Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
Parkiidae Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Ref.: Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996 (p.264); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.461); Ohtsuka & al., 2003 (p.53, 62: Rem.); Ferrari & Markhaseva, 2005 (p.45, Rem.); Markhaseva & al., 2014 (p.63, 67, 75, 77, Table 1, 2, 3, 4, Rem.,Def.); Laakmann & al., 2019 (p.330, Table 1, fig.1, 2, 3, 4, Table A, phylogenetic relationships)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002. http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/calanoida/index.htm
Rem.: Type genus: Parkius Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996
Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.188) regard this family as a synonym of the Scolecitrichidae in the absence of a genuine phylogenetic analysis. Vyshkvartzeva (2004, p.176 & foll.) contests the position of these authors concerning the genus Parkius and re-establishes the status of the Parkiidae family.
The types of setae on the ramus of Mx2 include this family in the 'Bradfordian' grioup of families.
For Markhaseva, Laakmann & Renz (2014, p.75) the diagnosis is based on the following combination of characters: the apomorphies for the family within the ''Bradfordians'' are Mxp endopod segment 1 with 1 seta and 1 seta-like segmental attenuation; and endopodal segment 4 with single seta-like segmental attenuation and a Mxp basis that is distally very narrow and extended. For these authors the family is maintened and not synonymus of Scolecitrichidae. The validity of this family was questioned and the genus Parkius placed in the family Scolecitrichidae until Vyshkvartzeva (2005) considering the male morphology. Parkius is distinguished from scolecitrichids by the following characters : Praecoxal endites of Mxp with setal formula 1, 1, 2 setae (versus 1, 2, 1 setae (in scolecitrichids) ; the unique attenuated shape of Mxp basis that bears 2 proximal setae (versus 3 setae in scolecitrichids) ; the Mxp endopodal segment 4 armed by 1 seta-like segmental attenuation (versus 3-4 setae in scolecithrids); the male P5 is of a simple structure with the right and left coxa and basis nearly symmetrical (versus P5 usually of complex structure, right and left coxa and basis significantly asymmetrical and right basis oval-rectangular, swollen in scolecitrichids).
Type: Parkius Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996

General characters after Matrkhaseva, Laakmann & Renz (2014, p.75) :

1 - Proximal part of rioght A1 in males with only ancestral segments X-XI fused (see fig. 5).

2 - A2 coxa with 1 seta; basis with 2 setae; endopodal segment 1 with 1 seta; setal formula of exopod: 0, 0-0-0-1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3 (see Table 1).

3 - Md endopodal segment 2 with 9 setae; exopod 5-segmented with 6 setae; gnathobase without hump (crest) (see Table 2).

4 - Mx1 setal foprmula: 11, 4, 4, 4, 10, 8, 8? (see Table 3).

5 - Mx2 endites setal formula: 4, 3, 3, 3, 4; endopod with 3w + 5br (see Table 4).

6 - Mxp2: praecoxal endites setal formula: 1, 2, 2: 1w + (1sc+1w) + (1sc+1br); basis with 2 proximal and 2 distal setae (see fig.6 J, Table 5).

7 - Male P5 biramous, of simple structure; right and left coxa and basis of nearly same length; exopods 3-segmented (see fig.7 g).
Family Parkiidae - Plate 1Issued from : E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.70, Fig. 5].
Schematic view of right A1 in males of ''Bradfordian'' families. Parkiidae.
Black arrows: fused ancestral segments; Roman numerals: ancestral segments.

Family Parkiidae - Plate 2Issued from : E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.73, Table 1].
A2 armament (number of seta) in different ''Bradfordian'' genera (females). Parkiidae.
c: coxa; b: basis; End1: endopod segment 1; End2: endopod segment 2; Exp: exopod.

Family Parkiidae - Plate 3Issued from : E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.74, Table 2].
Md armament (number of seta) in different ''Bradfordian'' genera (females). Parkiidae.
b: basis; End1: endopod segment 1; End2: endopod segment 2; Exp: exopod; gn: gnathobase.

Family Parkiidae - Plate 4Issued from : E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.14, Table 3].
Mx1 armament (number of seta) in different ''Bradfordian'' genera (females). Parkiidae.
pa: praecoxal arthrite (setal formula of praecoxal arthrite: terminal+posterior+anterior setae); ce: coxal endite; bp: proximal basal endite; bd: distal basal endite; End: endopod; Exp: exopod; Epi: epipodite.

Family Parkiidae - Plate 5Issued from : E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.78, Table 4].
Mx2 armament (number of seta) in different ''Bradfordian'' genara (females). Parkiidae.
at: attenuation; pe: praecoxal endite; ce: coxal endite; bp: proximal basal endite; bd: distal basal endite; el: enditic-like lobe of proximal endopodal segment; End: endopod; w: worm-like seta; br: brush-like seta; sc: sclerotised seta.

Family Parkiidae - Plate 6Issued from : E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.80, Table 5].
Mxp setation (number of seta) in different ''Bradfordian'' genera (females). Parkiidae.
at: attenuation; pes: praecoxal endites of syncoxa (from proximal to distal); ces: coxal endite of syncoxa; bp: basis proximal; bd: basis distal; End: endopod.
For more detailed morphology of the seta on the praecoxal endites of the maxilliped syncoxa see Markhaseva & Ferrari (2005) and Markhaseva & al. (2008).

Family Parkiidae - Plate 7Issued from :E.L. Markhaseva, S. Laakmann & J. Renz in Mar. Biodiv., 2014, 44 [p.72, Fig.7 h].
P5 from Parkius sp.
R: right leg; Exp: exopod; end: endopod.
Changed and schematised after Grice & Hulsemann (1967).

Family Parkiidae - Plate 8Issued from : S. Laakmann, E.L. Markhaseva & J. Renz in Mol. Phylog. Evol., 2019, 130. [p.331, Table 1].
compilation of information on relationships among ''Bradfodian'' genera from Markhaseva & Ferrari 2005) and Markhaseva & al. (2014).
Abbreviations: A2, antenna; Md, mandible; Mx1, maxillule; Mx2, maxilla; Mxp, maxilliped ; P5, leg 5. w, worm-like sensory seta; b, brush-like sensory seta; s, sclerotized seta.;
Parkius Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996
Ref.: Ferrari & Markhaseva, 1996 (p.266); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.186, 188, 190); Vyshkvartzeva, 2004 (p.176)
Rem.: Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.188) consider the Parkiidae family (established from the type-genus Parkius) as a synonym of the Scolecitrichidae in the absence of a true phylogenetic analysis. 1 sp. + 1 unident.

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