List species and varieties by family
Phaennidae Sars, 1902 ( Clausocalanoidea )
(1) Brachycalanus Farran, 1905
Rem.: type: Xanthocalanus atlanticus (Wolfenden,1904). Total: 7 spp. (1 doubtful) + 1 undet.

Redefinition after Campaner (1978 a, p.976), and [Bradford & al., 1983, p.60] (Female) :
- Body robust and oval dorsally.
- Cephalosome and thoracic segment 1 separated, thoracic segments 4 and 5 complete or incompletely separated or totally fused.
- Rostrum short with 2 filaments.
- Abdomen 4-segmented, densely covered with scale-like spines (anal segment extremely reduced).
- A1 short, 24-segmented [with large aesthetascs].
- Exopod of A2 little greater than endopd.
Inner lobe 1 [2] and 3 of Mx1 with respectively 2 and 4 setae.
- Endopod of Mx2 with 1 vermiform [worm-like] seta and ( ?5) 7-8 brush-like setae [7 sensory filaments].
- The dorsal and dorsal surfaces of basis 1-2, and especially of exopod and endopod, from P1-P5 densely covered with scale-like spines.
- P5 with 3 segments, last one with 2 lateral and 2 terminal aculeate spines.

Type-species :

Campaner (1978 a, p.976) disagrees with Grice (1972), who placed B. minutus in this genus based mostly on the absence of rostral filaments.
Xanthocalanus ordinarius Grice (1972) is doubtless a new species of Brachycalanus.
Since B. gigas A. Scott, 1909, was definitely removed to the genus Lophothrix, the genus hitherto includes 3 species : B. atlanticus (Wolfenden, 1904), B. ordinarius (Grice, 1972), B. bjornbergae Campaner, 1978.
B. minutus Grice, 1972, is a species incertae sedis.

[1] Brachycalanus antarcticus  Schulz, 2005   (F)    [Figs]

[2] Brachycalanus atlanticus  (Wolfenden, 1904)   (F, juv.M)    [Figs]

[3] Brachycalanus bjornbergae  Campaner, 1978   (F, juv.M)    [Figs]

[4] Brachycalanus brodskyi  Ferrari & Markhaseva, 2000   (F)    [Figs]

[5] Brachycalanus flemingeri  Ferrari & Markhaseva, 2000   (F)    [Figs]

Brachycalanus gigas    A. Scott, 1909   (juv. M)
Ref.: A. Scott, 1909 (p.81, figs.M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.58, Rem.); Grice & Hulsemann, 1968 (p.333, Rem.); Bradford, 1973 (p.144, Rem.)
Loc: Indonésie-Malaisie
Rem.: Cette forme appartient probablement au genre Landrumius.
Cf. Landrumius gigas

Brachycalanus minutus    Grice, 1972   (F,M)
Ref.: Grice, 1972 a (p.228, figs.F,M); Campaner, 1978 a (p.976, Rem.)
Loc: Atlant. NW (off Cap Cod S)
Rem.: Genre douteux: Cf. sp. inc. sedis.

[6] Brachycalanus ordinarius  (Grice, 1972)   (F)    [Figs]

[7] Brachycalanus rothlisbergi  Othman & Greenwood, 1988   (F)    [Figs]

[8] Brachycalanus sp.  Bradford-Grieve, 2004   (F)    [Figs]
(2) Cephalophanes Sars, 1907
Rem.: Type: Cephalophanes refulgens Sars, 1907. Total: 3 spp.

Diagnosis after Park (1983 a, p.319) , and Bradford, Haakonssen & Jillett (1983, p.60) :
- Head and pedigerous segment and pedigerous segments 4 and 5 fully separate.
- Rostrum of 2 slender filaments.
- Forehead with a pair of large eyes, each occupying almost entirely half of forehead. A1 25-segmented.
- Exopod of A2 much longer than endopod.
- Mx2 terminated by 6 or 7 slender brush-like appendages and perhaps 1 worm-like appendage. Two of 4 setae on 5th basipodal lobe (= endite) of Mx2 large and spiniform, but not conspicuously larger than large setae of other basipodal lobes.
- Endopods of P2 to P4 armed posteriorly with relatively long spinules.
- P5 uniramous, 3-segmented, armed with spinules and spines (sometimes very fragile and likely broken off).
- P5 4-segmented on each side; right leg much shorter than left.

After Sars (1925, p.155), the bright device in C. refulgens) consists of two symmetric half , of prismatic shape, filling almost completely the frontal part of the head, and arranged so as to be contiguous to down, whereas their superior sharp edges are moved away enough one of the other one. Inside of every organ there is a dense bundle of radiant fibers wrapped with a pale pigment, doubtless the generators of the light, which is reflected by the external plane surface of organs provided of a chandelier very bright and pearly . This chandelier however faints after dipping of specimens in the alcohol, better kept in the formalin.

[1] Cephalophanes frigidus  Wolfenden, 1911   (F,M)    [Figs]

[2] Cephalophanes refulgens  Sars, 1907   (F,M)    [Figs]

[3] Cephalophanes tectus  (Esterly, 1911)   (F)    [Figs]
(3) Cornucalanus Wolfenden, 1905
Rem.: 6 spp. + 1 unident.

Diagnosis after Bradford & al. (1983, p.61) :
- Head and pedigerous segment 1 usually separate, 4th and 5th thoracic segments fused or separate.
- Head with or without spine.
- A1 34-25-segmented in female, fewer segments in male.
- Mx2 with strong claw-like spine on lobe 5 as in Onchocalanus
- Mxp endopod segments 2 and 3 each with a strong spine.
- P5 uniramous, symmetrical in female; asymmetrical in male.

Diagnosis after Park (1983 a, p.351) :
Female :
- Head and 1st pedigerous segment separate, 4th and 5th thoracic segments partially fused.
- Rostral plate strong, divided distally into 2 large rami, each ramus often folloiwed by a delicate filaments.
- A2 exopod slightly longer than endopod.
- One of 3 setae on 4th basipodal lobe of Mx2 enlarged into a sttrong spine; 5th basipodal lobe with a greatly enlarged spiniform seta, strongly curved resembling a sickle, and a small seta in the form of a simple crankshaft.
- 2nd and 3rd endopodal segments of Mxp each with a large, claw-shaped seta.
- Basis of P1 with a well-developed inner seta.
- In P2 to P4, whole posterior surfaces of both rami armed with spinules.
- P5 uniramous, 3-segmented. Last 1 or 2 segments armed with patches of spinules.

- Habitus similar to female.
- Urosome 5-segmented.
- A1 12th and twenty-first segments fused on right side but separate on left.
- A2 and P1 to P4 similar those of female;
- Md, Mx1 and Mx2 similar in setation to those of female, but more or less reduced in their development.
- None of endopodal setae of Mxp enlarged into claws.
- Left P5 long, 5-segmented. Right leg very short, 3- to 5-segmented.

For Park (1983 a, p.352) the females of the genus are very characteristic: a strong, sickle-shaped spine and a small, crankshaft-shaped seta on the 5th Mx2 lobe and 2 of the endopodal setae of Mxp greatly enlarged into claws.
The males are very similar to those of Onchocalanus but can be distinguished from them by the shape of the strong, spiniform setae on the 4th and 5th Mx2 lobes and the presence of an inner seta on the basis of P1.

Cornucalanus antarcticus    Brodsky & Zvereva, 1976   (F)
Ref.: Brodsky & Zvereva, 1976 (p.185, Descr.F, figs.F); Park, 1983 a (p.352, 358, Rem.)
Loc: Antarct.
Rem.: Cf. Cornucalanus robustus

[1] Cornucalanus chelifer  (Thompson, 1903)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[2] Cornucalanus indicus  Sewell, 1929   (F,M)    [Figs]

Cornucalanus magnus    Wolfenden, 1905   (F,M)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1905 a (p.21, Descr.F, figs.F); Sewell, 1948 (p.384); Vervoort, 1957 (p.90, 91, Rem.); Park, 1983 a (p.352, Rem.)
Rem.: Cf. Cornucalanus chelifer.

[3] Cornucalanus notabilis  Brodsky & Zvereva, 1976   (F)

[4] Cornucalanus robustus  Vervoort, 1957   (F,M)    [Figs]

[5] Cornucalanus sewelli  Vervoort, 1957   (F)    [Figs]

[6] Cornucalanus simplex  Wolfenden, 1905   (F)    [Figs]

[7] Cornucalanus sp.  Séret, 1979   (F)    [Figs]
(4) Kirnesius Markhaseva & Semenova, 2005
Rem.: Type: Kirnesius groenlandicus Markhaseva & Semenova, 2005. Total; 1 sp.
For Markhaseva & Schulz (2009, p.22) the family placement in Phaennidae is only provisionally due to the presence of rudimentary oral parts and the uniramous P5. Segmentation and setation of swimming legs and the structure of A1 of the species-type are typical of the superfamily CVlausocalanoidea. The presence of A1 brush-like aesthetascs is unique in the order Calanoida, and is an apomorphiy that separates the new genus from all other described clausocalanoideans.

Diagnosis from Markhaseva & Semenova (2005, p.40) :
- Cephalosome anf 1st pedigerous somite separated, 4th and 5th incompletely separated.
- Rostrum large, thick, oval-rectangular and lacking filaments.
- A1 non-geniculate on both sides. Brush-like aesthetascs present in proximal part of A1 on articulated segments 2 and 5 (ancestral segments II-IV and VII respectively). A1 slightly asymmetrical, 23-segmented on right, 22 segmented on left side, due to fusion of segments 18 and 19 (ancestral segments XXII-XXIII).
- Mouthparts moderately reduced.
- Mx2 with 8 sensory setae on exopod, praecoxal endite with 5 setae.
- Syncoxa of Mxp with 4 setae on praecoxal lobes: 1 scletotized seta on proximal lobe, 1 sensory worm-like plus 1 sclerotized on medial lobe and 1 sclerotized on distal lobe.
- P1 endopod 1-segmented.
- P2 endopod 2-segmented.
- P3 - P4 endopods 3-segmented.
- P1 - P2 exopods 3-segmented, P3 - P4 endopods broken.
- P1 exopodal segment 3 with 3 medial setae.
- P2 exopodal segment 3 with 4 medial setae.
- P2 - P4 endopods and coxopods poorly spinulated.
- P5 uniramous, 5-segmented on both sides, of simple stucture.
Female unknown.

[1] Kirnesius groenlandicus  Markhaseva & Semenova, 2005   (M)    [Figs]
(5) Onchocalanus Sars, 1905
Rem.: type: Onchocalanus trigoniceps Sars,1905. Total: 10 spp.

Diagnosis after Park (1983 a, p.327) :
- Cephalosome and 1st pedigerous segment usually separate, 4th and 5th thoracic segments usually separate.
- Rostrum large plate, distally divided into 2 strong spiniform rami.
- A2 with the two rami about equal in length.
- 5th basipodal lobe (= endite) of Mx2 with a large spiniform seta, smoothly curved like a claw.
- None of endopodal setae of Mxp enlarged into a strong claw.
- Basis of P1 without an inner seta.
- Whole posterior surface of both rami of P2 to P4 densely armed with spinules.
- P5 uniramous, 3-segmented, with whole surface densely covered by relatively long spinules.

- Similar in habitus to female.
- Urosome 5-segmented.
- 12th and 21th segments separate in left A1 but fused in right.
- Cephalosomal appendages from A1 to Mxp similar to those of female but more or less reduced in size and development of setae.
- P1 to P4 almost identical with yhose of female.
- P5 strongly asymmetrical, with long, 5-segmented left leg and small, 3- or 4- segmented right leg.

Diagnosis from Bradford & al. (1983, p.61), after Vervoort, 1950 :
- Female with head and pediger segment 1, as well as pediger segments 4 and 5, imperfectly separated.
- Head crested in some species.
- Rostrum in form of sclerotised, bifurcated plate.
- A1 24-segmented; in female segments 8 and 9 fused; in male segments 8-13 fused.
- A2 endopod and exopod nearly equal in length.
- Md palp basipod 2 (= basis) of female with 3 setae , endopod segment 1 with 2 setae, endopod segment 2 with 9 setae; in male basipod 2 (= basis) large.
- Female Mx1 inner lobe 1 (= praecoxal arthrite) with 7 strong setae and 3 or 4 bristles; inner lobe 2 (= coxal endite) with 3 setae; inner lobe 3 (= basal endite) with 4 setae; outer lobe 1 (= basal exite1) with 9 setae; exopod with 10 setae; outer lobe 2 (= basal exite2 missing; basipod 2 (= basis) with 5 setae; endopod segments 1-3 with 3, 2 or 3 and 4 setae respectively.
- Female Mx2 lobe 5 with 1 seta claw-like and minutely denticulated near apex; endopod with 7 brush-like and 1 worm-like sensory filaments.
- Mxp basipod 2 (= basis) long with 1 proximal sensory appendage.
- Male Mx1 and 2 less well sclerotised and with weaker setae than female.
- Posterior surface of legs covered with spines.
- Female P5 3-segmented, 1st segment more or less fused with ventral surface of metasome; distal segment with 2 apical spines which may articulate with segment and an inner and outer spine; 1 of marginal spines, which usually are articulate, may be absent; posterior surface covered with strong hairs.
- Male P5 uniramous on each side; right leg short, 3-segmented; left leg elongate, about as long as urosome and consists of 2 basal and 3 terminal segments.

[1] Onchocalanus affinis  With, 1915   (F,M)    [Figs]

[2] Onchocalanus cristatus  (Wolfenden, 1904)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[3] Onchocalanus cristogerens  Markhaseva & Kobosokova, 1998   (M)    [Figs]

Onchocalanus frigidus    Wolfenden, 1911   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1911 (p.276); Vervoort, 1950 a (p.17)
Loc: Antarct.
Rem.: Cf. Onchocalanus magnus

[4] Onchocalanus hirtipes  Sars, 1905   (F,M)    [Figs]

Onchocalanus latus    Esterly, 1911   (F)
Ref.: Esterly, 1911 (p.326, Descr.F, figs.F); 1913 (p.183, figs.F, Rem.); Sewell, 1948 (p.563); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.235, figs.F)
Loc: San Diego
Lg.: (22) F: 4,3
Rem.: Vervoort (1965, p.25, 26) considère, avec doute, cette espèce comme un synonyme de Phaenna spinifera , ce que ne semble pas retenir Park (1983 a , p.329) ni Bradford & al. (1983, p.66). Cette espèce ne semble pas avoir été citée de nouveau sinon par Fleminger (1967 a, p.XII: tabl.1) qui considère l'espèce comme Phaenna latus.

[5] Onchocalanus magnus  (Wolfenden, 1906)   (F,M)    [Figs]

Onchocalanus nudipes    Wilson, 1942   (F)
Ref.: C.B. Wilson, 1942 a (p.199, Descr.F, figs.F); Vervoort, 1950 a (p.5); 1950 b (p.83, Redescr., figs.F,M); 1965 (p.25)
Loc: Pacif. (tropical)
Lg.: (446) F: 2,25
Rem.: Cf. Phaenna spinifera

[6] Onchocalanus paratrigoniceps  Park, 1983   (F,M)    [Figs]

[7] Onchocalanus scotti  Vervoort, 1950   (F)    [Figs]

Onchocalanus steueri    Pesta, 1920   (F)
Ref.: Pesta, 1920 (p.516, Descr.F, figs.F); Rose & Vaissière, 1952 a (p.118); Vervoort, 1950 a (p.5, 13); 1965 (p.30, Rem.); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.83)
Loc: Adriatique S
Rem.: Cf. Onchocalanus trigoniceps

[8] Onchocalanus subcristatus  (Wolfenden, 1906)   (F)    [Figs]

[9] Onchocalanus trigoniceps  Sars, 1905   (F,M)    [Figs]

[10] Onchocalanus wolfendeni  Vervoort, 1950   (F,M)    [Figs]
(6) Phaenna Claus, 1863
Rem.: Type: Phaenna spinifera Claus, 1863. Total: 4 spp. (of which 2 doubtful).

Diagnosis after Park (1983 a, p.318) :
- Cephalosome and 1st pedigerous segment fully separate, 4th and 5th thoracic segments almost completely separate.
- Rostrum of 2 strong spiniform rami.
- Exopod of A2 considerably longer than endopod.
- 4th and 5th basipodal lobes (= endites) of Mx2 each with a large spine; that of 5th basipodal lobe much stronger and more curved.
2nd endopodal segment of P2 and 2nd and 3rd endopodal segments of P3 and P4 armed with relatively strong spinules.
- P5 absent.

Definition after Bradford, Haakonssen & Jillett (1983, p.67) and Vives & Shmeleva (2004, p.687) :
- Body globular.
- Cephalosome and pediger segment 1 separate, pediger segments 4 and 5 incompletely separate.
- Rostrum bifurcate, spiniforme.
- Urosomefemale 4-segmented.
- Urosome male 5-segmented.
- A1 female 24-segmented.
- Anal segment very short, more or less concealed.
- Caudal rami very short. , aboutb wider than long.
- A1 male 20-segmented, with short feeble setae. [18 -19 segments on left or right, respectively, after Vives & Shmeleva, 2007, p.657]
- A2 exopod longer than endopod.
- Masticatory process of Md and inner lobe 1 (praecoxal arthrite) of Mx1 very long and exopod short with only 5 setae.
- Mouthparts of male reduced.
- Mx2 with 1 worm-like and 7 brush-like elements.
- P5 female absent.
- P5 male uniramous on each side, left leg 5-segmented, right leg 4-segmented.

[1] Phaenna gibbosa  Andronov, 2013   (F)    [Figs]

[2] Phaenna latus  (Esterly, 1911)   (F)    [Figs]

[3] Phaenna spinifera  Claus, 1863   (F,M)    [Figs]

[4] Phaenna zetlandica  T. Scott, 1902   (M)    [Figs]
Rem.: Species doubtful in the genus.
T. Scott (1902, p.453) finds this form in the same gathering as Xanthocalanus and agrees in some respects very closely with Phaenna spinifera Claus, and may probably be only a form of that species. For Rose (1933 a) P. zetlandica would be the male of Xanthocalanus, but considered valid by Park (1983 a), contrary to Andronov (2013).
(7) Phaennocalanus Markhaseva, 2002
Rem.: Type: Phaennocalanus unispinosus Markhaseva, 2002. Total: Total: 1 sp.

Diagnosis from Markhaseva (2002, p.312) ;
- Rostrum with 2 thin, long filaments.
- Lobe 2 of Mx1 with 5 setae; exopod with with 10 setae.
- Mx2 lobe 1 with 5 setae; inner lobes 4-5 with one of setae spine-like; terminal part complrises distal basal lobe plus exopod with 1 worm-like and 7 brush-like densory setaze, the latter are: 2 thick brushes plus 5 thin brushes.
- Mxp syncoxa with 5 praecoxal setae in total, all are sclerotized.
- P5 3-segmented lacking surface spinulation, with 1 terminal spine.

For Markhaseva (2002, p.316) the genus differs from other phaennid genera by the combination of derived characters: 1- A1 8th, 13th and 18th segments with knife-like aesthetascs; 2- Mx2 brush-like setae are of nearly the same length, but not identical in structure (there are 2 thick brushes and 5 brushes are thin with small heads; 3- P1 exopodite 1 and 2 with lateral spines narrow abruptly at its proximal 1/3 length; 4- P5 3-segmented with 1 terminal spine, segments lacking surface spinulation.
Plesiomorphic character states separating the new genus from the other phaennids by the combination: 1- Mx1 inner lobe 2 with 5 setae; 2- Mxp syncoxa with 2 sclerotized setae on the distal praecoxal lobe (this is the 3rd group of setae on syncoxa from proximal to distal).
The knife-like aesthetascs of Phaennocalanus are similar to those of Brachycalanus. Aesthetascs of such shape were proposed as a synapomorphy for species of Brachycalanus (Ferrari & Markhaseva, 2000). This is no longer the case and the onky shared derived character state for species of Brachicalanus is epicuticularextension of female genital segment and following two urosomal somites.

[1] Phaennocalanus unispinosus  Markhaseva, 2002   (F)    [Figs]
(8) Talacalanus Wolfenden, 1911
Rem.: type: Xanthocalanus greeni Farran,1905.
Genus maintained (Campaner, 1978 a; Bradford & al., 1983) or not according to the authors: Sars, 1925, p.134; Park, 1983 a et Tanaka & Omori, 1992 (p.268), very close to Xanthocalanus, but is distinguished from it mainly by the broad razor-like setae on praecoxal arthrite (inner lobe 1) of Mx1 and the endopod of Mxp

Redefinition after Campaner (1978, p.976) , and [Bradford & al; (1983, p.70)]:
- Body lengthened (about 6.0 mm or greater).
- Cephalosome and thoracic segment 1 separated, thoracic segments 4 and 5 fused.
- Anal segment strongly reduced.
- A1 with 24 segments (with few and short setae), reaching about the body length.
- Endopod and exopod of Md palp with nearly the same length, Basis 1+2 broad, with 3 setae.
- Inner lobe of Mx1 very developed, with razor-like type setae in female and fleshy-type (flagellum-shaped from the middle to the tip) setae in male, inner lobe 3 with 3 setae.
- Endopod of female Mx2 usually with [1] 2 vermiform setae +[7] 6 brush-like setae (1 short and broad) ; endopod of male with brush-like setae forming a bud-like structure, and with ( ?) some vermiform setae.
- Endopod of Mxp with razor-like type setae.
- Endopod of P2-P4 with 1 or 2 groups of scale-like spines.
- Female P5 with 3 segments, 3rd segment relatively short with 1 terminal plus 1 or 2 subterminal spines ; male P5 very asymmetrical in length, both with rudimentary endopod.

The genus Talacalanus differs from the genus Xanthocalanus mostly by :
The setation on Mx1 and endopod setation of Mxp, the relatively great body length.
Talacalanus specimen, an aspect which does not correspond to that figured by Wolfenden (1911, pl.31, fig.11).

Type-species : Xanthocalanus greeni Farran, 1905.
Other species :
Talacalanus calaminus Wolfenden, 1911. X. species 2 Grice, 1972 ; X. maximus Brodsky, 1950 (redescribed by Tanaka & Omori, 1967) certainly belong to this genus.

Provisional total: 2 spp. + 1 unident.

Talacalanus calaminus    Wolfenden, 1906   (F)
Syn.: Xanthocalanus calaminus Wolfenden,1906 (p.34, figs.F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1911 (p.279, figs.F); Campaner, 1978 a (p.976, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.70)
Loc: Atlant. NE (G. de Gascogne)
Lg.: (10) F: 5,5
Rem.: ? Cf. Talacalanus greeni

[1] Talacalanus greeni  (Farran, 1905)   (F,M)    [Figs]

[2] Talacalanus maximus  (Brodsky, 1950)   (F)    [Figs]

[3] Talacalanus sp.2  (Grice, 1972)   (M)    [Figs]
Xantharus Andronov, 1981
Rem.: Cf. Scolecitrichidae
(9) Xanthocalanus Giesbrecht, 1892
Rem.: types : Xanthocalanus agilis & minor Giesbrecht,1892.
Campaner (1978 a, p.968) classifies the species into 2 groups of which the types for each group are: X. agilis et X. minor .
‘’Xanthocalanus agilis Group’’
Characters :
Cephalosome and 1st thoracic segment usually separated, 4th and 5th thoracic segments separated or fused.
Female A1 usually with 24 segments.
Md palp with endopod and exopod nearly aqual in length.
Mx1 : the large setae of the inner lobe of peculiar type (aculeate-straigth or slightly curved setae, bearing sharp spinules and/or setules) ; inner lobe 3 with 3 or 4 setae.
Endopod of Mx2 with 2 vermiform-type setae and 5 brush-like type setae, sometimes with an extra short brush-like seta.
Endopodite de P2-P4 usually with 1 or 2 groups of large spines.
P5 female with 3 segments, the 2 nd segment not much wider than the 1 st or 3 rd segment, this last either relatively narrow, long and with 1 or 2 terminal plus 2 lateral spines, or short, broad and with 2 or 3 spines : male P5 very or strongly asymmetical in length.
List of species :
Type-species : Xanthocalanus agilis Giesbrecht, 1892
? X. subagilis Wolfenden, 1904.
Species definitely in this group : X. fallax Sars, 1921 (= X. borealis Sars, 1903, part.) ; X. pinguis Farran, 1905 ; X. profundus Sars, 1907. Species possibly in this group : X. mixtus Sars, 1920 ; X. tenuiserratus Wolfenden, 1911.
Doubtful species in this group (most of them related with the genus Cephalophanes Sars, 1907, excepting by the absence of the frontal lenses) : X. antarcticus Wolfenden, 1908 ; X. squamatus Farran, 1905 ; X. agilis Wolfenden, 1911 ; X. kurilensis Brodsky, 1950 ; X. pavlosky Brodsky, 1955. .

‘’Xanthocalanus minor Group’’
Characters differing from the ‘’X. agilis Group’’:
Thoracic segments 4 and 5 fused.
Inner lobe 3 of Mx1 usually with 4 setae.
Endopod of Mx2 with 1 longer and 1 shorter vermifom-type setae, 5 brush-like type setae, usually with an extra short but wider brush-like seta ;
Female P5 with 2 or 3 segments, the last narrowed from the middle to the tip and with 1 or 2 terminal and 2 lateral spines ; male P5 slightly asymmetrical in length, with rudimentary endopod or none.
List of species :
Type-species : Xanthocalanus minor Giesbrecht, 1892.
Species definitely in this group : X. borealis Sars, 1900 ( = X. hirtipes van Höffen, 1897) non X. borealis Sars, 1903 (see Sars, 1921, pp.2-4 ; Sars, 1924, pl.35) ; X. medius Tanaka, 1937 ; X. penicillatus Tanaka, 1960 ; X. legatus Tanaka, 1960, X. marlyae Campaner, 1978.
Species probably in this group : X. fragilis Aurivillius, 1898 ; X. amabilis Tanaka, 1960 ; X. muticus Sars, 1905.

Total: 50 spp. (of which 1 doubtful) + 4 unident.

Diagnosis from Bradford, Haakonssen & Jillett (1983, p.70), after Bradford, 1973 :
- Rostrum usually with 2 filaments.
- Head and pedigerous segment 1 more or less separate, 4th and 5th fused or separate.
- A1 of 23-25 segments in female, fewer in male.
Mx1 inner lobe1 with 4 posterior surface setae; none of setae on inner lobe 1 modified.
- Mx2 with lobes 4 and 5 each with one of setae stout and spine-like; endopod with brush-like sensory filaments all different in size and shape, 1 usually much shorter and thicker than rest.
- Endopod of Mxp without modified setae.
- Male mouthparts with varying degrees of degeneration.
- Mx2 endopod similar to that of female or with largest brush-like sensory filament so enlarged as to almost obscure remaining filaments.
- Female P5 symmetrical, uniramous, 2- or 3-segmented and covered with spinules.
- Male P5 styliform, usually present on both sides; usually uniramous; rudimentary endopods sometimes present.

Remarks: Bradford (1973) restricted to the Phaennidae those copepods having 1 worm-like and 7 brush-like sensory filaments on the terminal part of Mx2.
Among those species placed in Xanthocalanus existing descriptions of Mx2 differ. It still remains unclear whether of not all Xanthocalanus have 1 worm-like and 7 brush-like sensory filaments.
Not all of the species to set in the genus Xanthocalanus are described well enough to either verify or reject their assignment in this genus. The following do, differ significantly from the generic definition: X. alvinae, X. difficilis, X. distinctus, X, elongatus.
Campaner (1978) suggests that X. echinatus, X. incertus, X. dilatus, X. polaris, X. pulcher, X. tenuiremis, X. giesbrechti should also be removed from Xanthocalanus. Campaner (1978) suggests that some species possibly could be assigned to Cephalophanes if the presence of frontal lenses is not considered to be diagnostic..
For Bradfird & al. (1983, p.71) several species formerly included in Xanthocalanus have been tentatively assigned to the Tharybidae: ''X''. hispidus (= ? ''X". paululus); ''X"". macrocephalon, ''X''. paraincertus.
Four other species have now been removed to other genera by Campaner (1978): X. greeni, X. maximus to Talacalanus; X. watersae to Neoscolecithrix; and X. ordinarius to Brachycalanus.

[1] Xanthocalanus agilis  Giesbrecht, 1892   (F,M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus alvinae    Grice & Hulsemann, 1970   (F)
Ref.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1970 (p.189, Descr.F, figs.F); Vyshkvartzeva, 1999 (2000) (p.221)
Rem.: Probable dans le Groupe ' Scolecithrix ctenopus”. Cf. Scolecitrichopsis alvinae

[2] Xanthocalanus amabilis  Tanaka, 1960   (F)    [Figs]

[3] Xanthocalanus antarcticus  Wolfenden, 1908   (F)

Xanthocalanus atlanticus    Wolfenden, 1904   (F)
Ref.: Irlande
Rem.: Cf. Brachycalanus atlanticus

Xanthocalanus borealis    Sars, 1900   (F,M)
Rem.: Cf. Xanthocalanus hirtipes

Xanthocalanus calaminus    Wolfenden, 1906   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1906 (p.34, Descr.F, figs.F); Campaner, 1978 a (p.976, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.70)
Lg.: (238) F: 5,5
Rem.: Cf. Talacalanus calaminus ou greeni

[4] Xanthocalanus claviger  (T. Scott, 1909)   (M)    [Figs]

[5] Xanthocalanus cornifer  (Tanaka, 1960)   (M)    [Figs]

[6] Xanthocalanus crassirostris  (Tanaka, 1960)   (M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus cristatus    Wolfenden, 1904   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1904 (p.119, Descr.F, figs.F); 1906 (p.32); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.61)
Loc: Irlande W
Rem.: Cf. Onchocalanus cristatus

[7] Xanthocalanus difficilis  Grice & Hulsemann, 1965   (F)    [Figs]

[8] Xanthocalanus dilatus  Grice, 1962   (F,M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus distinctus    Grice & Hulsemann, 1970   (M)
Ref.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1970 (p.190, Descr.M, figs.M); Bradford, 1973 (p.139, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.71, 104); Vyshkvartzeva, 1999 (2000) (p.221)
Rem.: Probable dans le Groupe ' Scolecithrix ctenopus”. Cf. Scolecitrichopsis distinctus.

[9] Xanthocalanus echinatus  Sars, 1907   (F,M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus elongatus    Grice & Hulsemann, 1970   (F,M)
Ref.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1970 (p.190, figs.F,M); Vyshkvartzeva, 1999 (2000) (p.221)
Rem.: bathypélagique. Probable dans le Groupe ' Scolecithrix ctenopus”. Cf. Scolecitrichopsis elongatus

[10] Xanthocalanus fallax  Sars, 1919   (F,M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus fragilis    Aurivillius, 1898   (F,M)
Ref.: Cleve, 1904 a (p.209, Pl.VI: F); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.71)
Loc: Norvège (Skagerak), Afr. S (W & S)
Rem.: Cf. Xanthocalanus minor

[11] Xanthocalanus giesbrechti  Thompson, 1903   (F)

Xanthocalanus gigas    Sciacchitano, 1930   (F)
Ref.: Sciacchitano, 1930 (p.20, figs.F); 1930 a (p.150, Descr.F); Sewell, 1948 (p.540)
Loc: Mer Rouge
Lg.: (451) F: 6,50
Rem.: épipélagique. Espèce douteuse: Cf.?

[12] Xanthocalanus gracilis  Wolfenden, 1911   (F)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus greeni    Farran, 1905   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Xanthocalanus calaminus Wolfenden, 1906 (p.34); ? Talacalanus calaminus : Wolfenden, 1911 (p.279)
Ref.: Farran, 1905 (p.39, Descr.F, figs.F); Jespersen, 1934 (p.82); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.247); Campaner, 1978 a (p.976, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.70, Rem.); Park, 1983 a (Redescr.F, p.325, figs.F)
Rem.: Cf. Talacalanus greeni

Xanthocalanus groendlandicus    Tupitzky, 1982   (F,M)
Ref.: Tupitzky, 1982 (p.297, figs.F,M)
Loc: Arct.
Lg.: (453) F: 1,5-1,4; M: 1,4
Rem.: Campaner, 1983 (comm. pers.): Cf. ? Tharybis. Voir spp. inc. sedis

[13] Xanthocalanus harpagatus  Bradford & Wells, 1983   (F)    [Figs]

[14] Xanthocalanus hirtipes  Vanhöffen, 1897   (F,M)    [Figs]

[15] Xanthocalanus hispidus  Grice & Hulsemann, 1967   (F)    [Figs]

[16] Xanthocalanus incertus  Sars, 1920   (F)    [Figs]

[17] Xanthocalanus irritans  (Tanaka, 1960)   (M)    [Figs]

[18] Xanthocalanus kurilensis  Brodsky, 1950   (F,M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus laptevorum    Markhaseva, 1998   (F)
Rem.: Cf. Byrathis laptevorum (Diaixidae).

[19] Xanthocalanus legatus  Tanaka, 1960   (F)    [Figs]

[20] Xanthocalanus longispinus  Bradford-Grieve, 2004   (F,M)    [Figs]

[21] Xanthocalanus macilenta  (Grice & Hulsemann, 1970)   (M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus macrocephalon    Grice & Hulsemann, 1970   (F)
Ref.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1970 (p.191, Descr.F, figs.F); Bradford, 1973 (p.139, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.127, Rem.); Schulz & Beckmann, 1995 (p.210, Rem.); Markhaseva & Ferrari, 2005 a (p.139, Rem.)
Loc: off Woods Hole
N: 1
Lg.: (200) F: 1,12-1,06; {F: 1,06-1,12}
Rem.: Cf. Byrathis macrocephalon.

Xanthocalanus magnus    Wolfenden, 1906   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1906 (p.32, Descr.F, figs.F); Vervoort, 1951 (p.92: Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.66)
Loc: Antarct.
Rem.: Cf. Onchocalanus magnus

[22] Xanthocalanus marlyae  Campaner, 1978   (F)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus maximus    Brodsky, 1950   (F)
Ref.: Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.228, Descr.F, figs.F); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.247, Rem.F,figs.F,); Campaner,1978 a (p.976,Rem.); Park,1983 a (p.327, Rem.)
Loc: Pacif. NW
Rem.: Cf. Talacalanus maximus

[23] Xanthocalanus medius  Tanaka, 1937   (F)    [Figs]

[24] Xanthocalanus meteorae  Markhaseva & Schnack-Schiel, 2003   (F)    [Figs]

[25] Xanthocalanus minor  Giesbrecht, 1892   (F,M)    [Figs]

[26] Xanthocalanus mixtus  Sars, 1920   (F)    [Figs]

[27] Xanthocalanus multispinus  Chen & Zhang, 1965   (F)    [Figs]

[28] Xanthocalanus muticus  Sars, 1905   (F)    [Figs]

[29] Xanthocalanus obtusus  Farran, 1905   (F)    [Figs]

[30] Xanthocalanus oculatus  (Tanaka, 1960)   (M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus ordinarius    Grice, 1972   (F)
Ref.: Grice, 1972 a (p.237, Descr.F, figs.F); Campaner, 1978 a (p.976, Rem.)
Loc: Atlant. NW (off Cap Cod)
Rem.: Cf. Brachycalanus ordinarius

Xanthocalanus paraincertus    Grice & Hulsemann, 1965   (F)
Ref.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.235, Descr.F, figs.F); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.25: Rem.); Bradford, 1973 (p.139, 147, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.127, Rem.); Schulz & Beckmann, 1995 (p.210, Rem.); Markhaseva & Ferrari, 2005 a (p.124, Rem.)
Loc: NE Atlant. (Canaries-Açores ?)
Lg.: (226) F: 1,61-1,15; {F: 1,15-1,61}
Rem.: Holotype = Brodskius robustipes; Paratypes = Brodskius confusus.
? Tharybis. Cf. in Tharybidae (G.7)

Xanthocalanus paululus    Park, 1970   (F,M)
Ref.: Park, 1970 (p.497, Descr.F, figs.F); Markhaseva & Ferrari, 2005 a (p.124)
Rem.: Cf. Brodskius paululus.

[31] Xanthocalanus pavlovskii  Brodsky, 1955   (F,M)

[32] Xanthocalanus pectinatus  Tanaka, 1960   (M)    [Figs]

[33] Xanthocalanus penicillatus  Tanaka, 1960   (F)    [Figs]

[34] Xanthocalanus pinguis  Farran, 1905   (F,M)    [Figs]

[35] Xanthocalanus polaris  Brodsky, 1950   (F)    [Figs]

[36] Xanthocalanus polarsternae  Markhaseva, 1998   (F,M)    [Figs]

[37] Xanthocalanus profundus  Sars, 1907   (F)    [Figs]

[38] Xanthocalanus propinquus  Sars, 1902   (F,M)    [Figs]

[39] Xanthocalanus pulcher  Esterly, 1911   (F)    [Figs]

[40] Xanthocalanus quasiprofundus  Vyshkvartzeva, 2002   (F)    [Figs]

[41] Xanthocalanus rotundus  (Grice & Hulsemann, 1970)   (M)    [Figs]

[42] Xanthocalanus serratus  (Tanaka, 1960)   (M)    [Figs]

[43] Xanthocalanus similis  Esterly, 1906   (F)

Xanthocalanus simplex    Aurivillius, 1898   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1908 (p.34); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.63, fig.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.133, figs.F); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.71)
Loc: Norvège (Skagerak)
Lg.: (32) F: 1,45
Rem.: Pour Bradford & al.(1983) il pourrait s'agir d'un juvénile M. Cette espèce ne semble pas avoir été citée depuis son descripteur. Cf.: ?

Xanthocalanus simplex    Wolfenden, 1906   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1906 (p.30, Descr.F, figs.F); Vervoort, 1957 (p.95, Rem.)
Loc: Irlande SW
Rem.: Cf. Undinella brevipes (Tharybidae)

Xanthocalanus soaresmoreirai    Björnberg, 1975   (M)
Ref.: Björnberg, 1975 (p.175, Descr.M, figs.M); Bradford & al, 1983 (p.71); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.881, 929, figs.M); Vyshkvartzeva, 2003 (p.45: Rem.: comb. nov.)
Rem.: Cf.: Pseudoamallothrix soaresmoreirai

[44] Xanthocalanus spinodenticulatus  Markhaseva, 1998   (F)    [Figs]

[45] Xanthocalanus squamatus  Farran, 1936   (F)    [Figs]

[46] Xanthocalanus stewarti  Bradford-Grieve, 2004   (F)    [Figs]

[47] Xanthocalanus subagilis  Wolfenden, 1904   (F,M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus subcristatus    Wolfenden, 1906   (F)
Ref.: Wolfenden, 1906 (p.31, Descr.F, figs.F); Vervoort, 1950 a (p.12, Rem.)
Loc: Antarct., sub-Antarct.
Rem.: Cf. Onchocalanus subcristatus

Xanthocalanus tectus    Esterly, 1911   (F)
Ref.: Esterly, 1911 (p.324, Descr.F, figs.F)
Loc: San Diego
Rem.: Cf. Cephalophanes tectus

[48] Xanthocalanus tenuiremis  T. Scott, 1909   (M)    [Figs]

[49] Xanthocalanus tenuiserratus  Wolfenden, 1911   (F)    [Figs]

[50] Xanthocalanus typicus  (T. Scott, 1894)   (M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus watersae    Grice, 1972   (F,M)
Ref.: Grice, 1972 (p.233, figs.F,M); Campaner, 1978 a (p.968); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.123)
Loc: Atlant. NW (off Cap Cod)
Rem.: Cf. Neoscolecithrix watersae

[51] Xanthocalanus sp.  Farran, 1905   (M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus sp.    Candeias, 1926   (F)
Ref.: Candeias, 1926 (1929) (p.33, figs.F)
Loc: Portugal
Lg.: (412) F: 2,2
Rem.: sp. douteuse

[52] Xanthocalanus sp.1  Grice, 1972   (M)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus sp2    Grice, 1972   (M)
Ref.: Grice, 1972 a (p.237, Descr.M, figs.M); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.70)
Loc: Atlant. NW
Rem.: Cf. Talacalanus

Xanthocalanus sp. Bradford    Bradford, 1972   (F)
Ref.: Bradford, 1972 (p.40, Descr.F, figs.F); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.71)
Loc: Nouvelle-Zélande
Rem.: Cf. Xanthocalanus penicillatus

[53] Xanthocalanus sp.  Bradford & Wells, 1983   (juv. M)    [Figs]

[54] Xanthocalanus sp.  Bradford, Haakonssen, Jillett, 1983   (F)    [Figs]

Xanthocalanus sp. nov.1       
Ref.: Sirenko & al., 1996 (p.349)
Loc: Mer de Laptev
Rem.: Cf. Xanthocalanus polarsternae

Xanthocalanus sp. nov.2       
Ref.: Sirenko & al., 1996 (p.349)
Loc: Mer de Laptev
Rem.: Cf. Xanthocalanus spinodenticulatus

Xanthocalanus sp. nov.3       
Ref.: Sirenko & al., 1996 (p.349)
Loc: Mer de Laptev
Rem.: Cf. Xanthocalanus laptevorum.

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2024. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at [Accessed July 23, 2024]

© copyright 2005-2024 Sorbonne University, CNRS

CNRS   Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls sur Mer - Laboratoire Arago
Sorbonne Université


Version française
English version



On the WEB of CNRS


Marine Planktonic Copepods

Marine Planktonic Copepods


Imprimer Contact Accueil Plan du site Accès restreint Retour Une du Labo Imprimer Contact Plan du site Crédits Téléchargez les Plug-Ins