Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Euchirella ( Genus )
Euchirella bitumida  With, 1915   (F,M)
Syn.: Euchirella galeata : Sars, 1905 b (p.4); Farran, 1908 b (p.37); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.18, Rem.); Sewell, 1947 (p.74, figs.F, Rem.)
With, 1915 (p.131, figs.F); Sars, 1925 (p.74, figs.F); Farran, 1926 (p.253, Rem.); Rose, 1933 a (p.104, figs.F); Jespersen, 1940 (p.25); Sewell, 1947 (p.69, 76: Rem.); Vervoort, 1949 (p.35, figs.F); ? C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.219, figs.M, Rem.F,M); Vervoort, 1952 f (n°47, p.3, figs.F); Tanaka, 1957 b (p.189, figs.F); Paiva, 1963 (p.35); Vervoort, 1963 b (p.144, Rem.); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.46, figs.F); Tanaka & Omori, 1969 (p.40, figs.F,M); Morris, 1970 (p.2300, 2306, figs.F); Vaupel Klein, 1972 (p.501, 504, figs.F,M); Park, 1976 a (p.109, figs.F,M); Bradford & Jillett, 1980 (p.33, figs.F,M, fig. 73, distribution chart); Vaupel Klein, 1984 a (p.37); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.149, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.685, Pl.35,39: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.879, 921, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.563, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Tanaka O. in Publ. Seto mar. Biol., Lab., 1957, 6 (2). [Fig.52, p.189].
Female (from Suruga and Sagami): a, head (lateral aspect); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral aspect); c, idem (dorsal aspect); d, exopodite and endopodite of Mx1; e, P1; f, basal joints of P4.

Nota Female:
- Cephalothorax about 4.4 times the abdomen length (4.95 : 1.12).
- Forehead produced into helmet-shaped crest.
- Rostrum short.
- Head and 1st pedigerous segment fused, 4th and 5th pedigers fused.- Lateral corners of last thoracic segment rounded.
- Abdomen 4-segmented; segments and caudal rami in proportional lengths 50 : 15 : 11 : 12 : 12 = 100.
- Genital segment with 2 protuberances: the one on the right side better marked than that of the left side; ventrally, segment bluntly produced near the proximal part.
- A1 extends nearly to distal end of abdomen.
- A2 exopod 3.6 times as long as endopod.
- Mx1 with 7 setaze on exopod; 4 setae on endopod; 3 setae on 2nd basal segment.- Mx2 very stout; spine on 5th lobe has peculiar rows of spinules.
- Mxp with 2nd basal segment 1.3 times as long as the 1st, and is more than 2 times as long as the combined length of endopodal segments.
- P1 with 1st and 2nd exopodal segments completely fused; outer edge spine of 3rd exopodal segment equal in length to the segment itself.
- P2 with endopod 1-segmented.
- P4 inner margin of coxa with a moderately long spine at the base of the inner marginal seta; there is a spot furnished with minute spinules on the line of demarcation between coxa and basis.
- Number of teeth on terminal spine of P2 and P3 respectively 21 and 20.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.151, Fig.114].
Female (specimen from NW Pacific). Ce: forehead (lateral and dorsal, respectively); CP4: coxopod of P4

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Contr. Mar. Sci., 1976, 20. [p.110, Fig.2]
Female: a, b, forehead (dorsal and lateral, respectively); c, d, e, posterior part of metasome and urosome (dorsal, right side and left side, respectively); f, A2; g, coxa of fourth leg (posterior).
Male: h, i, forehead (dorsal and lateral, respectively); j, fifth pair of legs (anterior); k, l, distal part of left fifth leg (anterior and posterior, respectively).

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. oceanogr. Inst., 86, 1980. [p.34, Fig.20].
Male: D, habitus (lateral right side); E, idem (dorsal); F, P1; G, P5; H, terminal part of exopod of left P5.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Vervoort in Zool. Verh., Leiden, 1949, 5. [p. 36, Fig.17].
Female (from Flores Sea): a, urosome (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral left side).

Nota: Head and 1st thoracic segment, 4th and 5th fused. The abdominal segments and furca in the proportional lengths 52:15:13:6:14 = 100.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XXI, figs.15-18].
Female: 15, habitus (dorsal); 16, idem (lateral left side); 17, forehead (lateral); 18, basipodal segment of P4.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : R.B.S. Sewell in The John Murray Expedition, 1933-34, Scientific Reports, VIII (1), 1947. [p.75, Fig.14]. As Euchirella galeata.
Female (from Arabian Sea): A, urosome with pepermatophore (lateral left side); B, idem (dorsal, slightly tilted to the left); C, idem (lateral left side); D, Mx2; E, exopod of P2; F, P4.
Nota: Proportional lengths of the anterior and posterior regions of the body as 4.2 to 1. The proportional lengths of the various segments of the body (cephalon to caudal rami) as 368:150:95:89:85:95:34:19:26:29= 1000. Head and 1 st pediger segment fused, but in stained specimens a clear line of fusion can be seen right across the lateral and dorsal aspects. A1 23-segmented (8 and 9, 24 and 25 fused) reaches back to a little beyond the posterior margin of the genital segment.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.61, Fig.4, a].
Female: a, helmet-shaped crest on forehead (left lateral side).

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Publ. Seto mar. Biol. Lab., 1969, XVII, 1. [p.42, Fig.3].
Female (from China Sea): a, forehead (lateral); b-c, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal and lateral, respectively).

Male (from Izu Region, Japan): d, forehead (lateral); e, P1; f, P5; g, left P5 (distal segment of exopod).

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.80, Fig.16, g].
Female: g, number of teeth on the serrate lateral mrgin of the terminal spines of exopodal segment 3 of P2-P4 (medial plumosy omitted).
Scale bar 0.2 mm.
Nota: Spine of P2 with 21 teeth.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1915, III (4). [Pl. V, Fig.9,a-d].
Female (from 48-51°N, 11-18°W): 9a, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); 9b, same (left side); 9c, genital segment ( (ventral).

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1915, III (4). [Pl. VIII, Fig. 4, a-d]].
Female: 4a, Head (lateral, left side); 4b, P1 (anterior); 4c, endopod of P2; 4d, endopod of P3.
Nota: Endopod of A2 one third as long as the exopod; endopod with 6 setae of equal length in the outer lobe and 6 in the inner lobe, of which the 2 inner are rather short.
Nota: P1 has a small pore in the margin of exopod 2, and a very indistinct one placed near the base on the outer margin of exopod 3.
The number of glandular pores is like that of E. messinensis with 1 pore in exopod 1 of P3-P4.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : C. With in The Danish Ingolf-Expedition, 1915, III (4). [Pl. VIII, 4, e].
Female: 4e, P4 basipod 1 with spines of the right and left side in posterior view).
Nota: P4 has on the posterior surface of basipod 2 in the type specimen on the left side a single straight, fairly strong spine, which almost extends to the base of the basipod 3, and on the right side is substituted for by 3 more slender spines; in another specimen the spine was wanting on the right side; in a 3rd specimen 1 spine was observed on the left side, while none was observed on the right side (perhaps broken ?); in two specimens 1 spine was observed on both sides, and in a single one a spine on the left and 1 on the on the right side.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 14 of morphological figuresissued from : J.C. von Vaupel Klein in Crustaceana, Supplt 9, Studies on Copepoda, III, 1984. [p.65, Fig.6 f].
Euchirella bitumida: a, Setal armature of endopodte 2+3 of A2. Conditions are expressed are expressed in formulae as follows: number of setae in regular row on proximal lobe / relative development of seta in position no. 9 on this lobe / number of setae in approximately linear row on terminal lobe / relative development of appendicular seta no. 7 and its supporting pedestral (absent, vestigial, moderate or well developed: see Table I, p.87 and Table II, p.93).
Upper and lower lobes = proximal and terminal lobes, respectively (details of right appendage shown in medial aspect).
Scale bar = 0.133 mm.

Nota: Condition 6/1/6/1 in the galeata-group.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.C. von Vaupel-Klein in Zool. Meded., Leiden, 19972, 47 (41). [p.503, Fig.2, c-d].
Female (from 4°03'N, 123°26'E): c, Endopodite of right P1 (anterior view).

Male (same locality): d, same.

Nota: 'organ of Vaupel Klein' (see explanation to Euchirella curticauda).

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1967, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. [p.47, Fig.257].
Female (from Florida Current): 257, P4.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Morris in J. Fish. Res. Bd Canada, 1970, 27 (12). [p.2307, Fig.4, A-E).
Female (from subtropical North Pacific): A, forehead (lateral); B, posterior prosome and urosome (dorsal); C, same (lateral); D, A2; E, basipodites 1 and 2 of P4 (posterior).

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 18 of morphological figuresEuchirella bitumida female:
1 - Genital segment asymmetrical.
2 - Crest present.
3 - Coxopodite of P4 with 1 spine.
4 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment symmetrical, rounded (dorsal and lateral view). Endopodal segment 2 of A2 with 6 setae on each lobe.
5 - Crest high.
6 - Genital segment with 2 projections to the right and left side (dorsal view). Exopodal segment 1 of A2 with small projection.

Species Euchirella bitumida - Plate 19 of morphological figuresissued from : Tanaka O. in Publ. Seto mar. Biol., Lab., 1957, 6 (2). [p.190].
Female A1: proportional lengths of the distal segments.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1948 (p. 500); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.15); 1968 (tab.2); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Vives, 1982 (p.291); Gaudy & Boucker, 1983 (p.37, Table 1, Rem.: metabolism); Petipa & Borichenko, 1985 (tab.2); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.58); Heinrich, 1990 (p.17); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Suarez & Gasca, 1991 (tab.2); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p107); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.347); Holmes, 2001 (p.47); Kosobokova & al., 2007 (p.929: Tab.7, as bimudata); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Hidalgo & al., 2010 (p.2089, Table 2); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.423); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones)
NZ: 18

Distribution map of Euchirella bitumida by geographical zones
Species Euchirella bitumida - Distribution map 3Issued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in New Zealand Ocean. Inst. Memoir, 86, 1980. [p.88-89, Figs.65-67].
Distribution of several species of Euchirella in the Tasman Sea and around New Zealand.
Nota: Euchirella indica (= Euchirella massinensis indica).
South Africa (E), G. of Guinea, Cape Verde Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Brazil S, off Amazon, Caribbean Sea, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Bay of Biscay, Azores, S Iceland, off W Ireland, Faroe Is., North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Maldive Is., Natal, Indian Ocean equatorial, Philippines, China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea) , Japan (Izu), Pacif. (tropical), Pacif. (central N subtropical), Charlotte Is., Vancouver Is., off California, W Baja California, New Zealand, off Peru, Pacif. (SE tropical), off Juan Fernandez Is., Chile (N-S).

Type locality: Norwegian Sea.
N: 50
(1) F: 6,1; (7) F: 7-6,6; (14) F: 5,9-4,7; (37) F: 7,1-4,7; M: 6,1-4,8; (38) F: 6,7; (41) F: 6,15; (56) F: 6,07; (73) F: 6,39; 6,34; (92) F: 6,13-5,95; (110) F: 6,3; (137) F: 6,7-6,1; M: 6,1-5,9; (199) F: 6,56-5,76; (235) F: 6,17-5,58; M: 5,08; {F: 4,70-7,10; M: 4,80-6,10}

The mean female size is 6.143 mm (n = 21; SD = 0.6129), and the mean size male is 5.596 mm (n = 5; SD = 0.06124). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.91.
Rem.: epi-bathypelagic. Sargasso Sea: 500-1000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, station "S");
For Vervoort (1949, p.35, 36) the species resembles E. galeata, but in dorsal view the shape of the head is distinctly triangular; in lateral aspect a distinct and high crest distinctly protudes forwards.
According to Morris (1970, p.2306) this species is the first record from the open waters of the subtropical North Pacific.
R. Stephen: Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line).
Last update : 05/02/2020
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