Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Scolecitrichidae ( Family )
            Scolecithricella ( Genus )
Scolecithricella profunda  (Giesbrecht, 1892)   (F,M)
Syn.: Scolecithrix profunda Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.266, 283, 775, figs.F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.43, Rem. F);
? Scolecithricella abyssalis : Sars, 1925 (p.189, figs.F: As Scolecithrix); Rose, 1933 a (p.158, figs.F); 1942 (p.136, figs.F); C.B. Wilson, 1942 a (p.207, fig.132: F, no fig.120); 1950 (p.331, fig.F); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (part., p.271, figs.F); Mazza, 1967 (p.168, 172, figs.F, juv.); ? Bradford, 1970 a (p.355, figs.M); ? Bradford & al.,1983 (p.104, figs.M, Rem.)
A. Scott, 1909 (p.91, Rem.F); Farran, 1936 a (p.97); Tanaka, 1962 (p.45, figs.F, ?M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.80, Rem.); Bradford, 1973 (p.142); Park, 1980 (p.36, figs.F, Rem.); Bradford & al., 1983 (p.103, 110, Rem., figs.F,M); Campaner, 1984 a (p.180, figs.F, Rem.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.881, 933, figs.F; Vyshkvartzeva, 1999 (2000) (p.234); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.786, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1962, X (1). [p.46, Fig.131].
Female (Izu Region): a, forehead (left lateral side); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (left lateral side); c, urosome (dorsal); d, rostrum; e, P2; f, endopod of P3; g, P5.

Male: h, habitus (dorsal); i, last thoracic segment and urosome (left lateral side); j, exopod of left P5; k, exopod of right P5.

Nota Female:
- Cephalothorax about 4.37 times the abdomen length (1.66 : 0.38)
- Rostrum gradually attenuate into slender filaments.
- Abdominal segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 43 : 19 : 17 : 2 : 19 = 100.
- Caudal rami 1.6 times as long as wide.
- A1 21-segmented, reaches back to the end of caudal rami.
- A2 exopod shorter than endopod (29 : 32).
- Md exopod 2 times as long as endopod.
- Mx1 with 7 long and 2 short setae on the outer lobe, 6 setae on exopod, 5+4 setae on endopod, 5 setae on 2nd basal.- Mx2 with 3 long vermiform and 5 amalliform sensory filaments on endopod.
- P5 as in female of S. dentata (Giesbrecht, 1892), but the inner marginal spine very strong.

Nota Male:
- Cephalothorax about 2.49 times the abdomen length (1.59 : 0.64).
- A1 reaches back to the middle of the 4th abdominal segment.
- P2 as in female, with a long and curved outer edge spine on the 1st exopodal segment; Terminal spine of exopod with about 50 teeth.
- P5 extends about to the distal margin of the 4th abdominal segment; resembles to that of S. dentata (Giesbrecht, 1892), but the distal segment of exopod of the left leg is shorter than the preceding segment; the apex of the segment furnished with a sort of lamella; the inner margin of the segment furnished with short hairs.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford, L. Haakonssen & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. oceanogr. Inst., 1983, 90. [p.111, Fig.67].
Female (from NE Tasman Sea): A, endopod of P2; B, P5.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarct. Res. Ser. Washington, 1980, 31 (2). [p.38, Fig.4].
Female: a, habitus (lateral left side); b, forehead (lateral); c, genital segment (lateral left side); d, rostrum (anterior); e, A2; f, Md; g, Mx1; h, distal part of Mx2; i, Mxp; j, P1 (anterior); k, P2 (posterior); l, P3 (posterior); m, P4 (posterior); n, P5 (posterior).
Nota: Urosome about 1/4 length of prosome.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1970, 4 (4). [p.355, Figs 26-29]. As Scolecithricella abyssalis. With doubt concerning the synonymy.
Male (off Kaikoura, New Zealand): 26, P2; 27, P3; 28, terminal exopod segment left P5; 29, P5.
Scale bars represent 0.1 mm in 26, 27, 29 and 0.01 mm in 28.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : A.F. Campaner in Bolm. Zool., Univ. S. Paulo, 1984, 6 . [p.181, Fig.8].
Female (off Rio de Janeiro): a, habitus (lateral right side); b, Md (cutting edge of gnathobase); c, Mx2 (lobe 5 and endopodite); C1, brush-like seta on endopod of Mx2; d, Mx1 (Ba2 : basipodite 2, Ri = endopodite; Re = exopodite); e, P1 (posterior); e1, spines on outer lobe of endopodite of P1 (enlarged); f, P5.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Rose in Annls Inst. océanogr., Monaco, 1942, XXI (3). [p.137, Figs.27, 28]. As Scolecithricella abyssalis.
Female (from Alger Bay, Algeria): habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); A1; A2.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Rose in Annls Inst. océanogr., Monaco, 1942, XXI (3). [p.138, Fig.29]. As Scolecithricella abyssalis.
Female: R, rostrum and filaments; Md; Mx1 (as Mx); Mx2 (as Mxp1); detail of the 1st lobe Mx2; Mxp (as Mxp2); P5.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : M. Rose in Annls Inst. océanogr., Monaco, 1942, XXI (3). [p.139, Fig.30]. As Scolecithricella abyssalis.
Female: Ur, urosome; P1 to P4.

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 13, Fig. 5]. As Scolecithrix profunda.
Female: 5, Mxp (anterior view).

Species Scolecithricella profunda - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 13, Fig. 26].
Female: 26, P5.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p.508, 546, 550, 551); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Kuroshio region, Table 10) ; Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.17); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 b (p.539, Rem.); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II: %); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Dessier, 1979 (p.205); Vives, 1982 (p.292); Brenning, 1984 (p.6, Rem.); 1985 a (p.16, 28, Table 2); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.59); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1990 (p.305, fig.5: vertical distribution night/day; fig.7: cluster); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.423); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Kuriyama & Nishida, 2006 (p.300: Tab;II; p.309: Tab.III, fig.7, 10, vertical distribution); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 5, Appendix 1, biogeography); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions).
NZ: 10

Distribution map of Scolecithricella profunda by geographical zones
Species Scolecithricella profunda - Distribution map 4issued from : U. Brenning in Wiss. Z. Wilhelm-Pieck-Univ. Rostock - 33. Jahrgang 1984. Mat.-nat. wiss. Reihe, 6. [p.6, Fig.2].
Spatial distribution for Scolecithricella profunda and other scolecithrids from 8° S - 26° N; 16°- 20° W, for different expeditions (V1: Dec. 1972- Jan. 1973; V2: Feb/Mar. 1973; VI: May 1974; IV: Jun./Jul. 1972).
Species Scolecithricella profunda - Distribution map 5Issued from : M. Madhupratap & P. Haridas in J. Plankton Res., 12 (2). [p.312, Fig.5].
Vertical distribution of calanoid copepod (mean +1 SE), abundance No/100 m3. 49- Scolecithricella profunda.
Night: shaded, day: unshaded.
Samples collected from 6 stations located off Cochin (India), SE Arabian Sea, November 1983, with a Multiple Closing Plankton Net (mesh aperture 300 µm), in vertical hauls at 4 depth intervalls (0-200, 200-400, 400-600, 600-1000 m).
sub-Antarct. (Indian, SE Pacif.), South Africa (E) (Natal), Congo, G. of Guinea, off S Senegal, off Mauritania, Canary Is., S Brazil, off Rio de Janeiro, off Amazon, W Medit. (SW Basin, Napoli), Indian (W & NW), Indian (S subtropical convergence), Indonesia-Malaysia, Japan (Izu, Sagami Bay, SW Bösö), Australia (Great Barrier), off NW New Zealand, Chile (in Hidalgo & al., 2010 )
N: 30
(1) F: 2,1; (9) F: 2; (9) F: 2; (16) F: 1,8; (34) F: 2,04; (47) F: 2; (117) F: 2,04; M: 2,03; (199) F: 2,05-1,9; M: 2,05-1,82; (207) F: 2,1-2,08; ? (313) M: 2,1; (523) F: 2,2-1,98; (532) F: 1,94; (1000) F: 2,0 ± 0,1; (1111) F: 2,02-2,16; {F: 1,80-2,20; M: 1,82-2,05}
Rem.: Meso-bathypelagic.
Sampling depth (sub-Antarct.) : 0-500 m.
Distributional range (m) from Roe (1972) Day: 250-950, Night: 220-720 (in Kuriyama & Nishida, 2006).
Female: habitus (dorsal), general appearance as in the male.
Fof Park (1980, p.36) this species is pratically identical in morphological details to S. abyssalis (Giesbrecht, 1888) originally described from deep waters of the tropical Pacific and has been known to occur in almost all geographical areas where the former has been recorded.
According to Giesbrecht (1892), the two species are distinguishable by small differences in the shape of P5 like in the figures in Park (1980). The latter author finds S. profunda, all north to 49°S.
For Vervoort (1965, p.80) the two species could be synonyms.
The confusion with S. abyssalis is frequent, hence an uncertain geographical distribution.
First occurrence in Chile by Hidalgo & al. (2010).
Last update : 19/01/2021
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed June 17, 2021]

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