Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Scolecitrichidae ( Family )
            Amallothrix ( Genus )
Amallothrix dentipes  (Vervoort, 1951)   (F,M)
Syn.: Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes Vervoort, 1951 (p.103, Descr.F, figs.F, Rem.); 1957 (p.104, Decr.M, figs.M), Rem.; Björnberg, 1973 (p.332, 389);
Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) robusta : Vervoort, 1957 (p.103, figs.F, Rem.); ? Séret, 1979 (p.121, figs.juv.F);
Scolecithricella dentipes : Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.16); Bradford, 1971 b (p.23, figs.F,M, Rem.); Björnberg, 1973 (p. 389); Park, 1980 (p.46, figs.F,M, Rem.); Hopkins, 1985 (p.197, Table 1, gut contents); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2008 (p.1046: Tab.2); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 3, 7: common deep water species, Appendix 1, biogeography); Michels & al., 2012 (p.369, Table 1, occurrence frequency); Ward & al., 2014 (p.305, Table 7, seasonal and abundance in the ''Discovery'' Investigations in the 1930s);
S. dentipes : Ward & al., 1995 (p.195, Table 2);
Ref.:
Bradford, 1973 (p.143, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.78, 81, Rem., figs.F,M); Razouls, 1994 (p.127, figs.F,M, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.881, 931, figs.F,M); Vyshkvartzeva, 1999 (2000) (p.235); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, 5, Appendix)
Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford, L. Haakonssen & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1983, 90. [p.81, Fig.45].
Female: C, P5.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1980, 31 (2). [p.48, Fig.10]. As Scolecithricella dentipes.
Female: a, habitus (lateral right side); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral right side); c, forehead (lateral); d, genital segment (lateral left side); e, rostrum (anterior); f, A2; g, Md; h, Mx1; i, Mx2; j, Mxp; k, P1 (anterior); l, P2 (posterior); m, P3 (posterior); n, P4 (posterior); o, P5 (posterior).

Nota: Cephalosome and 1st metasomal segment fused, 4th and 5th fused. last metasomal segment produced distally, covering anterior 1/3 of genital segment.Urosome about 1/4 length of prosome. In the present study the fifth pairs of legs were found to be quite variable.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1980, 31 (2). [p.49, Fig.11]. As Scolecithricella dentipes.
Male: a, habitus (lateral right side); b, forehead (lateral); c, last thoracic segments with P5 and urosome (lateral right side); d, rostrum (anterior); e, A2; f, Md; g, Mx1; h, distal part of Mx2; i, Mxp; j, P1 (anterior); k, P2 (posterior); l, P3 (posterior); m, P4 (posterior); n, P5 (anterior).
Nota: 4th and 5th metasomal segments partially separated.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.93]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) robusta .
Female (from 61°44'S, 77°59'E): a, habitus (dorsal); b, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (dorsal); c, left Mx2.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.94]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) robusta .
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, head (lateral view from right side); c, right P1 (anterior); d, P5; e, left P2 (posterior).


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.95]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) robusta .
Female: a, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (lateral); b, left Mx1.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.88]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes .
Male (from 61°44'S, 77°59'E): a, habitus (lateral); b, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (lateral); c, Md (cutting edge); d, left Mxp.
Nota: Head dorsally broadly triangular, apex rounded, without crest. Head and 1st thoracic somite fused ; 4th and 5th thoracic somites alùost completely fused (a weak line, indicating the line of fusion) visible in lateral aspect but is only partly visible in dorsal view). No trace of a frontal organ observed. Rostrum with 2 filaments (the apical portions hidden between the basal parts of A1. Proportional lengths of the cephalothorax and the abdomen as 22 :9. 3th and 4th thoracic somites each have a well developed, outwardly projecting hair. Abdomen 5-segmented ; anal somite small, almost completely telescoped into 4th ; proportional lengths with caudal rami 10 :34 :20 :4 :8 = 100. Genital somite slightly asymmetrical, on the left side a distinct and curiously shaped genital operculum ; distal borders of the 2 nd-4th abdominal somites fringed by a row of flat, scale shaped teeth. Caudal ramus as long as broad.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.89]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes .
Male: a, postrior part cephalothorax and urosome (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, habitus (dorsal); d, left Mx2; e, P5.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.90]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes .
Male: a, right Mx1; b-c, right A1; d, left A2; e, Md (mandibular palp).
Nota: A1 20-segmented (8th-12th completely fused, 20th-21th partly fused, 24th-25th fused).


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report-Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.91]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes .
Male: a, right P1 (anterior); b, left P2 (posterior); c, left P3 (posterior); c', endopod of P3 (anterior); d, left P4 (posterior); d', endopod of P4 (anterior).


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.104, Fig.55]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes.
Female (± 66°.5S, 11°W): a-b, habitus (dorsal and latral, respectively; caudal setae cut off); c, rostrum (ventral aspect); d-e, left A1. (18th and 19th segments indicate).
Nota: Head and 1st thoracic somite fused, 4th and 5th fused; between the cephalon and the 1st thoracic somite a fine line of fusion is visible on the back.Proportional lengths cephalothorax and abdomen as 21:6. A1 23-segmented (8th-9th and 24th-25th segments completely fused)


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.105, Fig.56]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes.
Female: a, posterior part cephalothorax, right P5 and urosome (lateral, right side); b, urosome (ventral; caudal setae cut off).
Nota: Abdomen 4-segmented; proportional lengths of somites and caudal rami 36:18:19:10:17 = 100. Genital segmente symmetrical ; in ventral aspect the genital flap appears to be semicircular, with a chitinized distal portion, covering 2 minute genital orifices; the distal part of the genital area is surrounded by a semicircular, chitinous ridge.. Distal borders of the 1st to 3rd abdominal somites set with hyaline, acutely triangular spines, placed some distance from the actual border, which is formed by a hyaline lamella; the spinules are quite transparent and are most apparent along the dorsal part of the border (lateral aspect). Caudal rami about as long as wide; each ramus has 4 marginal setae, 1 small, plumose internal (appendicular) seta and 1 small external seta.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.107, Fig.57]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes.
Female: a, left Mx2 (the appendages on the endopod partly visible); b, endopod of left Mx2, showing the arrangement of the sensory appendages; c, Md (cutting edge); d, right A2; e, left Mx1.
Nota: Endopod of A2 is 2/3 the length of the exopod. Mx1 small, with elongate 1st inner lobe with 9 strong, spinulose setae, plus 2 setae on the posterior surface and 1 on the anterior surface; 2nd inner lobe with 2 setae, 3rd inner lobe with 4 strong, plumose setae; 1st outer lobe small, squarish, with 9 setae (2 of which are very small); exopod with 9 plumose setae; 2nd basal segment with 5 setae; endopod apparently 2-segmented, proximal segment with 3, apical segment with 5 setae; 2 nd basal segment with narrowed base attached to the 1st basal. Mx2 with 5 lobes; endopod composed of 3 very indistinct segments; there are 9 sensory appendages (3 are much longer than the rest and provided with a flagellum at the apex; the remaining 6 are more or less capitate and smaller


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.108, Fig.58]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes.
Female: a, P5 (posterior aspect); b, right P5 (figured from slightly oblique position; other specimen 23); c, left P5 (posterior aspect; specimen 23); d, Md; e, left Mxp; f, 1st basal segment of Mxp.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 15 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., 1951, (Sect. 2) 47 (2). [p.109, Fig.59]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes.
Female: a, right P1 (anterior); b, right P2 (posterior); c, left P3 (posterior; c(, endopodal segments of P3 (anterior); d, right P4 (posterior); d', endopodal segments of P4 (anterior).


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.22, Fig.79]. As Scolecithricella dentipes.
Female (from Ross Sea): 79, P5.
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.22, Fig.80]. As Scolecithricella dentipes.
Male (from 74°22'S, 178°22'W): 80, P5.
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Amallothrix dentipes - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Razouls in Ann. Inst. océanogr., Paris, 1994, 70 (1). [p127]. Caractéristiques morphologiques de Amazllothrix dentiês femelle et mâle adultes.
Terminologie et abbréviations: voir à Calanus propinquus.
La station ''Kerfix'' est située à l'entrée de la Baie du Morbihan aux Îles Kerguelen.

Compl. Ref.:
Björnberg, 1973 (p.384); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions, Table IV: new geographical record)
NZ: 7

Distribution map of Amallothrix dentipes by geographical zones
Species Amallothrix dentipes - Distribution map 3issued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Reports - Ser. B, Vol. III. 1957 [Fig.92]. As Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) dentipes.
Chart showing the geographical distribution of S. (A.) dentipes (white circle) and Scolecithricella (Amallothrix) robusta (white triangle) in the seas surrounding the Antarctic continent.
Nota: In this chart the area frequented by whaling vessels has been hatched. The Antarctic circle (66°.5 S) has been drawn as a broken line. The numbers I to VI refer to the sectors into which the Antarctic seas are divided according to Mackintosh (1942) (after Vervoort, 1951).
Loc:
Antarct. (W Weddell Sea, SW & SE Atlant., Indian, SW & SE Pacif., Croker Passage), sub-Antarct. (SW Atlant., South Georgia, Indian, SW & SE Pacif.), S Indian, New Zealand, Chile, Brazil (off Rio de Janeiro)
N: 19
Lg.:
(9) F: 2,6; 2,5; (25) F: 2,66-2,43; M: 2,93-2,79; (31) F: 2,7-2,6; (102) F: 2,75; 2,5; M: 2,7; (523) F: 2,84-2,36; M: 3-2,72; {F: 2,36-2,84; M: 2,70-3,00}
Rem.: meso-bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-200-1000 m.
For Vervoort (1951,p.112) the species resembles Amallothrix arcuata and this author inclined to regard it as a Southern form of dentipes
According to Vervoort (1957, p.103 )the females in the ‘Banzare’ collection show the same amount of variability in the P5 structure as has also been described for the material from the ‘Wilem Barendsz’ comllecton (1951, p.103). The Md palp, as publised in 1951, is not entirely correct. The exopod has 5 segments (4 intermediate segments and 1 terminal segment ; the exopod is located on a much produced sockle of the 2nd basal segment (missing in 1951, fig.58d) to consider that part as a separate segment ; the terminal exopodal segment has 2 rather strong setae ; the proximal 4 segments have a single well developed seta.
Typically Antarctic, occasionally reaching the Convergence, and without doubt more rarely the southern Atlantic (36°) according to Bradford-Grieve et al. (1999).
Park (1980) notes that females P5 are quite variable.
Last update : 28/01/2017
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