Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Eucalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Eucalanidae ( Family )
            Subeucalanus ( Genus )
Subeucalanus monachus  (Giesbrecht, 1888)   (F,M)
Syn.: Eucalanus monachus Giesbrecht,1888; 1892 (p.132, 151, 772, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.21, Rem.); Wheeler, 1901 (p.167, figs.M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.233, 242); Cleve, 1904 a (p.189); A. Scott, 1909 (p.20); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.204); Sewell, 1912 (p.353, 357); 1914 a (p.202); Pesta, 1920 (p.499); Sars, 1925 (p.22); Rose, 1925 (p.151); 1929 (p.15); Sewell, 1929 (p.51); Wilson, 1932 a (p.33,figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.69, figs.F,M); no Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.96, figs.); Wilson, 1942 a (p.184); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.110); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.9); Sewell, 1947 (p.46); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.209); Marques, 1951 a (p.21); 1953 (p.95); 1955 (p.17); Rose, 1956 (p.459); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.7, 15); Fagetti, 1962 (p.10); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.99-100: Rem.); Duran, 1963 (p.13); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.18, 19, figs.F,M); Björnberg, 1963 (p.21, Rem.); Paiva, 1963 (p.20); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.16, Rem.); De Decker, 1964 (p.15, 22, 28); Ramirez, 1966 (p.8, figs.F, Rem.); Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.19, Table III); Mazza, 1966 (p.69); 1967 (p.86, 331, fig.67, figs.F,M, juv., fig.67); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.37, figs.F,M); Vilela, 1968 (p.10, figs.F); Evans, 1968 (p.13, as monarchus); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.268, 269); Marques, 1968 a (p.396); Matthews, 1968 a (p.35, figs.F, Rem.); Park, 1970 (p.474); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.76, figs.F, Rem.F,M); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Gamulin, 1971 (p.382, tab.3); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.327, 334); Binet & al., 1972 (p.69); Björnberg, 1973 (p.298, 386); Fleminger, 1973 (p.969, 978, 979, 982, 999, fig.F); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Vives & al., 1975 (p.35, tab.II, III, IV); Patel, 1975 (p.659); Marques, 1976 (p.987); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, Station "S"); Goswami & Goswami, 1979 (p.103, figs.); Stephen & Iyer, 1979 (p.228, tab.1, 3, 4, figs.3, 4); Binet, 1979 (p.400); Dessier, 1979 (p.54, 56, 201, 204); Vaissière & Séguin, 1980 (p.23, tab.2); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.621, figs.F,M); Sreekumaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493, fig.2cont.), Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.82); Strickler, 1982 (Rem.: p.159, behavior); Marques, 1982 (p.752); Vives, 1982 (p.290); Scotto di Carlo & Ianora, 1983 (p.150); De Decker, 1984 (p.315); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1042); Brenning, 1985 a (p.24, Table 2); Diouf & Diallo, 1987 (p.260); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.57); Wiebe & al., 1988 (tab.7); Pancucci-Papadopoulou & al., 1990 (p.199); Roe, 1984 (p.356, Rem.: ?); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1991 (p.270); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Rosales & Sepulveda, 1992 (p.38); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1); Hajderi, 1995 (p.542); Siokou-Frangou, 1997 (tab.1); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.20, 99); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1, 2); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.8); Hopcroft & al., 1998 (tab.2); Seridji & Hafferssas, 2000 (tab.1); Moraitou-Apostolopoulou & al., 2000 (tab.I); Weikert & al., 2001 (p.227, tab.4),, fig.6,8,9, Rem.); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Vukanic, 2003 (139, tab.1); Siokou-Frangou & al., 2005 (p.160); Isari & al., 2006 (p.241, tab.II); Koppelmann & Weikert, 2007 (p.266: tab.3); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.513, 519); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Licandro & Icardi, 2009 (p.17, Table 4); Hafferssas & Seridji, 2010 (p.353, Table 3); Lidvanov & al., 2010 (p.356, Table 3); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Fazeli & al., 2010 (p.153, Table 1, as monochus); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2); Glushko & Lidvanov, 2012 (p.138, Tableau 1);
Eucalanus vadicola F. Dahl, 1894 c (p.20, Rem.F,M);
no E. monachus : Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.204); 1940 (p.96, figs.F,M)
Ref.:
Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.88); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.878, 912, figs.F,M); Goetze, 2003 (p.2322 & suiv.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.877, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.985, Fig.9]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: c, habitus (dorsal), c', idem (lateral right side).
Dorsal and lateral pattern of integumental organs (black point = sites occuring at 100% frequency, o = 80-99% frequency, x = 10-79% frequency, triangle are sites which are also visible in lateral view but which are assigned to dorsal sets);


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Fleminger in Fishery Bull. natn. Ocean. Atmos. Adm., 1973, 71 (4). [p.968, Fig.1, e (p.969)]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: e, genital segment (lateral right side).


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Bol. Inst. Biol. Mar., Mar del Plata, 1966, 11. [Lam.I, Figs.6-15]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female (off Mar del Plata): 6, habitus (dorsal); 7, idem (lateroventral); 8, urosome (dorsal); 9, distal segments of A1; 10, A2; 11, Md (mandibular palp); 12, rostrum (dorsal view); 13, P1; 14, P2; 15, P3.
Nota: Urosome 3-segmented, genital segment as wide than long, anal segment and caudal rami fused.. Caudal rami slightly asymmetrical. A2 with proximal endopodal segment shorter than distal. 2nd basal segment of Md longer than exopod, and furnished on inner margin with 3 fine setae; endopodite 2-segmented, distal segment half of the length of 1st segment.


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.9]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female (from Canarias Is.): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral right side); 3, forehead (lateral); 4, idem (dorsal, another specimen); 6, idem (lateral).

Male: 7, habitus (dorsal); 8, P5.


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.10]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: 1, urosome (dorsal); 2, idem (ventral); 3, idem (lateral right side); 4, A2; 5, Md (mandibular palp); 6, Md (cutting edge); 7, Mx1.


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.11]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: 1-1a, A1; 2, Mxp; 3, P1; 4, P2; 5, P3; 6, P4.

Nota: A1 23-segmented (segments 1+2, 24+25 fused), extending beyond caudal rami by 3 segments. Proportional lengths of segments: 80:32:21:34:32:32:58:36:40:38:48:46:52:58:50:55:50:48:42:42:38:34:44 = 1000


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.12, figs.1-4]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: 1, Mx2; 2, urosome (ventral, another specimen); 3, idem (dorsal); 4, idem (lateral left side).

Nota: The urosomal segments ( furca included) in the proportional lengths 50:12:38 = 100.


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.35, Fig.14]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: 14, habitus (dorsal).


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.35, Figs.33, 36]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Female: 33, forehead (dorsal); 36, head (lateral).


Species Subeucalanus monachus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.35, Fig.5]. As Eucalanus monachus.
Male: 5, habitus (lateral).

Compl. Ref.:
Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.109); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); CPR, 2004 (p.62, fig.187); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.103: tab.1); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Goetze & Ohman, 2010 (p.2110, Table 1, biogeography); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.425); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Nowaczyk & al;, 2011 (p.2159, Table 2); Salah S. & al., 2011 (Tableau 1); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, seasonal variation);
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Subeucalanus monachus by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E & SW), Namibia, Angola, Baia Farta, Congo, off Ascension Is., Ivorian shelf, off Sierra Leone, off E St. Paul Is., Casamance, Dakar, Cape Verde Is. off Morocco-Mauritania- NW Cape Verde Is. , Canary Is., off Madeira, off W Cap Finisterre, Portugal, Azores, Brazil, Mouth of Tocantins, Barbada Is., Caribbean Colombia, Caribbean Sea, Jamaica, E Costa Rica, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), off Woods Hole, off Newfoundland, Mauritania, Cap Ghir, Baie Ibéro-marocaine, Gibraltar, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Alger, El Kala shelf, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Taranto, Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin, Marmara Sea), Red Sea, Gulf of Oman, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Maldives Is., off Cochin, Sri Lanka, India (Saurashtra coast, Lawson's Bay, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay), G. of Bengal, S Burma, Philippines, Indonesia-Malaysia, Viet-Nam (Cauda Bay), China Seas, Japan, off Kuril Is., Bering Sea, Queen Charlotte Is., British Columbia, off Hawaii, Guaymas Basin, off Tuamotu, Central America, W Costa Rica, off Galapagos, off Peru, off Chile, off Valparaiso
N: 151 ?
Lg.:
(45) F: 2,35-2; M: 2,25-2; (47) F: 2,35-2,13; M: 2,2; (73) F: 2,5-2,31; (75) F: 2,26-1,81; (180) F: 2,35; M: 2,35; (207) F: 2,84-2,73; (237) F: 2,05; M: 2,3; (334) F: 2,5; M: 2; (327) F: 2,68-2,14; (332) F: 2,74-2,13; M: 2,6-2,37; (333) F: 2,1-1,95; M: 1,86; (334) F: 2,5; M: 2 ; (432) F: 2,4-2,15; (449) F: 2,35-2,13; M: 2,2; {F: 1,81-2,84; M: 1,86-2,60}
Rem.: meso-bathypelagic. In Sargasso Sea: 500-2000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
After Björnberg (1963, p.21) F. Dahl recorded E. vadicola at the mouth of the Amazon River, characterising it by a wider and flatter cephalon similar to that of the female of E. crassus, second caudal seta stronger than that of the European E. monachus, a fatter, not hairy last segment of the P5 in the male and a shorter terminal spine than in the European E. monachus; intermediate forms besides the described E. vadicola and E. monachus are present in the samples from Brazilian coastal waters. For the author, apparently E. monachus is a very variable species which prefers coastal or shelf waters of salinities below 35.00 p.1000.
For Vervoort (1963 b, p.100) suspects as S. pileatus a great variability in external appearance in S. monachus with a comparable degree of variability, and has little doubt that both species have frequently been confused.
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is a coarse-filter feeder.
Last update : 16/08/2014
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