Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Pontellidae ( Family )
            Pontella ( Genus )
Pontella danae  Giesbrecht, 1889   (F,M)
Syn.: Pontellina (Ivellina) danae : Claus, 1893;
Pontella danae var. ceylonica : Silas & Pillai (p.820, figs.F).
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.461, 477, 774, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.143, Rem. F,M); A. Scott, 1909 (p.159, Rem.); Sewell, 1912 (p.370); 1932 (p.375); Farran, 1936 a (p.118); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.292, figs.F); Voronina, 1962 a (p.68); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.129: Rem.); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.819, figs.M, Rem.M); Mulyadi, 2003 (p.399, p.392: Table I); Othman & Toda, 2006 (p.315, figs.F, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.87, figs.F, Rem.: var. ceylonica); Al-Yamani & al., 2011 (p.74, figs.F, Rem.)
Species Pontella danae - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : E.G. Silas & P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1973 (1976), 15 (2). [p.820, Fig.20, a-c].
Male (from Port Blair, Andaman Islands): a, urosome (dorsal); b, geniculate segments of right A1; c, P5.
Nota: Dorsal eye lenses, ventral lens and rostral lens well devepoled.5th metasomal somite posteriorly produced into acuminate lobes. Urosome 5-segmented; urosomite 3 longer than others. Caudal rami asymmetrical, right ramus slightly larger than left and 3 times longer than broad. Right A1 geniculate, segment 14 with a long dorsal spine carrying a small glagellum at tip; segment 18 with dorsal toothed plate which extends over segment 17; fusion segments 19-21 with two denticulated plates; segments 24-25 fused. Right leg of P5 chelate.
Scale as in Calanopia minor.

Species Pontella danae - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. Zoologischen Station zu Neapel, 1892. [Taf.40, Fig.16].
Female: 16, habitus (dorsal)

Species Pontella danae - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. Zoologischen Station zu Neapel, 1892. [Taf.40, Fig.20].
Female : 20, urosome (ventral).

Species Pontella danae - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. Zoologischen Station zu Neapel, 1892. [Taf.24, Figs.32-33].
Female: 32, P5 (posterior view); 33, P5 (exopod, other view).

Species Pontella danae - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. Zoologischen Station zu Neapel, 1892. [Taf.24, Figs.35, 40].
Male: 35, left P5 (posterior view, terminal part); 40, right P5 (anterior view)

Species Pontella danae - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : Mulyadi in Crustaceana, 2003, 76 (4). [p.392, Table I).
Characteristic feature of five Pontella species groups in the Indo-West Pacific.

Species Pontella danae - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C.B. Wilson in Bull. U.S. natn Mus., 100, 14 (4). [Pl.16, Figs.195-197].
Female (from Pacific): 195-196, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 197, forehead (lateral).

Species Pontella danae - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : B.H.R. Othman & T. Toda in Coastal Mar. Sc., 2006, 30 (1). [p.315, Fig.18]. As Pontella danae var. ceylonica.
Female (from Sister's Island, Singapore): A-B, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); C-D, posterior part of prosome and urosome (lateral and dorsal, respectively); E, P5.

Nota: Prosome to urosome length ratio 4.07 : 1.
- Cephalon with well developed dorsal and ventral eye lenses.
- Thoracic segments 4 and 5 fused produced into an asymetrically posterior directed process, left process slightly longer than right.
- Urosome 2-segmented.
- Genital segment globular, with a small blunt projection on mid-dorsal margin.
- Caudal rami asymmetrical, left ramus much larger than left.
- A1 symmetrical, short, not reaching last thoracic segment.
-P5 asymmetrical, left exopod slightly shorter than right but much stouter at base; right exopod with 3 outer marginal spinules of which the most distal one is large Endopod ends in bifid apex, left one smaller than right.

Remarks: this variety ceylonica known only from its female differs from the normal described by Giesbrecht in the shape of the prosome, the genital segment in the normal is more quadrate and with no dorso medial process and the spinulations of P5 differs slightly. Both forms appear to be sympatric and are widely distributed in the Indo West Pacific.

Species Pontella danae - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : Y. Al-Yamani, V. Skryabin, A. Gubanova, S. khvorov & I. Prusova in Marine Zooplankton Practical Guide for the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, 2, 2011. [p.75, Fig.206, c-e]. As Pontella danae var. ceylonica
Female (from Kuwait): c-d, urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively); e, P5.

Species Pontella danae - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.168, Fig.42]. As Pontella danae var. ceylonica.
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a, habitus (dorsal); b-c, urosome (lateral and dorsal, respectively); d, P5.

Body length after the drawing: F = 3.276 mm.

Compl. Ref.:
Wilson, 1942 a (p.203); Sewell, 1948 (p.322, 324); Fagetti, 1962 (p.35); Sherman, 1963 (p.224: fig.14); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Heinrich, 1969 (p.1461, fig.6); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.72); Dalal & Goswami, 2001 (p.22, fig.2); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.326, tab.1); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Shanthi & Ramanibai, 2011 (p.132, Table 1); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Varadharajan & Soundarapandian, 2013 (p.2: occurrence vs stations); Rakhesh & al., 2013 (p.7, Table 1, abundance vs stations), Jagadeesan & al., 2013 (p.27, Table 3, seasonal distribution)
NZ: 10

Distribution map of Pontella danae by geographical zones
Species Pontella danae - Distribution map 2issued from : A.K. Heinrich in Zool. Zh., 1969, 48 (10) [p.1461, Fig.6].
Distribution of four species of Pontellidae in the Pacific Ocean.
1: Pontella fera; 2: Pontella danae; 3:Pontella agassizi; 4: Pontella valida; 5: stations
Brazil (in C.B. Wilson, 1950), Arabian Gulf (Kuwait), Indian, SE India (Pointcalimere), W India, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay, Godavari region, Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea, W Malay Peninsula, Indonesia-Malaysia, Singapore, China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW, E), Japan, Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier), Pacif. (tropical), California, SW Mexico, Hawaii, N Marquesas Is., Galapagos, off Peru, off Chile
N: 29
(34) M: 4,08; (46) F: 5-4,85; M: 4,6; (256) M: 3,08-3,01; (1085)* F: 2,7-3,2; {F: 2,70-3,20; 4,85-5,00; M: 3,01-4,60}
The dimensions measured by Al-Yamani & al. (2011, p.74) justify an explanation (probably the temperature)
Rem.: Neritic.
Contrary to the affirmation of Silas & Pillai (1976) I have not found (C.R.) this species in the Red Sea in Giesbrecht, 1896 (1897). According to Silas & Pillai (1973) Thompson & Scott (1903) described a variety based on female specimens from Ceylon waters as P. danae var. ceylonica; A. Scott (1909) remarked that his material collected from Malay Archipelago showed characters intermediate between P. danae typica and var; ceylonica, thus forming a connecting link between the typical form and the variety; it may be that this species is hightly variable.
For Mulyadi (2003, p.399) this species belongs to the "P. danae"-group (See above Table I). This group includes: P. latifurca Chen & Zhang, 1965; P. investigatoris Sewell, 1912; P. bonei Mulyadi, 2003; P. vervoorti Mulyadi, 2003.
Last update : 18/05/2018
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