Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Oithonidae ( Family )
        Oithona ( Genus )
Oithona robusta  Giesbrecht, 1891   (F,M)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.538, 549, 774, figs.F); Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1024, fig.F, Rem.F,M); Rosendorn, 1917 a (p.29, figs.F,M); Pesta, 1920 (p.554); Kiefer, 1929 g (p.7, Rem.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.283, figs.F); Farran, 1936 a (p.124); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.110, figs.F); Sewell, 1948 (p.420, 461); Moore, 1949 (p.64); Krishnaswamy, 1953 (p.63, fig.F); Lindberg, 1955 a (p.466: Rem.); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.310); 1957 a (p.12); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.108, fig.F); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.214, Rem.); Wellershaus, 1970 (p.478, 479); Kos, 1972 (Vol.I, figs.LF, Rem.); Nishida & al., 1977 (p.144, figs.F, Rem.); Shuvalov, 1980 (p.126, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.665, figs.); Ferrari & Orsi, 1984 (p.119); Nishida, 1985 a (p.79, Redescr.F, figs.F, p.134); 1986 (p.386); Yoo & Lim, 1993 (p.91, 96, 98, Table 1, fig.2); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.938, Pl.196: F); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.886, 966, figs.F); Conway & al., 2003 (p.203, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.73, figs.F, Rem.)
Species Oithona robusta - Plate 1 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.80, Fig.44].
Female: habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, P5 (lateralright side); d, anal segment and caudal rami (dorsal); e, A1; f, A2; g, Md (madibular palp); h, Md (biting edge); i, Mx1.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.81, Fig.45].
Female: a, Mx2; b, Mxp; c, P1; d, P2; e, P3; f, P4.

Nota after Vives & Shmeleva (2010, p.74): Setal formula on outer margin (in first) and inner margin (in second) of exopod segments (from proximal to distal) of P1 to P4:
P1: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 4.
P2: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 5
P3: 1, 1, 3; 1, 1, 5.
P4: 1, 1, 2; 1, 1, 5.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.30, Fig.16].
Female: a, Md (mandibular palp); b, forehead; c, habitus (dorsal).
Nota: Proportion of lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 54.84, Urosome : 45.16 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami : 9 : 18 : 9 : 7.5 : 10 : 8. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae ; Si = inner setae), P1 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si ; P2 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si ; P3 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si ; P4 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : I. Rosendorn in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. \"Valdiviella\", 1917, 23. [p.31, Fig.17].
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, Md (mandibular palp); c, P1; d, P2; e, P4.
Nota: Proportion of lengths (p.cent) Prosome : 60.48, Urosome : 39.52 . Relative lengths of urosomal segments and caudal rami: 7 : 7 : 7: 6 : 4 : 4.5 : 4.5. Setal formula of the exopod swimming legs P1 to P4 (Se = outer setae ; Si = inner setae), P1 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si ; P2 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si ; P3 : 1, 1, 3 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si ; P4 : 1, 1, 2 Se ; 1, 1, 5 Si.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 61, Figs.1-8].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, Mx1; 3, P1; 4, P2; 5, P3; 6, P4; 7, Md; 8, Mxp.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : V.S. Shuvalov in Opred. Faune SSSR, Nauka, Leningrad, 1980, 125. [p.127, Fig.30].
Female: 1-2, habitus (dorsal); 3-4, forehead (lateral; 5,same (dorsal); 6, habitus (lateral); 7-8, thoracic segment 5 and genital segment (lateral and dorsal, respectively); 9, anal segment and caudal rami.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 34, Figs.4, 5, 16, 17].
Female: 4-5, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively); 14-17, forehead (lateral and dorsal, respectively).


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 34, Figs.23, 30, 31].
Female: 23, A2; 30, Mx1; 31, Md.
B2 = basis; Ri = endopodite; Re = exopodite; Si = inner seta; Li = inner lone; Le = outer lobe.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 34, Fig.43].
Female: 43, exopodite of P4.
St = terminal seta; Se = outer setae.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : S. Nishida, O. Tanaka & M. Omori in Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 1977, 24 (2). [p.145, Fig.17].
Female (from Suruga Bay, Japan): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively), c, Md; d, Mx1; e, P1; f, P2; g, P3; h, P4.

Nota: Setae formula of exopod P1 to P4 (outer setae in first, inner setae in second). P1: 1,1,3; 1,1,4. P2: 1,1,3; 1,1,5. P3: 1,1,3; 1,1,5. P4: 1,1,2; 1,1,5.
Terminal seta and marginal outer setae very thick.
Basipod 2 of Md with 2 pointed spines with spinules; endopod with 5 setae.
Endopod of Mx1 with 3 setae.
Prosome length/urosome length = 1.21.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from K.-I. & D.-H. Lim in The Korean J. Syst. Zool., 1993, 9 (2). [Key of female]: ]Morphological characters of Oithona robusta female in Korean waters :
1 - Anterior part of prosome produced into pointed rostrum in dorsal view.
2 - Exopod 3rd segment of P1 with 3 outer marginal spines.
3 - Exopod 3rd segment of P4 with 2 spines.
4 - Exopod 3rd segment of P3 with 3 setae.


Species Oithona robusta - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.-I. Yoo & D.-H. Lim in The Korean J. Syst. Zool., 1993, 9 (2) [p.99, Fig.2, K]
Female (from South Korean Waters): K, P4.

Compl. Ref.:
Carazzi & Grandori, 1912 (p.14, 38); Wilson, 1942 a (p.196); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.270); Yamazi, 1958 (p.153, Rem.); Grice & Hart, 1962 (p.287, table 3); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.10, 16); Mazza, 1966 (p.73); Delalo, 1968 (p.138); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Binet & al., 1972 (p.69); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (tab.I); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.552); Dessier, 1979 (p.207); Vives, 1982 (p.295); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Kim & al., 1993 (p.271); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.103); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.3,4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.112); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1999 (p.284, tab.1); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); El-Sherif & Aboul Ezz, 2000 (p.61, Table 3: occurrence); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1) ; Prusova & Smith, 2005 (p.76); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.71, Rem., chart); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.843: Tab.I, p.848: Tab. IV); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Williamson & McGowan, 2010 (p.273, Table 3, Pacific central gyres: N and S); Hernandez-Trujillo & al., 2010 (p.913, Table 2); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Magris & al., 2011 (p.260, abundance, interannual variability); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1, Rem.); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 13

Distribution map of Oithona robusta by geographical zones
Species Oithona robusta - Distribution map 3Issued from : S. Nishida in Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1985, No 20. [p.134, Fig.84].
Indo-Pacific geographical distribution of Oithona robusta. Dotted line: AC, Arctic Convergence; SC, Subtropical Convergence.
Loc:
Congo, G. of Guinea, Ivorian shelf, Cape Verde Is., Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Brazil (S, Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, Mucuri estuari, off Macaé), off Amazon, Caribbean Colombia (Tayrona), Yucatan, Caribbean, Florida, off Bermuda, off Cape Cod, Cape Hatteras, Medit. (Algiers Bay, Gulf of Annaba, Marseille, Adriatic Sea, Venice, E Basin), W Egyptian coast), Taba, Red Sea, G. of Aden, Arabian Sea, Madagascar, Indian, India (Lawson's Bay, Madras), China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (Kuroshio Current, NW), S Korea, Cheju Is., Japan, Tanabe Bay, Bikini Is., Pacif. (W equatorial), W & E Australia (North West Cape, Great Barrier), Pacif. (tropical), Pacific (central gyres: N and S), California, W Basja California (Bahia Magdalena), La Paz, G. of California, W Mexico, G. of Tehuantepec, Galapagos, off Peru
N: 60
Lg.:
(34) F: 1,6-1,56; (46) F: 1,65; (78) F: 1,5; M: 1,2; (91) F: ± 1,6; (180) F: 1,5; 1,4; (449) F: 1,65; M: 1,2; (531) F: 1,5; (627) F: 1,59-1,42; (649) F: 1,55; M: 1,24; (866) M: 1,24; (880) F: 1,55-1,65; M: 1,20-1,24; (991) F: 1,42-1,6; M: 1,24; {F: 1,40-1,65; M: 1,20-1,24}
Rem.: epi-mesopelagic.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 13/11/2020
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