Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
Parapontellidae Giesbrecht, 1894 ( Diaptomoidea )
Syn.: Parapontellina Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.73); Parapontellinae Giesbrecht, 1894 (p.94)
Ref.: Sars, 1903 (p.143); Gurney, 1931 a (p.85); Rose, 1933 a (p.265); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1005); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.9); Razouls, 1982 (p.587); Mauchline, 1988 (p.715); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.419); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.210, Déf.); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.461); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.12; 49; 155: Def.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.484)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002. http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/calanoida/index.htm
Rem.: 2 G.: Neopontella, Parapontella.

Definition from Bradford-Grieve (1999 b, p.210) :
Female :
- Cephalosome and pediger segment 1 separate, pedigers 4 and 5 fused.
- Rostrum with 2 filaments.
- A small ventral and large cental eye present, without a cuticular lens.
- Urosome 3-segmented.
- Caudal rami with 5-6 setae.
- A1 18-19 segmnts.
- A2 endopod fused yo basis ; exopopd longer than endopod ; coxa and basis with 1 seta each ; endopod segment 1 with 1 seta, segment 2 may be separated from a 3rd segment with 2-4 and 6-7 setae respectively ; exopod 5-7-segmented, with a total of 5-7 setae, terminal segment with only 2 terminal setae.
- Md with large cutting teeth ; basis elongate, without setae ; exopod rudimentary, 1-segmented with 3-5 setae ; endopod segment 1 with 1 seta, segment 2 with 6 setae ;
- Mx1 elongate, inner setae small, terminal part of endopod directed laterally ; inner lobe 1 (= arthrite) with 11-13 spines and setae ; inner lobes 2 and 3 with 2 setae each ; basis and endopod fused with a total of 8-13 setae ; exopod with 8 setae ; outer lobe 2 absent ; outer lobe 1 absent ? or with 4 setae.
- Mx2 lobes 1, 2 and 3 weakly developed, remaining lobes with strong claw-like setae ; lobes 1-5 with 3, 1-2, 1-2, 2, 2-3 setae respectively ; endopod with 5 spines and 2 setae.
- Mxp coxa produced distally with long setae ; basis without setae ; remainder of the limb with segments fused and reduced, especially the setae ; basis with 4 strong setae ; endopod with a total of 6-9 small setae.
- Simming legs with the rami 3-segmented except for endopods of legs P2-P4 which are 2-segmented ; terminal exopodal spines toothed along their outer borders.
- P5 symmetrical, biramous or uniramous (Neopontella); both coxae and coupler fused; basis with 1 small lateral seta; exopod segment 1 elongate with a long terminal articulated spine; and an inner distal spine which is fused or articulated to exopod segment 1; endopod, if present, 1-segmented and bifid distally.

Male:
- Posterior prosome may be conspicuously asymmetrical ;
- Urosome 4-5-segmented.
- A1 geniculate on the right, 12-15-segmented, distal part 2-segmented.
- P5 uniramous although an endopod remnant may be present on one side,3-segmented on each side, asymmetrical ; coxae and basis and coupler fused, bearing a lateral seta on each side ; left exopod segment 1 with a small outer distal spine, exopod segment 2+3 with 2 outer, 1 terminal, and sometimes an inner proximal spine ; right rxopopd segment 1 with a prominent inner process and sometimes another distal spine ; exopod segment 2+3 drawn out into a point, with a prominent inner proximal process, and sometimes has an outer rdge spine

Key to genera and species after Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.156! :
1 - Female P5 with well developed endopodite. Male urosome 5-segmented ..........Parapontella brevicornis.
1' - Female P5 lacking endopod. Male urosome 4-segmented .......... Neopontella typica.
Family Parapontellidae - Plate 1Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.155].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.

Nota : Female P5 comprising transverse plate formed by fused coxae and intercoxal sclerite ; separate basis with proximally located outer seta, and 1-segmented rami : endopod short, with forked apex ; exopod long, armed with lateral spine and 2 spines plus spinous process distally. Endopod absent in Neopontella.
- Male P5 asymmetrical ; legs fused proximally ; coxa and basis fused on both sides ; right leg with inner process on basis possibly representing endopod ; exopod 2-segmented, 1st segment with inner process, 2nd segment tapering into spinous apical process ; left leg with 2-segmented exopod, 1st segment with outer spine and small inner process, 2nd segment with 3 spines or spinous processes around outer and distal margins.
- Eggs released into water.

Family Parapontellidae - Plate 2Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.157, Fig.35].
Parapontellidae. A, Parapontella brevicornis habitus female; B, male Mx2; C, male Mxp; D, female Md; E, female P5; F, male P5. G, Neopontella typica female P5. [Sars, 1903a: A and D-F; Giesbrecht, 1893 a [1892]: B-C; A. Scott, 1909: G.]
(1) Neopontella A. Scott, 1909
Ref.: A. Scott, 1909 (p.185); Sewell, 1932 (p.391); Wilson, 1932 a (p.558); Tanaka, 1965 (p.386); Bradford, 1972 (p.30); Razouls, 1982 (p.587); 1993 (p.558); Mauchline, 1998 (p.97); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.210, Def.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.155)
Rem.: Type: Neopontella typica A. Scott, 1909. Total: 1 sp.

Diagnosis after Bradford-Grieve (1999 b, p. 210) :
- As in the family definition.
- Female A1 18-segmented.
- Female P5 uniramous, 3-segmented, terminal segment armed with 3 strong spines.
- Male urosome 4-segmented.
- Male posterior metasomal borders symmetrical in dorsal view.
- Male P5 uniramous, asymmetrical ; terminal segments on both sides lamelliform, on right it has a claw-like appearance but there is no articulation between thumb-like process and palm.
(2) Parapontella Brady, 1878
Syn.: Pontellina (part.) : Lubbock, 1857 (p.407)
Ref.: Brady, 1878 (p.68); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.74, 501); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.149); Sars, 1903 (p.144); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.154); Wilson, 1932 a (p.558); Rose, 1933 a (p.265); Bradford, 1972 (p.30); Razouls, 1982 (p.587); Mauchline, 1988 (p.715); Razouls, 1993 (p.307); Mauchline, 1998 (p.97); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.211, Déf.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.155); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.484)
Rem.: Type: Pontellina brevicornis Lubbock, 1857. Total: 1sp.

Diagnosis after Bradford-Grieve (1999 b, p. 211) :
- As in the family definition.
Female A1 19-segmented.
- Female P5 biramous, endopod and exopod 1-segmented.
- Male urosome 5-segmented.
- Male posterior metasomal borders asymmetrical in dorsal view.
- Male P5 uniramous on each side, 3-segmented, without a claw.

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed July 26, 2021]

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