Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Calanoidea )
Syn.: Paracalanina Giesbrecht,1892 (p.48);
Paracalaninae : Esterly, 1905 (p.138);
Eucalanidae : Rose, 1933 a (part., p.66).
Calocalanidae Bernard, 1958 (p.199); 1960 (n° 36-1ère rev., p.3); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.108); Razouls, 1972 (Annexe: p.20: Rem.); Corral, 1972 (n°138, p.4); Björnberg, 1972 (p.21, 24); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.624, Rem.); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.10); Razouls, 1982 (p.113); Sazhina, 1985 (p.112, Nauplius); Madhupratap & al., 1996 (p.863, Table 5: %/copepods); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.179)
Mecynoceridae Andronov, 1973 b (p.1721); 1974 a (p.1005); Razouls, 1982 (p.101); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.10); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.142, 147, 216); Mauchline, 1987 (p.722, 740, cuticular pores); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, 153, Rev.); Nishida, 1989 (p.174); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (part., p.44, 71, Def., Rem.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.833); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.136, Def.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.907, Def.)
Ref.: Sars, 1901 a (1903) (p.16); Früchtl , 1924 b (p.34); Gurney, 1931 a (p.84); Oliveira, 1946 (p.458); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.82, 107); Farran & Vervoort, 1951 c (n°35, p.3); Gonzalez & Bowman, 1965 (p.242); Andronov, 1970 (p.980 & suiv.); Björnberg, 1972 (p.24); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1005); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.621); Razouls, 1982 (p.102); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.10); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.143, 147, 213); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.231); Sazhina, 1985 (p.112, N); Nishida, 1989 (p.174, Rem.); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.364); Madhupratap & al., 1996 (p.863, Table 5: %/copepods); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.844); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.908, Genera Key); Barthélémy, 1999 a (p.30); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.445, 461); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.14, 15; 49; 151: Def., Genera Key); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.170, Def.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.913, part. Genera Key); Bradford-Grieve, 2008 (p.59, 60: emend.,Rem.); Blanco-Bercial & al., 2011 (p.103, Table 1, Fig.2, 3, 4, Biol. mol, phylogeny); Cornils & Blanco-Bercial, 2013 (p.861, Phylogeny, molecular analysis); S.Y. Moon & al. (2014, p.29, 44: Genera Key , emended from Boxshall & Halsey, 2004); Laakmann & al., 2019 (p.330, fig. 2, 3, phylogenetic relationships); Hirai & al., 2020 (p.1, Fig.4: metabarcoding, Fig.8: OTUs distribution patterns)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002. http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/calanoida/index.htm
Rem.: The creation of the Calocalanidae family based on the genus Calocalanus, placed initially by Giesbrecht (1892, p.49) among the Paracalanidae, is subject of controversy. Björnberg relying on the morphology of the nauplius confirms the validity of this creation. Fleminger (1967 a), Andronov (1970, p.980 & suiv.), Hiromi (1987, p.147, 153, Rem.), Bradford-Grieve (1994) include this family among the Paracalanidae, but neither Bowman & Abele (1982) nor Huys & Boxshall (1991). Later, Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.153) do include the Calocalanidae in the Paracalanidae. 2 G : Calocalanus, Ischnocalanus. The latter genus is considered as a synonym of Calocalanus.
Mecynocera, previously placed in the subfamily of the Eucalaninae by Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.45, 47), then in the Eucalanidae (Sars, 1902, p.14), next in the Calocalanidae Bernard, 1958 a (p.199). For Andronov (1970, p.985) suggests to include this genus into the family Paracalanidae, but in 1973 erected the monotypic family Mecynoceridae.
For Bradford-Grieve (2008, p.59-64) Mecynocera clausi is transferred to the Paracalanidae, primarily on the basis of the form of the exopod of the male antenna and the maxilliped. Details of the setation of the mouthparts and swimming legs and segmentation of the female urosome.

Emendation after Bradford-Grieve (2008) :
Male A1 symmetrically developed, neither of them geniculate;
Male A2 exopod with short terminal segment without 3 terminal setae;
male Mxp sexually dimorphic, endopod with 3 enlarged plumose setae (2 outer and 1 terminal), inner setae very atrophied;
P1 endopod of 2-segments, exopod 3-segmented;
P2-P4 exopods and endopods of 3 segments, exopod segment 3 of P2-P4 with 2 outer border articulated spines; terminal spine on exopod segment 3 of P2-P4 with 2 outer border articulated spines; terminal spine on exopod segment 3 of P2-P4 blade-like, not serrated;
Female P5 uniramous with fused protopodal plate: of 2-4 segments but may be rudimentary or absent;
Male P5 uniramous; right leg shortest, of 2-5 segments but may be rudimentary; left leg elongate, slightly prehensile, 5-segmented.
7 G.: Acrocalanus, Bestiolina, Calocalanus, Delibus, Mecynocera, Paracalanus, Parvocalanus.
Thanks to T. Chad Walter for information concerning the publication of H. Özdikmenn on the genus name of Delius

Key to genera after Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.153) [not Mecynocera included) :
1 – 3rd ebndopodal segment of P2 with armature formula 1, 2, 3 ……… 2.
1’ – 3rd endopodal segment of P2 with armature formula 2, 2, 3 …….. 3.
2 – Outer margins of 2nd and 3rd exopodal segments of P2 to P4 ornamented with strong spinules ; 3rd endopodal segment of P3 and P4 with armature formula 2, 2, 3 …….. Acrocalanus.
2’ - Outer margins of 2nd and 3rd exopodal segments of P2 to P4 lacking spinular ornamentation ; 3rd endopodal segment of P3 and P4 with armature formula 1, 2, 3 ……. 3.
2’ – Outer margins of 2nd and 3rd exopodal segments of P2 to P4 lacking spinular ornamentation ; 3rd endopodal segment of P3 and P4 with armature formula 1, 2, 3 ……Bestiolina.
3 – Right P5 lacking in both sexes …….. Delius = Delibus.
P5 female symmetrical ; small right legpresent in male …… 4.
4 – Inner seta on basis of P1 present ; outer margin of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 to P4 conspicuously serrated …… Paracalanus.
4’ – Inner seta on basis of P1 absent ; outer margin of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 to P4 smooth ……… 5.
5- Median keel-like hump present on cephalosome of male ; rostrum with slender paired filaments ; male right P5 4-segmented ; female fifth legs 3 or 4-segmented …….. Calocalanus.
5’ – Cephalosome of male lacking keel-like hump ; rostrum bifurcate, terminating in 2 acute points ; male right P5 2 or 3-segmented ; female fifth legs 2-segmented ……… Parvocalanus.

Key to the genera of Paracalanidae (amended from Boxshall & Halsey, 2004) from S.Y. Moon, S.-H. Youn & H.Y. Soh (2014, p.45) :
1 - Distal endopodal segment of P2 setal formula 1, 2, 2 ........Mecynocera
1' - Distal endopodal segment of P2 setal formula not 1, 2, 2 ......2
2 - Distal endopodal segment of P2 setazl formula 1, 2, 3; female P5 reduced ........3
2' - Distal endopodal segment of P2 setal formula 2, 2, 3; female P5 not reduced ....... 4
3 - Outer margins of 2nd and distal exopodal segments of P2 to P4 ornamented with strong spinules; distal endopodal segment of P3 and P4 with setal formula 2, 2, 3; female P5 strongly reduced .........Acrocalanus
3' - Outer margins of 2nd and distal exopodal segments of P2 to P4 lacking spinular ornamentation; distal endopodal segments of P3 and P4 with setal formula 1, 2, 3; female P5 strongly reduced to pair of rounded lobes ........Bestiolina.
4 - Right P5 lacking in both sexes; outer margins of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 to P4 lacking spinulations in female ........Delibus.
4' - P5 symmetrical in female; small right P5 in male .......5.
5 - Inner seta on basis of P1 present; outer distal margin of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 to P4 conspicuously serrated ........Paracalanus.
5' - Inner seta on basis of P1 absent or present; outer distal edges of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 to P4 smooth in female ......6.
6 - Median keel-like dorsal hump present on the cephalosome of male; rostrum with slender paired filaments in both sexes; male right P53 or 4-segmented; female P5 3 or 4-segmented ........Calocalanus.
6'- Medial keel-like dorsal hump absent on the cephalosome of male; rostrum short and broad, bifurcate, terminating in 2 acute points ; male right P5 4-segmented; female endopod 1 or 2-segmented .......Parvocalanus.
Family Paracalanidae - Plate 1issued from : J. Hiromi in Bull. Coll. Agr. & Vet. Med., Nihon Univ., 1987, 44. [p.152, Fig.2].
Structure of rostrums in species female of Paracalanus, Acrocalanus and Bestiolina.. Comparison of similarities and differences.
a: Paracalanus aculeatus; b, P. denudatus; c, P. parvus; d, Parvocalanus crassirostris; e, P. dubia; f, P. elegans; g, P.latus; h, P. scotti; i, Acrocalanus gibber; j, A. gracialis; k, A. monachus; l, Bestiolina inermis; m, B. sp.; n, B. sinicus; o, B. ceylonica.
e, l: after Sewell, 1912; g,o: after Andronov, 1972; h: after Vervoort, 1963; n: after Shen & Lee, 1966.

Family Paracalanidae - Plate 2issued from : J. Hiromi in Bull. Coll. Agr. & Vet. Med., Nihon Univ., 1987, 44. [p.150-151, Table 1].
Comparative list of the diagnostic characters in genera of the family Paracalanidae (rewritten from Andronov, 1973).
1: Number of segments of A1 (female); 2: Number of segments of A1 (male); 3: 8th and 9th segments of A1; 4: Rostrum; 5: Number of urosomites segments (female); 6: Keel-shaped hump on cephalothorax (male); 7: Positions of genital opening (male); 8: Internal seta on basipod 2 of P1; 9: External spinules on exopodal segment 3 of P2-P4; 10: Number of external spines on exopodal segment 3 of P2-P4; 11: Number of setae on endopodal segment 2 of P2-P4; 12: Number of setae on endopodal segment 3 of P2-P4; 13: Number of segments of P5 female (left/right); 14: Number of segments of P5 male (left/right).
In Table, corrected Delius = Delibus and Bestiola = Bestiolina.

Family Paracalanidae - Plate 3Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.151].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Nota: Setation sometimes reduced. Ornamentation of spinule rows typically present on surface of 2nd and 3rd endopodal segments of P1 to P4, and sometimes on 2nd exopodal segments.
P5 female fused medially to form transverse protopodal plate; uniramous; 2 to 4-segmented, often armed with setae distally; may be rudimentary or absent, as in Acrocalanus.
Male P5 uniramous, highly asymmetrical; right leg short, 2 to 4-segmented; right leg sometimes rudimentary, or absent, as in Delius; left leg elongate, 5-segmented and slightly prehensile.
Eggs released into water.

Family Paracalanidae - Plate 4Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.152, Fig.33].
Paracalanidae. A, Paracalanus parvus habitus female (dorsal view); B, female P5; C, Paracalanus indicus male A2; D, Paracalanus aculeatus habitus male (lateral view); E, male P5; F, female P5; G, Acrocalanus andersoni female second leg (P2) [non third leg) (posterior view). [Sars, 1901: A-B; Bradford-Grieve, 1994: C; Vervoort, 1963: D-F; Bowman, 1958: G].
(1) Acrocalanus Giesbrecht, 1888
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.48, 171); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.25, spp. Key); Wolfenden, 1905 (p.999); A. Scott, 1909 (p.28); Sewell, 1912 (p.336); 1929 (p.78); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.30, spp. Key); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.93); Vervoort, 1946 (p.132); Sewell, 1947 (p.52); Tanaka, 1956 c (p.371); Bowman, 1958 (p.121, Rem); Gonzalez & Bowman, 1965 (p.243); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.100); Andronov, 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.); Razouls, 1982 (p.108); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.232, spp. Key); Mauchline, 1988 (p.721); Hiromi, 1987 (p.151, 152, 154); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.845); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.46, Def.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.909: clé spp.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.172, Def.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.915, spp. Key); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 44: Genus key)
Rem.: Type: Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht,1888. Total: 5 spp.
For Bowman (1958, p.121) the species of Acrocalanus are most conveniently distinguished by the shape of the cephalothorax in lateral view.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.46) :
- As for the family definition.
- Rostrum with long slender filaments.
- Pegigerous segments 4 and 5 incompletely separated.
- A1 long .
- Basis of P1 with an inner-edge seta.
- Well developed ornamentation on the posterior surfaces of the swimming legs, all or some of the outer edges of the exopods of P2-P4 serrated, distal outer margin of the endopods endin a small spine.
- Male P5 present only on the left.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 1,135 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.3436), and the mean male size is 1.043 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.2593). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.925 ( n = 5; SD = 0.1215). The sex ratio is 1.
Bestiola Andronov, 1972
Syn.: Acrocalanus (part.)
Ref.: Andronov, 1972 a (p.290)
Rem.: Type: Bestiola zeylonica Andronov, 1972. Andronov (1972 a) defines the genus Bestiola during the description of a form (B. zeylonica), similar to 3 species of Acrocalanus (A. inermis, A. similis , A. sinicus).
The genus Bestiola distinguishes itself from Acrocalanus by a shortened rostrum in the (M) and the (F), a rudimentary P5 in the (F) along with the right rami in the (M), the absence of teeth on the external margin of art. 2 and 3 of the P2-P4; Ri3 of P3 and P4 with 6 s.. Under these conditions, the 3 above species placed among Acrocalanus belong to the new genus Bestiola.
Andronov (1991, p.133) changes this already used name in Bestiolina.
(2) Bestiolina Andronov, 1991
Syn.: Bestiola Andronov, 1972 a (p.290); 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.) (nom. preoc.); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, 151, 152, 154); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.178, Def.)
Ref.: Andronov, 1991 (p.133: Rem.); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.51, Déf.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.846); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153); Moon & al, 2010 (p.32, Rem., Key F.); Moon & al., 2010 (p.39, key of females); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 44: Genus key); Dorado-Roncancio & al., 2019 (p.11: Rem., Key F).
Rem.: type: Bestiola zeylonica Andronov,1972. Total: 8 spp. + 1 undet.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.51) :
- As for the family definition.
- Rostrum shortened in males and females.
- Male with dorsal cephalic hump.
- Basis of P1 with an inner edge seta.
- Endopod segment 3 of P3 and P4 with 6 setae.
- P5 rudimentary and knob-like in females.
- P5 male elongated on the left and a rudimentary knob on the right.
- Outer edges of exopod segments 2 and 3 of P2-P4 devoid of teeth and there are only 6 setae on endopod 3 of P3 and P4.

According Moon & al. (2010, p.39) the genus was separated from the other genera within the Paracalanidae based: 1- absence of serration on the outer margins of 2nd and 3rd exopodal segments of P2 to P4; 2 - female P5 reduced to 2 rounded lobes; 3- male P5 with reduced rounded lobe of right leg and 5-segmented left leg, with tiny non articulated process and relatively long terminal spine. Moon & al. (2010, p.39) suggest that the ornamentation on exopodal segment 2 of P2 to P4 may play an role in separating Bestiolina species.

After Suarez-Morales & Almeyda-Artigas (2016, p.307) , the species of Bestiolina are in general very much alike in terms of body shape and proportions, body segmentation and leg armature but they can be distinguished by subtle characters. The spinulation pattern on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the exopodal and endopodal segments of P2-P4 is the most relevant character used to separate species, but also there are differences in the presence or absence of minute spinules on the posterior corners of the 5th pedigerous somite, and the structure of the rostrum, among other characters.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.892 mm (n = 13; SD = 0,1327), and the mean male size is 0.849 mm (n = 13; SD = 0.1086). The size ratio male: female is 0.945 (n = 5; SD = 0.0272). The sex ratio (female: male) is 1.
(3) Calocalanus Giesbrecht, 1888
Syn.: Leptocalanus Bernard, 1958 a (p.198); Ischnocalanus Bernard, 1963 b (p.160, Rem.); Corral, 1970 (p.110); Corral, 1972 (n°138, p.5, 6, key for F); Razouls, 1972 (p.21: Rem.); 1982 (p.121); 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.52) considère ce genre comme synonyme de Calocalanus; Mauchline, 1998 (p.77, 78)
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.49, 175); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.26); Wheeler, 1901(p.169); Van Breemen, 1908 a (p.22); A. Scott, 1909 (p.30); Sewell, 1929 (p.88); Wilson, 1932 a (p.39); Rose, 1933 a (p.75, spp. Key); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.33); Vervoort, 1946 (p.138); Farran & Vervoort, 1951 (n°36, p.3); Tanaka, 1956 c (p.377); Bernard, 1958 a (p.185); 1960 (n°36, first Rev., p.3); Schmeleva, 1965 (p.13, clé des F); Andronov, 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.109); Razouls, 1972 (Annexe: p.20, Rem.); Corral, 1972 (n°138, p.4, 5, Key for F.); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.163); Razouls, 1982 (p.113); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.233, spp. Key); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, 151, 154, Rev.); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.46, 52, Déf.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.749); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.877, 909: clé spp.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.919, spp. Key); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 44: Genus key)
Rem.: Type: Calanus pavo Dana,1849; 1852. Total: 50 spp.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.52) :
- As for the family definition.
- Head and pediger 1, and pedigers 4 and 5 fused or separated.
- Female urosome relatively short with 2-4 segments, often 2 setae on the caudal rami much thicker than the others, caudal rami sometimes asymmetrical.
- Female A1 often much longer than the body and segment 25 usually long, being at least twice as long as the preceding segment.
- Male A1 with segments 1-2, 3-6, and 24-25 fused.
- Basis of Mxp with an inner proximal row of conspicuous spines or teeth.
- Basis of P1 without seta, there may be fusion between exopodal and endopodal segments so that in a few species these rami may be both 1-segmented, endopod usually with 4 setae. The outer borders of the distal exopod segmenys not toothed.
- Female P5 symmetrical, uniramous of 3 or 4 segments.
- Male P5 asymmetrical, uniramous, 4-segmented on the right and 5-segmented on the left.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.713 mm (n = 83; SD = 0.2375), and the mean male size is 0.658 mm (n = 35; SD = 0.2064). The size ratio (male: female) is 0.804 (n = 15; SD = 0.0913) from the measurements of species with male and female. The sex ratio (female: male) is 2.5.
(4) Delibus Andronov, 1972
Syn.: Delius Andronov, 1972 b (p.597); 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.); Razouls, 1982 (p.112); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, 151, 154); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.66, Def.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.846); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.910: spp. Key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153);
Andronovius Özdikmen, 2008 (p.266: Rem.)
Ref.: Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.963, 1127: Rem.); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 44: Genus key)
Rem.: type: Paracalanus nudus Sewell,1929. Total: 2 spp.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.66) As Delius :
- As for the family definition.
- Head and pediger 1 fused, pedigers 4 and 5 fused.
- Rostrum bifurcate, with its branches short and rather wide and not filiform.
- Cephalic dorsal hump absent in the male.
- Female urosome 4-segmented.
- Male urosome 5-segmented.
- A1 extends to the posterior border of the metasome.
- Mouthparts as for the family.
- Basis of P1 with 1 inner-edge seta.
- Outer edge of segments 2 and 3 of exopods of P2-P4 smooth.
- P5 reduced, being present only on the left ; of 2 segments in the female and 5 segments in the male.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.550 mm, and the mean male size is 0.45 mm. The size ratio male: female is 0.82. The sex ratio (female: male) is 1.
Delius Andronov, 1972
Ref.: Andronov, 1972 b (p.597); 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.); Razouls, 1982 (p.112); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, 151, 154); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.66, Déf.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.846); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.910: clé spp.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153)
Rem.: type: Paracalanus nudus Sewell,1929. The name of the genus was modified in Delibus in Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.963), Delius: genus name of an insect!
(5) Mecynocera I. C. Thompson, 1888
Syn.: Leptocalanus Giesbrecht,1888; Dolichocerea Bernard,1963
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.47, 160); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.23); Wheeler, 1901 (p.167); Esterly, 1905 (p.137); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.19); A. Scott, 1909 (p.25); Wilson, 1932 a (p.36); Rose, 1933 a (p.71); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.28); Farran & Vervoort, 1951 b (n°34, p.3); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.142); Andronov, 1970 (p.980, Rem.); Corral Estrada,1970 (p.110, 111, 139, Rem.); Razouls, 1972 (Annexe: p.21: Rem.); Corral, 1972 (n°138, p.5); Andronov, 1973 b (p.1719, 1720); Razouls, 1982 (p.101); Mauchline, 1988 (p.722); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, 150); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.70, Def.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.833); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.911); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.136); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.908); Bradford-Grieve, 2008 (p.59, Rem.: species transferred to Pacacalanidae family); Cornils & Blanco-Bercial, 2013 (p.861, fig.3, 5, molecular analysis, morphology phylogenetic); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 44: Genus key)
Rem.: Type: Mecynocera clausii I.C. Thompson,1888 . Total: 1 sp.

See the ex-family Mecynoceridae for the morphologic chharacters.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
From all occurrences in the world, the mean female size is 1.044 mm (n = 49; SD = 0.1009), and the mean size male 0.992 mm (n = 17; SD = 0.0911). The size ratio (male: female) is 0.950.
(6) Paracalanus Boeck, 1864
Syn.: Calanus (part.) : Claus,1863; Piezocalanus Grandori, 1912 (p.98); Pesta, 1920 (p.502)
Ref.: Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.48, 164); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.23, spp. Key); Wheeler, 1901 (p.168); Sars, 1901 a (1903) (p.17); Esterly, 1905 (p.139); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.20); A. Scott, 1909 (p.26); Sewell, 1912 (p.336); Esterly, 1924 (p.85); Früchtl, 1924 b (p.34); Sewell, 1929 (p.61, Rem.: 2 groups); Wilson, 1932 a (p.37); Rose, 1933 a (p.72); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.29); Vervoort, 1946 (p.126); Davis, 1949 (p.17); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.108); Farran & Vervoort, 1951 c (n°35, p.3); Carvalho, 1952 a (p.142); Tanaka, 1956 c (p.367); Vervoort, 1962 a (p.394, Rev., spp. Key); Ramirez, 1966 (p.9); Bowman, 1971 (p.18, Rem.); Andronov, 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.); 1977 (p.154); Bradford, 1978 (p.133, Rem.); Razouls, 1982 (p.102); Brodsky & al., 1983 (p.213); Zheng Zhong & al., 1984 (1989) (p.231, spp. Key); Ambler, 1986 a (p.957, ingestion rate vs food concentration: nauplius-copepodids-adults); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, Rev., Table); Mauchline, 1988 (p.720); Ferrari, 1992 (p.392, tab.3); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.66, Déf.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.844); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.910: spp. Key, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.170, Def., Table 2); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.964, spp. Key); Kesarkar & Anil, 2010 (Rem.: p.6); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 41: 44: Rem., Genus key)
Rem.: Type: Calanus parvus Claus,1863. Total: 11 spp. + 1 variety + 1 unident.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.66) :
- As in the family definition.
- Head and pediger segment 1 and pedigers 4 and 5 separate or fused.
- Rostrum with fine filaments.
- Urosome female 4-segmented.
- Urosome male 5-segmented.
- Genital segment and caudal rami symmetrical without outer-edge seta.
- A1 25-segmented in female.
- A1 strongly swollen at its base in the male, with segments 1-6, 7-8 fused, and the terminal segment small but free ; sensory organs well-developed and numerous in the male.
- A2 endopod shorter than exopod.
- Md with a large blade.
- Mx1 endopod with indistinct segmentation, outer lobe 2 with a very reduced seta.
- Mxp basis with a prosximal row of very fine spinules along its inner border.
- Male mouth parts very reduced. : A2 with proximal segments elongated at the expense of the terminal segment, the 3 terminal setae present in the female, absent in the male ; Mx1 very reduced with inner lobes atrophied and only a few setaze on the remains of the outer parts of this limb ; Mx2 represented by a knob ; Mxp terminal part hardly segmented with 3 enlarged plumose outer setae and atrophied inner setae.
- P1 coxa and basis with 1 inner-edge setae, endopod 2-segmented.
- External border of P4 exopodal segment 3 divided by a spine into 2 parts of which the distal part is less than half the proximal part.. External border of exopodal segment 2 not toothed ; external border of exopodal segment 3 of some or all of P2-P4 toothed.
- Endopod segment 3 of P1 with 5 setae ; endopod segment 3 of P2 with 7 setae.
- P5 short, uniramous, symmetrical, 2-segmented in the female.
- P5 male uniramous, asymmetrical, 5-segmented on the left, 2-segmented on right.

Diagnosis from K.S. Kesarkar & A.C. Anil (2010, p.407) :
1 - Basis 2 of P1 usually with inner edge seta.
2 - P1 with endopod 2-segmented.
3 - P1 with endopod segment 2 with 5 setae.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.851 mm (n = 26; SD = 0.2238), and the mean male size is 0.895 mm (n = 14; SD = 0.3200). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.981 (n = 9; SD = 0.0698), being noticeably the same size. Le sex ratio (Female: Male) is 1.55.
(7) Parvocalanus Andronov, 1970
Ref.: Andronov, 1970 (p.984, Def.); 1973 b (p.1720, Rem.); Björnberg, 1981 (comm. pers.: Genus uncertain); Razouls, 1982 (p.110); Hiromi, 1987 (p.147, Rem.); Razouls, 1993 (p.308); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.69, Def.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.77); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.909, 911: spp. Key); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.153); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.176, Def.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.974); Kesarkar & Anil, 2010 (Rem.: p.6); S.Y. Moon & al., (2014, p.29, 41: Rem. 43-44: emended, Genus key, spp. Key)
Rem.: Type: Paracalanus crassirostris Dahl,1894. Total: 8 spp. (if the genus is maintained).

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.69) :
- As in the family definition.
- The fusion line between pedigers 4 and 5 usually conspicuous.
- Rostrum bifurcated, short and solid.
- Cephalic dorsal hump absent in the male.
- Female urosome 4-segmented.
- A1 25-segmented.
- Basis of P1 without inner-edge seta, endopod with 1- or 2-segmented.
- Posterior and lateral surfaces of P2-P4 may be ornamented with spines.
P5 2)segmented, symmetrical in femalewith short terminal spines.
- P5 male asymmetrical, left leg 5-segmented, right leg 2- or 3-segmented.
For S.Y. Moon & al. (2014, p.41) the genus Parvocalanus shows many similarities with Paracalanus, but differs by: 1- rostrum short, broad and bifurcated in both sexes; 2- distal segment of P5 terminal spines short in female; 3- absence of a medial keel-like dorsal hump on the cephalosome of male. However, 5 species of Parvocalanus have been described and/or illustrated as having 1 inner seta on the basis of P1 ( arabiensis, dubia, leei, scotti, serratipes). The authors slightly modifye the generic diagnosis of Parvocalanus : basis of P1 with or without inner seta and endopod of P1 unsegmented or 2-segmented (to accommodate P. arabiensis).
A molecular phylogeny discriminates the genera Parvocalanus and Paracalanus, with Parvocalanus placed as sister to the rest of paracalanid genera (Cornils & Blanco-Bercial, 2013). But the morphological phylogeny assessed in parallel by the same authors failed to separate the two genera, although it should be remarked that the morthological dataset used was extremely poor due to the poorness of the original species descriptions.

Diagnosis from K.S. Kesarkar & A.C. Anil (2010, p.407) :
1 - Basis 2 of P1 usually without inner edge seta.
2 - Endopod of P1 with 1 or 2-segmented.
3 - P1 with endopodal segment 2 with 6 setae.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.631 mm (n = 10; SD = 0.2210), and the mean male size is 0.580 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.2909). The size ratio (Male: Female) is 0.31 (n = 4; Sd = 0.2909). The sex ratio (Female: Male) is 1.5.

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed July 26, 2021]

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