Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamily )
        Heterorhabdidae ( Family )
            Heterorhabdus ( Genus )
Heterorhabdus austrinus  Giesbrecht, 1902   (F,M)
Syn.: no Heterorhabdus austrinus : Wolfenden, 1905 a (p.13, Descr.M, fig.M); no Bradford, 1971 b (fig. 96: M);
no Alloiorhabdus austrinus : Wolfenden, 1911 (p.304)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1902 (p.28, Descr.F, figs.F); Brady, 1918 (p.27, figs.F,M); Farran, 1929 (p.209, 265, fig.M, Rem.); ervoort, 1951 (p.127, Rem.); 1957 (p.131, figs.M, Rem.); Ramirez, 1969 (p.77, figs.F, Rem.); Bradford, 1970 a (p.358, figs.F,M, Rem.); 1971 a (p.122, 123, figs.F,M, Rem.); 1971 b §p.24, fig.F): Zvereva, 1972 (1975) (p.256, figs.F); Séret, 1979 (p.146, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.650, figs.F, M, Rem.); Razouls, 1994 (p.159, figs.F,M, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.883, 944, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.77, figs.F, Rem., figs.174, 191); Park, 2000 (p.132, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in British Antarctic (\"Terra Nova\") Expedition, 1910. Natural History Reports. Zoology. Vol. VIII. Crustacea, 1929. [p.265, Fig.26].
Male: fifth feet.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.256, Fig.104].
Female: a, habitus (left side); b, c, urosome (left, dorsal, respectively); d, e, forehead (left, dorsal, respectively); f, g, genital somite (left, ventral, respectively); h, left Mx2 (posterior).

Nota: Mx2: Spine of 2nd lobe relatively thin and short, posterior subterminal spine of 4th lobe 51% as long as 2nd saberlike spine, which is a little longer than 1st saberlike spine; falcate spine of 5th lobe about 1/3 times length of saberlike spine, with proximal 54% of medial margin serrated with spinules; falcate spine of 6th lobe with about 67% of medial margin serrated with spinules.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. California, San Diego, 2000, 31. [p.257, Fig.105].
Female: a, exopod of P1 (anterior); b, P5 (posterior).

Male: c, P5 (anterior); d, e, f, basipod of right P5 (anterior, tilted clockwise, posterior, respectively); g, distal end of exopod of right P5 (lateral); h, exopod of left P5 (anterior); i, j, second exopodal segment of right P5 (anterior, posterior, respectively).


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J.A. Zvereva in Issled. Fauny Moreï, 1972, 12 (20). [p.222, Fig.4];
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forehead (left lateral side); 3, masticatory edge of left Md; 4, masticatory edge of right Md; 5, Mxp; 6, urosome (right lateral side) with spermatophore; 7, idem (ventral); 8, P5.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.78, Fig.44].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, urosome (dorsal); C, D, genital somite (left side).

Male: E, P5 (L = left leg; R = right leg).


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1970, 4 (4). [p.358, Figs 46-50 ].
Female (off Kaikoura, New Zealand): 46, left Md; 47, right Md; 48, urosome (lateral left side); 49, 3rd exopod of P3; 50, P5.
Scale bars represent 0.1 mm.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1970, 4 (4). [p.358, Fig.51].
Male (off Kaikoura, New Zealand): 51, P5.
Scale bars represent 0.1 mm.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.78, Lam. XV, figs.116, 117, 120, 121].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 116, habitus (dorsal); 117, urosome (lateral left side); 120, Mxp; 121, P5.
Scale bars in mm: 1 (116); 0.2 (117); 0.15 (120); 0.05 (121).


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.122].
Male (from 66°11'S, 65°10'E):P5 (rt = right leg; lt = left leg).


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Die Marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 1911. [p.304, Fig.54].
Female: a, right and left Md; b, P5.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Copepoden. Res. voyage du S. Y. Belgica. Rapports scientifiques, Zoologie, 1902. [Taf. VI, Figs. 1-9].
Female (from S Peter Ist Island): 1, dorsal; 2, forehead (lateral); 3, urosome (ventral); 4, idem (lateral); 5, A1 (proximal segments); 6, Mx2 (distal part); 7, Mxp; 8, exopodite 3 of P3; 9, P5.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.24, Figs.93-95].
Female (from Ross Sea): 93-94, lateral views of genital and urosomal 2nd segments; 95, P5.


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 13 of morphological figuresHeterorhabdus austrinus female:
1 - See key to species groups of Heterorhabdus: ''abyssalis'' Group (p.90, 114).
2 - Genital somite without a conical projection mediodorsally (Fig.104-a, c).
3 - Laterally, genital somite without a tubercular outgrowth posteriorly on dorsal margin (Fig.104-b, f).
4 - Laterally, genital somite with a tubercular outgrowth posteriorly on ventral margin (Fig.104-f).
5 - Laterally, genital operculum reaching close to posterior end of somite (Fig.104-b).


Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Plate 14 of morphological figuresHeterorhabdus austrinus male:
1 - See key to species groups of Heterorhabdus: ''abyssalis'' Group (p.90, 114).
2 - Basis of left P5 without a well-developed inner lobe (Fig.105-c).
3 - Basal inner lobe of right P5 armed with normal bristles (Fig.105-c, d).
4 - 3rd exopodal segment of right P5 with a short terminal lobe, slightly less than 1/3 length of terminal spine (Fig.105-c, g).
5 - Basal lobe of right P5 arising from anteromedial side of segment (Fig. 105-c, d).
6 - 2nd exopodal segment of left P5 with outer spine borne on a conical process (Fig.105-i).
7 - Basal lobe of right P5 straight or slightly curved (Fig.105-c).
8 - Basal lobe of right P5 with an single band of bristles (Fig.105-f).
9 - Basal lobe of right P5 with narrow beginning (Fig.105-c). 3rd exopodal segment of right P5 with terminal spine about 1/4 to 1/5 length of segment.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.191); Hardy & Gunther, 1935(1936) (p.180, Rem.); Sewell, 1948 (p.519, 570, 573, 575, Rem.); Baker, 1954 (p.203, 211, fig.5); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Björnberg, 1973 (p.345, 387); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents); Zmijewska, 1987 (tab.2a); Hopkins & Torres, 1988 (tab.1); Ward, 1989 (tab.2); Hosie & Cochran, 1994 (tab.2); Donnelly & al., 1994 (p.171, chemical composition); Ward & al., 1995 (p.195, Table 2); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.33, come austrini); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, 5, Appendix); Hunt & al., 2001 (p.374, tab.1, 2); Hunt, 2004 (p.1, 74): Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.313, fig.2); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2008 (p.1045: Tab. 2); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 3, 8, fig.1, Appendix 1, biogeography); Yang & al., 2011 a (p.921, Table 2, inter-annual variation 1999-2006); Ojima & al., 2013 (p.1293, Table 2, 3, abundance); Lee D.B. & al., 2013 (p.1215, Table 1, abundance, composition)
NZ: 8

Distribution map of Heterorhabdus austrinus by geographical zones
Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Distribution map 3issued from A. de C. Baker in 'Discovery' Rep., 1954, 27. [p.215, Fig.5].
Occurrence of Heterorhabdus austrinus in all longitudes around Antarctic zone of the Southern Ocean.
The percentage frequency of occurrence in samples taken within every 20° of longitude.

Nota: During the 'Discovery' investigations some thousands of plankton samples have been taken from stations spread over the whole of the Southern Ocean at all seasons of the year, the majority south of the Antarctic Convergence. An arbitrary selection of samples has been made from hauls between the surface and a depth of 250 m, which means that they have been taken from within the limits of the Antarctic surface water.
The data suggest that the Southern Ocean is an uninterrupted circumpolar belt with more or less uniform conditions prevailing in east and west directions, the range of planktonic species of the Antarctic surface water may be expected to extend as far as these uniform conditions persist, i.e to be circumpolar.
Species Heterorhabdus austrinus - Distribution map 4Issued from : E.T. Park & F.D. Ferrari in A selection from Smithsonian at the Poles Contributions to International Polar year. I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller, eds., Publs. by Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington DC., 2009. [p.165, Fig.1]
Distribution of selected pelagic calanoids Heterorhabdus austrinus of the Southern Ocean and the closest relative.
Loc:
Antarct. (Amundsen Sea, Peninsula, Weddell Sea, Atlant. SW, SE, Indian, Lützow-Holm Bay, Pacif. SW, South Georgia, SE, Drake Passage, Prydz Bay), sub-Antarct. (SW Atlant., off W Prince Edward Is., Indian, Pacif. SW, SE), S South Africa (E & W), S Indian (subtropical convergence), Patagonia, off S Rio de la Plata, S Brazil, off Mauritania (in Lapernat, 2000, tab.3, 4), Tasman Sea, New Zealand (South Island E, North Island SW), sub-Antarct., off Chilean coast (N & S)

Type locality; 70°12'S, 84°03'W.
N: 49
Lg.:
(25) F: 3,6-3,02; M: 3,51-2,84; (31) F: 3,65-3,45; M: 3,42-3,38; (33) F: 3,4; (35) F: 3,85-3,42; M: 3,6-3,48; (102) F: 3,8-3,55; M: 3,2-2,9; (246) F: 3,33-3,04; M: 3,08-2,74; (313) F: 4,05-2,4; M: 2,8-2,5; (824) F: 3,68-2,84; M: 3,28-2,64; (909) F: 2,8-3,3; M: 2,7-3; {F: 2,40-4,05; M: 2,50-3,60}
Rem.: Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-100-1000 m.
"Abyssalis" Group.
Meso-bathypelagic.
Vervoort (1957) supposes that this species could be identical to H. pustulifer, which is contested by Bradford (1971 b).
Heterorhabdus austrinus var. Farran,1929 (F,M)
Ref.: Farran, 1929 (p.265: small forms); Vervoort, 1957 (p.132, Rem.)
Loc.: Antarct., sub-Antarct., off eastern New Zealand
Lg.: (35) F: 3,18-2,97; M: 2,88-2,84
Rem.: For Vervoort (1957) one does not observe the structural difference between this variety and the preceding species.

For Park (2000, p.135) H. austrinus is very close in habitus and details of the appendages to H. abyssalis but can be distinguished from it (See remarks in H. abyssalis).
Last update : 21/08/2014
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