Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Pontellidae ( Family )
            Pontella ( Genus )
Pontella fera  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Pontella fera (F) Dana,1849 (no M);
Pontellina (Eupontellina) fera : Claus, 1893 (p.273);
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.462, 478, 774, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.144, Rem. F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.236, 252); A. Scott, 1909 (p.159, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.361); Sewell, 1914 a (p.237); 1932 (p.377, Rem.); Farran, 1936 a (p.118); Sewell, 1947 (p.250); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.293, Rem.M, fig.M); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.263, figs.F,M); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.104, figs.F,M); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.83); Kos, 1972 (Vol. I, figs.F, M, Rem.); Silas & Pillai, 1973 (1976) (p.776, 816, figs.F,M, Rem.); Pillai, 1975 (p.130, figs.F,M); Marques, 1976 (p.995); 1982 (p.765, fig.F); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.78, figs.F,M); Ohtsuka & Onbé, 1991 (p.214); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.869, Pl.153,156: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 960, figs.F,M); Mulyadi, 2000 (p.186, figs.F,M, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2002 (p.94, figs.F,M, Rem.); Conway & al., 2003 (p.134, figs.F,M, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.88, figs.F); Jeong & al., 2008 (p.215, figs.F, Rem., variation: type I and type II).
Species Pontella fera - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (3). [p.264, Fig.237].
Female: habitus (dorsal); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (right lateral side); c, P5. Nota: The last thoracic segment symmetrical, produced on each side into a small point. The rostrum slender with a slight trace of lens; the dorsal lens moderately large; the ventral lens rounded (infdigo colour).

Male: P5. Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 21: 18:18:7:4:33 = 100.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.45, 1-7].
Female (from E China Sea): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forehead (lateral); 3, urosome (lateral left side); 4, P5 (posterior).

Male: 5, habitus (dorsal); 6, right A1; 7, P5 (anterior).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : Mulyadi in Crustaceana, 2003, 76 (4). [p.392, Table I)•
Characteristic feature of five Pontella species groups in the Indo-West Pacific.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : E.G. Silas & P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1973 (1976), 15 (2). [p.817, Fig.19, a-f].
Female (from Indian Ocean): a, urosome (dorsal); b, idem (lateral left side); c, rostrum; d, P5.
Nota: Posterior corners of 5th metasomal somite asymmetrically produced on either side into wing-like processes extending beyond middle of genital segment. Urosome 2-segmented, genital segment asymmetrical, being poduced laterally on left side; ventrally segment with two knob-like processes, which vary in size and shape according to age of animal. Caudal rami asymmetrical, left ramus being larger.

Male: e, P5; f, right A1.
Scale as in Calanopia minor.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.15].
Female: 15, habitus (dorsal).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.36].
Female: 36, forehead (lateral).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.18].
Female: 18, Th5 and urosome (ventral).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.40, Fig.27].
Female: 27, Th5 and urosome (lateral).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.36].
Female: 36, P5 (posterior view).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Fig.14].
Male: 14, right A1 (distal part, dorsal view).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.24, Figs.31, 34].
Male: 31, right P5 (anterior view); 34, left P5 (anterior view).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.79, Fig.45-1].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c-e, last portion prosome and urosome (dorsal, ventral and lateral, respectively); f, P5.

Male: g, habitus (dorsal); h, A1; i, P5; j, right P5 (distal part).
Scale bars in mm.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.80, Fig.45-2].
Female (different specimens): k, habitus (dorsal); l, forehead (lateral); m, last portion prosome and urosome (dorsal); n, p, idem (dorsal and lateral ledft side, respectively); o, q, idem (ventral); p-q, idem (ventral and lateral, left side, respectively); r-t, P5.

Male: u, habitus (dorsal); v, P5.

Scale bars in mm.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (4). [p.217, Table 1].
Comparison of distinctive characters in the two types of Pontella fera.
Nota: In the South Sea of Korea, female belongs to type 1 and is very similar to Giesbrecht's original (1892); however it differs from the latter by fusion of basis and endopod in P5 (separted in Giesbrecht's illustration). Among previous studies, type I is identical with illustrations of P. fera provided by Silas & Pillai (1973) and Zheng & al (1982) and type II is similar to figures of Chen & Zhang (1965) and Mulyadi (2000).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (4). [p.215, Fig.8].
Female (from SE Korea): A-B, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); C, A1; D, P5.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (4). [p.215, Fig.8].
Female: A-D, P1 to P4; E, Mxp.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : Mulyadi in Treubia, 2002, 32. [p.95, Fig.31].
Female (from Jakarta Bay): a, habitus (dorsal); b, rostrum (anterior view); c, Md (masticatory edge); d, Mxp; e, 5th metasomal somite and urosome (dorsal); f, urosome (dorsal); g, genital complex (ventral); h, urosome (lateral); i, P5.
Nota: Rostral lens feebly developed. A1 23-segmented, reaching 3rd metasomal somite. Urosomite 1 asymmetrical, produced laterally in a pair of knob-like processes on left side, ventral surface of somite with a pair of processes on proximal part of genital opening.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : Mulyadi in Treubia, 2002, 32. [p.97, Fig.32].
Male (from Jakarta Bay): a, habitus (dorsal); b, rostrum (anterior view); c, right A1; d, P1; e, P4; f, P5.
Nota: 5th metasomal somite ending in bluntly rounded posterior processs of more or less equal in size. Urosome 5-segmented. Urosomite 1 asymmetrical, right side slightly longer than left. Caudal ramus asymmetrical, right ramus slightly longer. Right A1 geniculate, with curiously shape process with serrated upper margin on segment 17 and 18, fused segments 19-20 with button-shape process and 2 knob-like projections on anterior surface.
The present specimen differs from the original description of P. fera or P. tenuiremis by the form of the genital processes in the female, and the form of P5, but are identical with illustrations of P. fera provided by Tanaka (1964) and Chang & Zhang (1965), but not with Silas & Pilai (1973).


Species Pontella fera - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.170, Fig.44].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a, habitus (dorsal); b-c, urosome (dorsal and left lateral side); d, P5.

Body length after the drawing: F = 2.95 mm.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 20 of morphological figuresissued from : P.P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1975, 17 (2). [p.132, Fig.1, a-c].
Female (from Indian Ocean): a, urosome (dorsal); b, P5.

Male: c, P5

Scale: Single bar : 0.3 mm; doube bar = 0.25 mm.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva, C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999, Vol. 2, Copepoda; [p.1070, Fig. 7.392: Pontella fera. Ur = urosome; Ce = cephalosome; B = basis; r = right; r = right leg; l = left leg.
Female characters (from key, p.959):
- Genital segment with widest part anterior in dorsal view; P5 exopod with 2 long inner edge spines.
- Caudal rami subequal.
- Urosome of 2 somites.

Male characters (from key, p.960):
- Chelate right P5 exopodal segment1-2 with, besides 'thumb', 1 large projection in form of elongate, narrow lobe, rounded distally; exopodal segment 3 expanded distally.


Species Pontella fera - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : O.E. Garrote, E. Suarez-Morales & A. Morales-Ramirez in Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 2015, 128 (2). [p.148, Table 1].

Nota: Compare of the P. fera with other members of the Pontella fera species group: P. tenuiremis, P. chierchiae and P. cocoensis.
GS = genital double-somite; 5PS = fifth pedigerous somite; EXP = exopod.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.322, 408); Heinrich, 1960 a (p.43: fig.1, 46: fig.2); Voronina, 1962 a (p.68, fig.3, 6); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.9, 16); Herring, 1965 (p.103); Heinrich, 1969 (p.1461, fig.6); Itoh, 1970 (tab.1); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Gaudy & Boucker, 1983 (p.37, Table 1, 2, 5, Rem.: metabolism); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, 112: Rem., tab.1); Heinrich, 1988 (p.89, fig.2); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.72); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.110); Lopez-Ibarra & Palomares-Garcia, 2006 (p.63, Tabl. 1, seasonal abundance vs El-Niño, Rem.: p.67, 73); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Mulyadi & Rumengan, 2012 (p.202, Rem.: p.204); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Hwang & al., 2014 (p.43, Appendix A: seasonal abundance); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 10

Distribution map of Pontella fera by geographical zones
Species Pontella fera - Distribution map 2Issued from : A.K. Heinrich in Trudy Inst. Okeanol., 1960, 41. [p.43, Fig.1].
Distribution in the equatorial and tropical West Pacific of seven species of Pontellidae (Cruise of the R/V 'Vityaz', November 1957 to December 1958.
1: Stations; 2: Pontellopsis villosa; 3: Pontella fera; 4: Labidocera acutifrons; 5: Pontella whiteleggi; 6: Pontella tenuiremis; 7: Pontella chierchiae; 8: Labidocera acuta.
Species Pontella fera - Distribution map 3issued from : A.K. Heinrich in Zool. Zh., 1969, 48 (10) [p.1461, Fig.6].
Distribution of four species of Pontellidae in the Pacific Ocean.
1: Pontella fera; 2: Pontella danae; 3:Pontella agassizi; 4: Pontella valida; 5: stations
Species Pontella fera - Distribution map 4issued from : H.G. Jeong, H.-L. Suh, Y.H. Yoon & H.Y. Soh in Ocean Sc. J., 2008, 43 (4). [p.220, Fig.12, B].
Distribution of Pontella fera based on previous records and on the present study.
Species Pontella fera - Distribution map 5issued from : P. Pillai in J. mar. biol. Ass. India, 1975, 17 (2). [p.140, Fig.4].
Occurrence of Pontella fera collected from 54 stations in the Indian Ocean (See in: Hand Book to the International Zooplankton Collections, volume I, 1969).
Loc:
South Africa (Durban, Natal), off NE Tristan da Cunha, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean (Mascarene Basin, Rodrigues Is. - Seychelles, Laccadive Is., Sri-Lanka, Lawson's Bay), Nicobar Is., G of Mannar, Nankauri Harbour, Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea); W Malay Peninsula, Indonesia (jakarta Bay), Philippines, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (SW, Danshuei Estuary, NE), S Korea, Japan, Hawaii, off NE Hawaii, Baja California (Bahia Magdalena: rare, La Paz), E Pacif (off Mexico); Pacif. (W equatorial), Samoa Is., Australia (Great Barrier Reef)

Type locality: 11°-12°45'N, 170°171°E.
N: 52
Lg.:
(34) F: 2,76; (44) F: 2,631-2,605; M: 2,605-2,511; (46) F: 2,7; M: 2,6-2,5; (120) F: 3,33-3; M: 3-2,81; (256) F: 2,92-2,36; M: 2,67-2,33; (290) F: 3,1-2,95; M: 2,85-2,75; (332) F: 2,7-2,37; M: 2,62; (333) F: 2,7; (530) F: 2; (900) F: 2,8-2,85; M: 2,5-2,6; (991) F: 2,36-2,92; M: 2,33-2,67; (1019) F: 2,63; (1023) F: 2,78-3,16; M: 2,61-3,09; (1115) F: 2,67-3,10; M: 2,4-2,66; {F: 2,00-3,33; M: 2,33-3,10}
Rem.: epiplagic. Neritic.
This species belongs to "P. fera"-Group (See above Table I in Mulyadi, 2003)
See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1);
A doubt persists regarding the attribution to this species of certain figures in Silas & Pillai (1973, p.817), in particular Figure 19 a, b and possibly c, that seem rather different from those by other authors.
For Jeong & al (2008 , p.217) these morphological differences between type I and II by Zheng & al. (1982, p.78) show that two types may be separated into two species, but the decision may be pended untill their molecular analysis or mating experimental is completed.
For Itoh (1970 a, fig.2, from co-ordonates) the Itoh's index value of the mandibular gnathobase = 810, and for Gaudy & Boucher (1983): 810.
Cf Calanus pacificus (figs 3, 4 and Table 1, from Lopez-Ibarra & Palomares-Garcia).
Last update : 08/12/2020
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