List species and varieties by family
Candaciidae Giesbrecht, 1892 ( Diaptomoidea )
(1) Candacia Dana, 1846
Rem.: type: C. ornata in Fowler (1912), replaced by the species type Candacia pachydactyla (Dana,1849) in Grice & Vervoort, 1963 (p.150). 32 spp. + 3 unidentified (+ 2 doubtful : guinensis, inermis).

Key to species of Paracandacia and Candacia after Bradford-Grieve & al. (1999, p.955-957) from South Atlantic :
Female :
0 – P5 terminal segments end in processes at least one of which is finger-like process and may be finely serrated on one or both margins …….. Paracandacia (= Candacia).
0’ – P5 terminal segments end in one or more spine-like processes ………. Candacia.
01 - In dorsal view, genital segment with spine-like protrusions arising from each side and directed posteriorly (Fig.7.375, p.1066)……… Paracandacia bispinosa (= Candacia bispinosa)
01’ – In dorsal view genital segment without spine-like protrusions ……… 02.
02 - P5 terminal finger-like process finely serrate proximally ; distal seta on inner margin approximately twice as long as proximal seta ; points of posterior corners of prosome directed backwards (Fig.7.376, p.1066) …….. Paracandacia simplex (= Candacia simplex).
02’ - P5 terminal finger-like process finelly serrate distally ; setae on inner margin subequal, distal seta slightly longer than proximal seta ; points at posterior corners of prosome directed ventrally, scarcely visible in dorsal view (Fig.7.377, p.1066) ……… Paracandacia truncata (= Candacia truncata)
0’ : Candacia
1 – Posterior corners of prosome broadly rounded (Fig.7.366, p.1065)……. Candacia elongata.
1’ – Posterior corners of prosome pointed or otherwise produced ……… 2.
Urosomal segment 2 with ventral protrusion, lamella, or spuine-like process arising from ventral surface …… 3.
2’ – Urosomal segment 2 without lateral or ventral protrusion and without spine-like process arising from ventral surface ……. 6.
3 – In dorsal view, lateral margins of genital segment somewhat triangula rand pointed ; lamella on ventral surface of Urosomal segment 2 (Fig.7.362, p.1064)…….. Candacia bipinnata.
3’ – In dorsal view, lateral margins of genital segment not pointed ……… 4.
4 – In dorsal view, protrusion on ventral surface of urosomal segment 2 visible on right side of somite ; in dorsal view, lateral margins of genital segment with knob-like protrusions ; apex of P5 ends in long saber-like point (Fig.7.361, p.1064) ……… Candacia armata4’ – In dorsal view, protrusion on ventral surface of urosomal segment 2 not visible ; apex of P5 ends in 2 or more points …….. 5.
5 – In lateral view, ventral protrusion of urosomal segment 2 directed obliquely anteriad ; terminal segment of P5 with 2 small, outer, spine-like points and 2 small, subequal, spine-like points at tip (Fig.7.372, p.1065) …….. Candacia paenelongimana.
5’ – In lateral view, ventral protrusion of urosomal segment 2 directed obliquely posteriad ; terminal segment of P5 with 2 small, outer, spine-like points and 3 spine-like points distally, middle one of which is longest (Fig.7.364, p.1064) ……… Candacia cheirura.
6 – No inner edge setae present on terminal segment of P5 ……… 7.
6’ – 2 or 3 inner edge setae present on terminal segment of P5 …… 11.
7 – Spine-like process present on ventral side of genital segment (Fig.7.365, p.1064) …….. Candacia curta.
7’ – No spine-like process present on ventral side of genital segment ……. 8.
8 – 3 spine-like points present on terminal segment of P5 (Fig.7.373, p.1066) …….. Candacia tenuimana.
8’ – 4 or 5 spines or spine-like points present on terminal segment of P5 ……. .
9 – Apex of terminal segment of P5 with 3 subequal spine-like points (Fig.7.368, p.1065) ……… Candacia longimana.
9’ – Apex of terminal segment of P5 with 1 spine-like points or 2 unequal spine-like points ……. 10.
10 – Terminal segment of P5 with 2 outer spines and 2 distal spines (Fig.7.374, p.1066) …….. Candacia varicans.
10’ – Terminal segment of P5 with 3 small outer spines, and 2 distal spines (outer spine very small, inner spine large) (Fig.7.369, p.1065) …….. Candacia magna.
11 – No spines or spine-like processes present on genital segment ; in dorsal view, genital segment with distinctly convex protrusion on each side ; in lateral view, genital segment with ventral, rounded protrusion directed posteriad (Fig.7.363, p.1064) …… Candacia catula.
11’ – Spines or spine-like processes present on dorsal, lateral or ventral margins of genital segment …… 12.
12 – In dorsal view, 1 robust spine-like process extending obliquely posteriad from left side, and 1 robust spine extending posteriad from right side of genital segment ; both surpass posterior margin of genital segment (Fig.7.371, p.1065) …….. Candacia pachydactyla.
12’ – In dorsal view, spines from left and right sides of genital segment smaller and not reaching posterior margin of genital segment ……… 13.
13 – In lateral view, small protuberance arising from ventral side of genital segment near posterior margin ; distal 2 inner setae on terminal segment of P5, coaese and ubequal in length (Fig.7.367, p.1065) …….. Candacia ethiopica.
13’ – In lateral view, no protuberance on ventral sutface og genital segment ; distal 2 inner setae on terminal segment of P5, thin and approximatelt equal in length (Fig.7370, p.1065) …….. Candacia norvegica.

Male : :
0 - P5 is not chelate on right but ends in long plumose seta ; right A1 has no teeth in geniculate region …….. Paracandacia .
0’ – P5 is chelate on right ; right A1 has teeth on one or more segments in geniculate region ………. Candacia.
- 01 – Right A1 segments 16 and 19-20 without rounded or elongate protrusions (Fig. 7.376, p.1066) …….. Paracandacia simplex (= Candacia simplex).
01’ - One or both of right A1 segments 16 and 19-20 with rounded or elongate protrusions ………. 02.
02 – A1 segment 16 with rounded protrusion distally, segment 19-20 produced distally (Fig. 7.375, p.1066) ………. Paracandacia bispinosa (= Candacia bispinosa-.
02’ - A1 segment 16 with elongate protrusion distally, segment 19-20 not produced (Fig. 7.377, p.1066) ………. Paracandacia truncata (= Candacia truncata).
0’1 – Left posterior corner of prosome rounded (Fig. 7.366, p.1065) ……… Candacia elongata.
0’1’ – Left posterior corner of the prosome pointed ……… 0’2
0’2 – In dorsal view, genital segment without process or protrusion ……… 0’3.
0’2’ – In dorsal view, genital segment with process or protrusion ……. 0’4.
0’3 – Proximal spine on Mx2 inner lobe 5 considerably thicker than distal spine (Fig. 7.363, p.1064) ……… Candacia catula.
0’3’ – Proximal spine on Mx2 inner lobe 5 not notably thicker than distal spine (Fig. 7.374, p.1066) ……… Candacia varicans.
0’4 – Right A1 with segments 2 and 3 fused …….. 0’5.
0’4’ – Right A1 with segments 2 and 3 separate ……… 11.
0’5 – Right A1 with segments 17 and 18 fused …… 6.
0’5’ – Right A1 with segments 17 and 18 separate …….. 7.
0’6 – In dorsal view, process on right side of genital segment small, consisting of rounded knob in front of which is pointed projection (Fig. 7.367, p.1065) …….. Candacia ethiopica.
0’6’ – In dorsal view, process on right side of genital segment large, consisting of single broad and rounded projection (Fig. 7.371, p.1065) …….. Candacia pachydactyla.
0’7 – Right A1 with segments 19 and 20 fused or partially fused …….. 0’8.
0’7’ – Right A1 with segments 19 and 20 separate …… 0’10.
0’8 – In lateral view, distal end of right posterior corner of prosome truncate, extending beyond posterior border of genital segment (Fig. 7.362, p.1064) ………. Candacia bipinnata.
0’8’ – In lateral view, distal end of right posterior corner of prosome not truncate, may or may not extend beyond posterior border of genital segment …… 0’9.
0’9 – In lateral view, right posterior prosome corner not reaching posterior border genital segment and turned upwards (Fig. 7.365, p.1064) ……… Candacia curta.
0’9’ – In lateral view, right posterior prosome corner reaching posterior border of genital segment and turned slightly downwards ‘Fig. 7.361, p.1064) …….. Candacia armata.
0’10 - Tip of ‘thumb’ of chela on right P5 reaching to about midlength of ‘finger’ (Fig. 7.361, p.1064) ……. Candacia armata.
0’10’ – Tips of ‘thumb’ and ‘finger’ of right P5 subequal (Fig. 7.369, p.1065) …….. Candacia magna.
0’11 – In dorsal view, distal end of process on right side of genital segment ending in point ……. 0’12.
0’11’ – In dorsal view, distal end of process on right side of genital segment rounded or lobate …… 0’14.
0’12 – Distal segment of left P5 longer than penultimate segment (Fig.7.364, p.1064) …….. Candacia cheirura.
0’12’ – Distal segment of left P5 shorter than penultimate segment ……. 0’13.
0’13 – In dorsal view, process on genital segment directed outwards with distal end curved posteriorly ; right posterior corner of prosome notched at tip (Fig.7.373, p.1066) ……… Candacia tenuimana.
0’13’ – In dorsal view, process on genital segment not curved and directed somewhat obliquely posteriad ; right posterior prosome corner not notched at tip (Fig. 7.372, p.1065) ……. Candacia paenelongimana.
0’14 – In dorsal view, process on genital segment divided into 2 lobes (Fig. 7.370, p.1065) …….. Candacia norvegica.
0’14’ – In dorsal view, process on genital segment knob-like ‘Fig. 7.368, p.1065) ……. Candacia longimana

After Ohtsuka & Nishida (2017, p.581), Candacia is specialized for predation on gelatinous zooplankters such as appendicularians (Ohtsuka & Onbι, 1989; Ohtsuka & Kubo, 1991)..

Candacia aethiopica    Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.128); Sewell, 1912 (p.366); Vives, 1967 (p.551, figs.F,M); Sazhina, 1982 (p.1159, Rem., fig.N); 1985 (p.66, figs.N)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia ethiopica

[1] Candacia armata  (Boeck, 1872)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia aucta    Dana, 1849   
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.130); Grice, 1963 (p.179, Rem.: espθce douteuse)
Loc: Pacif.
Rem.: Cf. ?

Candacia bicornuta    Mori, 1932   
Ref.: Mori, 1932 a (p.170, Descr.F,M, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.160, Rem.)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia curta

[2] Candacia bipinnata  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[3] Candacia bispinosa  (Claus, 1863)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[4] Candacia bradyi  A. Scott, 1902   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia brevicornis    Thompson, 1888   
Syn.: Candace brevicornis Thompson, 1888 c (p.128, nomen nudum)
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.130); Grice, 1963 (p.179, Rem.: espθce douteuse)
Loc: Canaries
Rem.: Cf. ?

[5] Candacia catula  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia catula similis    Wolfenden, 1905   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1012, 1013); Grice, 1963 (p.175, Rem.); Lawson, 1973 a (p.483, Rem.)
Loc: Indien (Laquedives)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia tuberculata

[6] Candacia cheirura  Cleve, 1904   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia clausi    Marcusen, 1867   
Syn.: Candace clausii Marcusen,1867; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.425, Rem.)
Rem.: espθce douteuse. Cf. ?

[7] Candacia columbiae  Campbell, 1929   (F,M)    [Figs]

[8] Candacia curta  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia curva    Mori, 1932   (F)
Ref.: Mori, 1932 a (p.171, Descr.F, figs.F); 1937 (1964) (p.80, Rem.); Lawson, 1973 a (p.483)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia tuberculata (F)

[9] Candacia discaudata  A. Scott, 1909   (F,M)    [Figs]

[10] Candacia elongata  (Boeck, 1872)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[11] Candacia ethiopica  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[12] Candacia falcifera  Farran, 1929   (F,M)    [Figs]

[13] Candacia giesbrechti  Grice & Lawson, 1977   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia gracilimana    Farran, 1908   (M)
Ref.: Farran, 1908 b (p.85, Descr.M, figs.M); T. Scott, 1911 (p.118); Grice, 1963 (p.179), Vervoort, 1965 (p.174)
Loc: Irlande
Rem.: Cf. Candacia tenuimana

[14] Candacia grandis  Tanaka, 1964   (F,M)    [Figs]

[15] Candacia guggenheimi  Grice & Jones, 1960   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia guinensis    Chahsavar-Archad & Razouls, 1982   (F)
Ref.: Chasavar-Archad & Razouls, 1982 (p.32, figs.F)
Loc: Is. du Cap Vert
Rem.: Cette espθce dιcrite trop sommairement nιcessiterait d'κtre retrouvιe (holotype perdu), probablement un stade juvιnile 5.

Candacia inermis    Cleve, 1904   (F, ?M)
Syn.: C. norvegica : Wilson, 1942 a (p.175, fig.F)
Ref.: Cleve, 1904 a (p.187, 200, figs.F); Grice, 1963 (p.176, Rem.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.161); ? Morris, 1970 (p.2319, figs.M, Rem.)
Loc: Afr. S (E)
Lg.: (12) F: 3,3; M: 2,4
Rem.: ? Cf. Candacia elongata

Candacia intermedia    T. Scott, 1894   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace intermedia T. Scott,1894 b (p.61, figs.F,M)
Ref.: Vervoort, 1965 (p.160)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia curta

[16] Candacia ishimarui  Mulyadi, 1997   (F,M)    [Figs]

[17] Candacia ketchumi  Grice, 1961   (F,M)    [Figs]

[18] Candacia longimana  (Claus, 1863)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[19] Candacia magna  Sewell, 1932   (F,M)    [Figs]

[20] Candacia maxima  Vervoort, 1957   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia melanopus    Claus, 1863   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace melanopus Claus,1863 (p.191, figs.F,M)
Ref.: Vervoort, 1965 (p.162)
Loc: Mιdit.
Rem.: Cf. Candacia ethiopica

Candacia nigrocincta    Thompson, 1888   
Syn.: Candace nigrocincta Thompson,1888 c (p.128, nomen nudum); 1888 d (p.140); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.425)
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.130); Grice, 1963 (p.179)
Loc: Canaries, Malte
Rem.: espθce douteuse

[21] Candacia norvegica  (Boeck, 1864)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia norvegica intermedia    Tanaka, 1964   (F,M)
Ref.: Tanaka, 1964 c (p.246, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Loc: Japon (Izu)
Lg.: (120) F: 3,63; M: 3,25

Candacia norvegica tropica    Sewell, 1932   (F)
Ref.: Sewell, 1932 (p.336, figs.F); 1948 (p.527, Rem.); Grice & Jones, 1960 (p.288, figs.F, Rem.); Grice, 1963 (p.178); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.248, Rem.)
Loc: Indien
Lg.: (44) F: 2,28; (149) F: 2,28

Candacia obtusa    Sars, 1905   (F)
Ref.: Sars, 1905 c (p.23, Rem.F); Vervoort, 1965 (p.161)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia elongata

Candacia ornata    Dana, 1849   
Syn.: Candace ornata Dana,1849; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.425, 681)
Ref.: Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.131); Grice, 1963 (p.179)
Loc: Atlant.
Rem.: espθce douteuse. Cf. ?

[22] Candacia pachydactyla  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia pacifica    Mori, 1937   (F)
Ref.: Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.87, figs.F); Grice, 1963 (p.175)
Loc: Japon, Pacif. E (off Mexique)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia columbiae

[23] Candacia paenelongimana  Fleminger & Bowman, 1956   (F,M)    [Figs]

[24] Candacia parafalcifera  Brodsky, 1950   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia parasimplex    Brodsky, 1962   (F)
Ref.: Brodsky, 1962 c (p.141, Rem.F, figs.F); Grice, 1963 (p.173, Rem.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.158)
Loc: Pacif. NW
Rem.: Cf. Paracandacia simplex

Candacia pectinata    Brady, 1878   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace pectinata Brady, 1878 (p.49, figs.F,M); 1883 (part., p.67) ; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.424, 439, 776, figs.F,M); Thompson, 1888 d (p.140); non Esterly, 1905 (p.193, figs.F,M); non Candacia pectinata : Brodsky, 1962 c (p.144, figs.F)
Ref.: Wheeler, 1901 (p.177, figs.F,M); Grice, 1962 (p.234, Rem.); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Hattori, 1991 (tab.1, Appendix); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.71, Rem.)
Loc: Atlant. (Woods Hole), Mιdit., Adriatique
Lg.: (142) F: 2; M: 1,9
Rem.: Cf. Candacia armata

Candacia pectinata var. Sydney    Dakin & Colefax, 1940   (F,M)
Ref.: Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.105, figs.F,M)
Loc: Australie (Nouvelle-Galles du Sud)
Lg.: (104) F: 1,9; M: 2,3
Rem.: femelle juv. ? . Cf.: Candacia ? armata ou pachydactyla

[25] Candacia pofi  Grice & Jones, 1960   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia rotunda    Wolfenden, 1904   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace rotunda Wolfenden, 1904 (p.118, Rem.F, figs.F); Candacia rotundata : Farran, 1908b (p.85, fig.M)
Loc: Farφe
Rem.: Cf. Candacia elongata

[26] Candacia samassae  Pesta, 1941   (F,M)    [Figs]

[27] Candacia simplex  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[28] Candacia tenuimana  (Giesbrecht, 1889)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[29] Candacia truncata  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[30] Candacia tuberculata  (Wolfenden, 1905)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia turgida    Wilson, 1950   (F)
Ref.: C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.183, Descr.F, figs.F); Grice, 1963 (p.173)
Loc: Philippines, mers de Chine (Taiwan)
Rem.: Cf. Paracandacia truncata

[31] Candacia varicans  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia violaceus    Chiba, Tsuruta & Maeda, 1955   
Ref.: Grice, 1963 (p.179, Rem.)
Rem.: nom. nud.

[32] Candacia worthingtoni  (Grice, 1981)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Candacia sp.    Pesta, 1941   
Ref.: Vervoort, 1965 (p.175)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia varicans

[33] Candacia sp.1  Arcos, 1976   (F)    [Figs]

[34] Candacia sp.2  Arcos, 1976   (F)    [Figs]

[35] Candacia sp.  Brodsky, 1962   (F)    [Figs]

Table I: Candacia : Total length, localization and depth

Species
Lg (mm) F; M
Localization
Depth
C. grandis
4 à 5
Japan
 
C. magna
3 à 4,5
Atlant- Tropic. Indian
 
C. columbiae
-
N. Pacif.N
 
C. parafalcifera
-
N. Pacif N, Pacif E (bathypel)
 
C. falcifera
3 à 4
Antarct., Groenland
 
C. maxima
-
Antarct, sub-Antarct + C.S.T
 
C. elongata
2 à 3,9
Cosmop. Tropic
M - B
C. longimana
-
Cosmop. Tropic
E- M
C. norvegica
-
Cosmop. cold temperate
E- M
C. pachydactila
> 2 à > 3,5
Cosmop. Tropic
E - B
C. armata
2 à 3
warm & cold temperate
E - M
C. bibinnata
-
Cosmop. Tropic, cold temperate
E - M
C. cheirura
-
Sub-Antarct + CST
E - M
C. curta
-
Cosmop. Tropic
E - B
C. ethiopica
-
Cosmop. Tropic
E - M
C. giesbrechti
-
warm temperate
 
C. ishimarui
-
Tropic.
 
C. paenelongimana
-
Tropic.
M
C. pofi
-
Tropic.
 
C. samassae
-
Tropic.
 
C. tenuimana
-
Tropic.
M
C. varicans
-
Cosmopol. Tropic
E - M
C. simplax
-
Cosmopol. Tropic
E - M
C. truncata
-
Cosmopol. Tropic
 
C. bradyi
1 à 2
Tropic.
 
C. catula
-
Tropic.
E
C. discaudata
-
Tropic.
 
C. guggenhemi
-
Tropic.
 
C. ketchumi
-
Tropic, sub-Tropic.
E - M

 

The largest form, C. grandis , was described from Japan, the smallest, C. catula, from the Indo-Pacific.

The largest forms correspond to cold waters (Antarctic or N. Pacific), except C. magna.

Four species show highest deviations between minimum and maximum values. These correspond to tropical or subtropical cosmopolite forms and generally meso- or bathypelagic. Fourteen species (being 44%) have sizes between 2 and 3 mm, for females as well as for males, which are in general slightly smaller than the females. Eight species show smaller dimensions, between 1 and 2 mm, and are observed in tropical waters.

Paracandacia Grice, 1963
Rem.: This genus is considered as non-valid by Boxshall & Halsey (2004, p.84).
Cf. Candacia
Paracandacia bispinosa    Claus, 1963   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace bispinosa Claus, 1863 (p.191,figs.F,M); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.424, 440, 771, figs.F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia bispinosa
Paracandacia simplex    Giesbrecht, 1889   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace simplex Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.424, 440, 771, figs.F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia simplex.
Paracandacia truncata    Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace truncata Dana, 1849; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.425, 440, 771, figs.F,M); non Brady, 1883 (p.69, figs.F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia truncata.
Paracandacia worthingtoni    Grice, 1981   (F,M)
Ref.: Grice, 1981 (p.165, figs.F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Candacia worthingtoni.

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