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.318); Paffenhöfer & Loyd, 2000 (p.171, figs.F); Ferrari & Dahms, 2007 (p.63, Rem.)
Species Centropages velificatus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Björnberg T.K.S. in Copepoda. D. Boltovskoy, ed., Atlas del zooplancton del Atlantico sudoccidental y metodos de trabajo con zooplancton marino. 1981. [Fig. 215, p.643].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal view); 2, head (o: eye; ventral view); 3, P5.
Male: 4, habitus (dorsal view); 5, Th5 and urosome (lateral view); 6, A1 (distal segments); 7, left P5; 8, distal part of Th5, urosome and right P5 (ventral view).

Species Centropages velificatus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Fleminger A. & Hulsemann K. In: The Biology of the Indian Ocean, B. Zeitzchel Ed., 1973. [Fig. 6, p.345].
Comparison between C. furcatus and C. velificatus
C. furcatus : a, Male (P5, posterior view); b, Female (fifth thoracic segment and genital segment, dorsal view); specimens from Gulf Panama (off Panama City).
C. velificatus : Male (P5, posterior view); d, Female (fifth thoracic segment and genital segment, dorsal view); specimens from Gulf of Mexico (off Galveston).

Compl. Ref.:
Turner, 1987 (p.377, feeding-fecal pellets); Tester & Turner, 1989 (p.231, feeding rate);1990 (p.169, egg production); Turner & Tester, 1989 (p.21, grazing); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Eskinazi-Sant'Anna & Tundisi, 1996 (tab.2); Paffenhöfer & al., 1996 (p.1699, motion behavior); Bundy & Paffenhöfer, 1996 (p.113, flow fields); Marcus, 1996 (p.144); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Lopes & al., 1998 (p.195); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (tab.1,2,3,4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p109); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.21, 22, 47, 62, 63); Lopes & al., 1999 (p.215, tab.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Alvarez-Silva & Gomez-Aguirre, 2000 (p.163: tab.2); Sterza & Fernades, 2006 (p.95, Table 1, occurrence); Alcaraz & al., 2007 (p.121); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.513); Muelbert & al., 2008 (p.1662, Table 1); Miyashita & al., 2009 (p.815, Tabl.II); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Magris & al., 2011 (p.260, abundance, interannual variability); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, 3, abundance distribution vs La Niña event, Rem. p.798); Costa R.G. da & al., 2011 (p.364, Table 1, seasonal occurrence); Almeida LR. & al., 2012 (p.13, Table 1, abundance); Miyashita & al., 2012 (p.1557, Table 2: occurrence); Araujo & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 3, abundance, %)
NZ: 3

Distribution map of Centropages velificatus by geographical zones
Species Centropages velificatus - Distribution map 2issued from : J.T. Turner in Biol. Bull., 1987, 133. [p.384, Fig.6]
Contents of Centropages velificatus fecal pellets from 28°48' N, 89°58' W (30 November 1983-.
a: Skeletonema costatum fragments (arrows); b: Skeletonema costatum (S) and Thalassiosira sp. (T) fragments; c: intact centric diatom cell (arrow); d: Thalassiothrix sp. fragments (arrow); e: fragment of an unidentified dinoflagellate (arrow); f: crustacean remains (arrows).
Species Centropages velificatus - Distribution map 3issued from : M.H. Bundy & C._A. Paffenhöfer in Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 1996, 133. [p.103, Fig.2].
Feeding current of a tethered female Centropages velificatus (cephalothorax length = 1.2 mm), collected off the coast of Georgia (USA), feed with Gymnodinium nelsoni and Thalassiosira eccentrica. After acclimatation, the copepods were placed in complete darkness prior to videotaping in a 6 l cubic vessel, in the dark.
a: Flow field velocity. Contours represent fluid speeds and are plotted at 1 mm/sec intervals.
b: Flow field geometry. Vectors indicate direction and magnitude of flow.
Uruguay (continental shelf), Brazil (Paranagua Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Vitoria Bay, Mucuri estuary, Guarairas Lagoon, estuario do Pina, ? Bragança: Caeté Bay, Ajuruteua Bay), Caribbean Colombia, Yucatan, Caribbean, Jamaica, E Costa Rica, G. of Mexico, Turkey Point, Mississipi (off Southwest Pass), Florida, Georgia, Delaware Bay, Long Island, Galapagos-Ecuador in Tutasi & al. (2011)
N: 33 (SW Atlant. 9; NW Atlant.: 18, E Pacif: 1)
(202) F: 1,75-1,6; M: 1,9-1,5; (237) F: 1,9; M: 1,6-1,75; {F: 1,6-1,90; M: 1,5-1,9}
Rem.: Distinct species or Atlantic variety of Centropages furcatus . See rem. for Centropages furcatus velificatus.
The species reported by Krumme & Liang ( 2004) belongs no doubt to this form.
After Tutasi & al. (2011, p.798, Table 2, 3) indicate this species in the Eastern equatorial Pacific, with maxima in the central area of the Pacific Equatorial Front (probably for the first time); the species had a wide distribution and maxima at the stations in the central area (Galapagos-Ecuador) of the equatorial Front.
Last update : 30/01/2017
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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2017. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en 
[Accessed February 24, 2017]

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