Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
Pseudocyclopiidae T. Scott,1894 ; emend. Jaume, Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1999 ( Clausocalanoidea )
Ref.: T. Scott, 1894 d (p.235); I.C. Thompson, 1895 (p. 99); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.69); Gurney, 1931 a (p.85); Rose, 1933 a (p.166); Bradford, 1969 b (p.502, Table 3); Andronov, 1974 a (p.1005, 1008); Bowman & Abele, 1982 (p.9); Razouls, 1982 (p.394);1993 (p.310); Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1985 (p.350, Rev.); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.337, 419); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.131, Def.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.892); Jaume & al., 1999 (p.392,405); Ohtsuka & Huys, 2001 (p.461); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.15; 49; 169: Def.; p.170: Genera Key); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.709, Genera key); Bradford-Grieve & al., 2014 (p.507, 526, Rem.)
Bradford-Grieve J.M., (2002 onwards). Key to calanoid copepod families. Version 1 : 2 oct 2002. http://www.crustacea.net/crustace/calanoida/index.htm
Rem.: 4 G.: Paracyclopia, Pseudocyclopia, Stygocyclopia , Thompsonopia, + ? 1G: Frigocalanus (for Boxshall & Halsey (2004) this genus should be included in this family.

Key to genera after Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.170) :
1 - A1 of both sexes at most 20-segmented ......... 2.
1' - A1 of both sexes at least 22-segmented ...... 3.
2 - P1 with outer spine on basis; A1 20-segme,ted ......... Thompsonopia.
2' - P1 without outer spine on basis; A1 15, 16, 17 or 18-segmented ......... Pseudocyclopia.
3 - Endopod of P1 with total of 5 setae ........ 4.
3' - Endopod of P1 with total of 4 setae ......Paracyclopia.
4 - P1 with inner seta on basis ......... Frigocalanus rauscheri.
4' - P1 without inner seta on basis ........ Stygocyclopia.
Family Pseudocyclopiidae - Plate 1issued from : E.L. Markhaseva & F.D. Ferrari in Invert. Zool., 2005, 2 (2). [p.162, Table 4]
Setation of oral parts in females Pseudocyclopiidae (Clausocalanoidea) and ancestral condition of setation.

Family Pseudocyclopiidae - Plate 2Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.169].
Armature formula of swimming legs P1 to P4.
Nota: Setation sometimes reduced; endopod of P1 with only 4 setae in Paracyclopia. 1st exopodal segment of P3 occasionally reported with 2 outer margin spines. Inner seta on coxa of P3 wery well developed, ofthen longer than endopod.
- Female P5 uniramous, reduced; coimprising 2-segmenred protopod and 1-segmented exopod. Coxae fused to intercoxal sclerite. Exopod produced into 1 or 2 spines or spinous processes at tip and armed with 1 or 2 outer margin spines.
- Male P5 asymmetrical; both legs typically comprising coxa, fused to intercoxal sclerite, basis and 1 to3-segmented exopod; right leg usually slender and with elongate distal segment, unarmed or with terminal and outer spines (in Paracyclopia); left leg swollen proximally in Pseudocyclopia; distal segments slender, armed with spiniform elements terminally.
- Eggs presumably released into water.

Family Pseudocyclopiidae - Plate 3Issued from : G.A. Boxshall & S.H. Halsey in An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, 2004, No 166, Part. I. [p.171, Fig.39].
Pseudocyclopiidae. A, Pseudocyclopia stephoides, habitus female; B, habitus male; C, female A2. D, Pseudocyclopia giesbrechti, female P3; E, female P5; F, male P5. G, Paracyclopia naessi, male P5. [Sars, 1902: A-C; Sars, 1919: D-F; Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1985: G].
(1) Frigocalanus Schulz, 1996 (? Pseudocyclopiidae )
Ref.: Schulz, 1996 a (p.74); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.170)
Rem.: 1 sp.
(2) Paracyclopia Fosshagen, 1985
Ref.: in Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1985 (p.350); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.324); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.131, Def.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.78); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.170)
Rem.: type: Paracyclopia naessi Fosshagen & Iliffe,1985. Total: 1 sp.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.131) :
- As for the family definition.
- The posterior margins of urosomal segments finely striated, except anal segment.
- A1 reaches about half the length of prosome; 24-segmented in female; 23-segmented on the right side of the male.
- A2 exopod and endopod of equal length.Md blade with fine hyaline teeth.
- P1 endopod with 4 setae.
- Inner distal margin of basis of P2-P4 with a long strong spine, flanged distally.
- P5 3-segmented including a common basal segment in female, ending in a short segment with 2 distal points; simple, slender, asymmetrical with right leg longer in the male.
(3) Pseudocyclopia T. Scott, 1892 emend
Ref.: T. Scott, 1892 (p.246); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.29, spp. Key); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.70); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.87, clé spp.); Rose, 1933 a (p.167, spp. Key); Razouls, 1982 (p.394); Ohtsuka, 1992 (p.295); Razouls, 1993 (p.310); Bradford-Grieve, 1994 (p.131, Def.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.892); Mauchline, 1998 (p.78); Jaume & al., 1999 (p.403, Rem. : emend.); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.170); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.716)
Rem.: Coastal forms. Type: Pseudocyclopia crassicornis T. Scott,1892. Total: 4 spp. + 1 inc. sed.

Diagnosis from Bradford-Grieve (1994, p.95) :
- As for the family definition.
- Body short and compact with the anterior head strongly vaulted dorsally and more or less compressed laterally.
- Rostral prominence with rostral filaments.
- Last pediger segment rounded off posteriorly.
- Urosome with anal segment well developed in both sexes.
- Caudal rami short with 4 terminal setae.
- A1 unusually short and tapering rapidly distally, 16- to 20-segmented, the 1st segment very large.
- A2 with 6-segmented exopod wihch is much shorter than endopod.
- Md blade very strong, masticatory part thickened with cutting edge irregularly curved and minutely denticulate; palp with both rami well-developed.
- Mx1 normal.
- Mx2 bearing terminal setae.
- Mxp slender with coxa remarkably produced distally; terminal part reflexed.
- Swimming legs with very strong outer-edge spines on the exopods; terminal spine on P2-P4 coarsely serrate.
- Coxa seta on P3 transformed into a strong spine.
- Female P5 3-segmented including a common basal segment, terminal segment largest and spiniferous.
- Male P5 of moderate size, uniramous on both sides; terminating in a styliform claw on the right; on the left with the basal part very swollen, remaining part 3-segmented.

Diagnosis after Jaume, Fosshagen & Iliffe (1999, p.403) :
- Pseudociclopiidae.
- Rostrum completely incorporated into cehalosome, pointed, with 2 tiny terminal filaments.
- Female A1 with compound segments I-IX and XII-XIII resulting in 18-segmented condition, although most species with segment X, or wegments X and XI, additionally incorporated into compound segment, resulting in 17 or 16-segmented condition.
- Male A1 symmetrical, with segmentation pattern identical to female except for additional compound segment XXII-XXIII, resulting in corresponding 17, 16 or 15-segmented conditions (see below : fig. 9A-C). Segment XV naked in both sexes. No duplication of aesthetascs on any segment of male A1.
- 1st A2 endopod segment fully incorporated into basis.
- Mx2 endopod unsegmented..
- P1 without outer basal spine ; endopod with 5 setae.
- 1st exopod segment of P3 frequently with accessory spine sub-marginally on posterior surface of segment, near to distal end of outer margin.
- P4 of both sexes differing only in presence of inner basal spine in female and absence in male.
- Female P5 3-segmented, uniramous, each ending y, 3 points. Male P5 asymmetrical, uniramous, one leg with basis swollen laterally, other longer, filiform.
- Female genital double-somite symmetrical.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.683 mm (n = 7; SD = 0.1151) and the mean male size is 0.675 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.1211). The size ratio (Male / Female) is 0.98. The sex ratio (female / male) is 3/1
(4) Stygocyclopia Jaume & Boxshall, 1995
Ref.: Jaume & Boxshall, 1995 (p.213); Mauchline, 1998 (p.78); Jaume & al., 1999 (p.405, Rem.: emend.); Jaume & al., 2001 (p.20, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.170); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.711)
Rem.: type: Stygocyclopia balearica. Total: 4 spp.
The species occur in marine caves or the mixed marine zone of anchialine caves.

Diagnosis after Jaume & al. (1999, p.405):
- Pseudocyclopiidae.
- Rostrum fused to cephalosome, with 2 apical filaments.
- A1 symmetrical in both sexes, 23-segmented in females, 22-segmented in males; compound segments I-IV and X-XI present in both sexes, XXI-XXIII in males; segtment XII naked. Male A1 with quadrithek on segments III, V, VII and IX.
- A2 endopod 1 free, not incotporated into basis.
- Mx2 endopod 2-segmented.
- Endopod of P1 with 5 setae.
- 1st exopod segment of P3 without accessory spine.
- P4 of both sexes similar, with or without inner coxal spine.
- Male P5 slender, uniramous, asymmetrical, each ending in two points; left longer than right, 5-segmented, not swollen proximally; right 3 or 4-segmented.
- Female P5 3-segmented, uniramous, each ending in three points.
- Female genital double-somite symmetrical.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.693 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.0985) and the mean male size is 0.62 mm (n = 6; SD = 0.0991). The size ratio (male / female) is 0.9055, or approximately 90.55 %. The sex ratio (female / male) is 1.
(5) Thompsonopia Jaume, Fosshagen & Iliffe, 1999
Ref.: Jaume & al., 1999 (p.394: Def.); Bradford-Grieve, 2004 (p.287); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.170); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.712, spp. Key)
Rem.: Type: Thompsonia mediterranea. Total: 3 spp.

Diagnosis after Jaume, Fosshagen & Iliffe in Sarsia, 1999, 84. :
Pseudocyclopiidae.
- Rostrum pointed, movable, not fused to cephalon, with 2 terminal filaments.
- A1 of both sexes 20-segmented, displaying characterisyic compound segment X-XIV.
- Female A1 with segment I completely incorporated into II-IV, and with segments XXII and XXIII separate.
- Male A1 with segment I separate ; articulation between segments XXII and XXIII partially expressed in right A1, not expressed in left ; quadrithek on segment VII.
- 1st A2 endopod segment fully incorporated into basis.
- Mx2 endopod unsegmented.
- P1 withouter basal spine ; endopod with 5 setae.
- 1st exopod segment of P3 lacking accessory spine on outer margin.
- P4 armature sexually dimorphic ; with male lacking inner coxal spine and with 2 proximal segments of endopod bearing ordinary setae ; those of female bearing inner coxal spine and with armature on 2 proximal endopod segments reansformed into robust spines.
- Female P5 3-segmented, uniramous, each ending in 3 points.
- Male P5 asymmetrical, uniramous, with basis of left leg swollen posteriorly ; right leg elongate, filiform.
- Female genital double-somite symmetrical.

Remarks: The sexual dimorphism involving the expression of the articulation between segment 1 and compound segment II-IV in the males of the new genus deserves a comment here. Whereas this state is manifested in the new species (T. mediterranea) and also in T. stephoides, both Thompson (1895) and Sras (1901-1903) described the male antennules of T. stephoides as being similar to the female, except they did not figure them. Examination of material of this species from other Norwegian localities has demonstrated that the articulation is fully expressed in the males. The same is also possibly true for the males of T. muranoi since Ohtsuka (1992) did not figure the male antennules.
Remarks on dimensions and sex ratio:
The mean female size is 0.920 mm (n = 4; SD = 0.2566) and the mean male size is 0.973 mm (n = 4; SD = 0.1928). The size ratio (male / female) is 0.86 - 1.07, or approximately 0.97 %. The sex ratio (female / male) is 1.

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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed December 01, 2021]

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