Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Calanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Paracalanidae ( Family )
            Paracalanus ( Genus )
Paracalanus gracilis  Chen & Zhang, 1965   (F)
Ref.:
Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.42, 123, Descr.F, figs.F); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.621, figs.F); Kesarkar & Anil, 2010 (Rem.: p.404, fig.H); Soh & al., 2013 (p.67, figs.F)
Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.9, 13-15].
Female (from E China Sea): 13, habitus (dorsal); 14, idem (lateralleft side); 15, P5 (posterior).

Nota: Rostrum rather robust, without terminal filaments.
- Head and 1st thoracic segment fused, 4th and 5th fused.
- Proportional lengths of cephalothorax and abdomen: 82 : 18.
- Posterolateral angles of last thoracic segment smoothly rounded, not very protuberant.
- Abdomen 4-segmented.
- A1 (24-segmented) extending about 2 segments beyond the furca.
- Exopod of A2 shorter than endopod.
- Exopod of P1 3-segmented, endopod 2-segmented; 1st exopodal segment with a small outer marginal spine, 2nd segment without such a spine, 3rd segment longer than preceding segment, its outer middle edge with a small seta, the length of which reaches the base of the terminal seta.
- Exopod and endopod of P2 to P4 each with 3 segments. Spinules on the outer proximal margin of 3rd exopodal segment of P2 to P4, 5-6, 8-11, and 7-8.
- P5 with 2 segments, 1st longer than the 2nd which has 2 apical spines, the inner spine with denticulate outer distal margin and about 4 times as long as outer spine. The abdominal segments and furca in the proportional lengths 32 : 12.5 : 12.5 : 21.5 ; 21.5 = 100.
- Genital segment (nearly globular) wider than long and longer than length of the two following segments combined together.
- Anal segment longer than preceding segment.
- Furcal rami 1.5 times as long as wide.


Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waers. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.22, Fig.9]
Female: a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively; c, P5.
Scale bars in mm.


Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : K.S. Kesarkar & A.C. Anil in J. mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 2010, 90 (2); [p.404, Table 2].
Characteristics of females.


Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : K.S. Kesarkar & A.C. Anil in J. mar. Biol. Ass. UK, 2010, 90 (2); [p.407, Fig.5, H].
Female: H, P5.


Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.68, Fig.39].
Female (from Korean waters): A-B, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); C, forehead (ventral); D, urosome (ventral).
Scale bars: A, B = 100 µm; C, D = 50 µm.


Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : H.Y. Soh, S.Y. Moon & J.H. Wi in Invertebrate Fauna of Korea (eds) Incheon: NIBR, 2013, 21 (28). [p.69, Fig.40].
Female: A, P1; B, P2; C, P3; D, P4; E, P5.
Scale bars: A-D = 50 µm; E, 25 µm.


Species Paracalanus gracilis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [p.124 ].
Comparison of distinguisehed features between P. gracilis, P. parvus and P. aculeatus.

Compl. Ref.:
Hiromi, 1987 (p.153); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.71); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Lo & al., 2004 (p.468, tab.2); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.163: tab.1); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Zhang G.-T. & Wong, 2011 (p.277, fig.6, 7, abundance, indicator); Kâ & Hwang, 2011 (p.155, Table 3: occurrence %); Tachibana & al., 2013 (p.545, Table 1, seasonal change 2006-2008)
NZ: 2

Distribution map of Paracalanus gracilis by geographical zones
Loc:
China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan (SW, Tapong Bay, N, Mienhua Canyon, NE), Japan (Kuchinoerabu Is., Tokyo Bay)

Type locality: 28° N, 123° E.
N: 22
Lg.:
(290) F: 0,86-0,75; (1023) F: 0,78; (1174) F: 0,85-1,01; {F: 0,75-1,01}

The mean female size is 0.850 mm (n = 5; SD = 0.1007).
Rem.: Commonly in the waters off Chekiang and Fukien in late summer and autums after Chen & Zhang (1965).
Last update : 07/04/2018
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2022. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed June 28, 2022]

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