Species Card of Copepod
Harpacticoida ( Order )
    Thalestroidea ( Superfamily )
        Miraciidae ( Family )
            Miracia ( Genus )
Miracia efferata  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)
Ref.:
Brady, 1883 (p.102, figs.F,M); Claus, 1891 f (p.2, figs.); Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.563, figs.M); Wheeler, 1901 (p.188, figs.F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.237, 257); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.364); Farran, 1929 (p.211, 298); Rose, 1929 (p.54); Wilson, 1932 a (p.284, figs.F,M); Steuer, 1935 a (p.393, fig.F, carte); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.107); Sewell, 1940 (p.141); 1947 (p.291); Lang, 1948 a (p.768, figs.F,M, biogéo); Krishnaswamy, 1957 (p.15, Rem.); Fish, 1962 (p.29); Björnberg, 1965 a (p.512, figs.N, juv.); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.86); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.105, figs.F,M); Wells, 1970 (n°133, p.5, figs.F,M); Marques, 1973 (p.254); 1975 (p.48); Boxshall, 1979 (p.235, figs.F,M, Rem.); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.677, figs.F,M); Sazhina, 1982 (p.1157, fig.N, Rem.); 1985 (p.99, figs.N); Zheng Zhong & al., 1989 (p.270, figs.F); Kim & al., 1993 (p.271); Huys & Böttger-Schnack, 1994 (p.211, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.956, Pl.208: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.886, 968, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.209, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.345: fig.M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.114, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Miracia efferata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : G.A. Boxshall in Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 1979, 35 (3). [p.236, Fig.16, A-D].
Female (from 18°N, 25°W): A, habitus (lateral); B, A2; C, P5.
Nota: Cuticular lenses touching. P5 with 5 setae on baseoendopod and 6 setae on exopod.

Male: D, P5.
Nota: P5 with 3 setae on baseoendopod and 6 setae on exopod.

Scales 0.1 mm unless otherwise indicated.


Species Miracia efferata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : G.A. Boxshall in Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 1979, 35 (3). [p.235].
Armature formula of Swimming legs P1 to P4.
Nota: The armature formula of P2 to P4 differs in several respects from that presented by Lang (1948) for the genus Miracia. (modified latter).


Species Miracia efferata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.153, Fig.98].
Female: a, habitus with eggs (lateral); b, urosome (dorsal); c, A1; d, A2; e, Md; f, idem (another view); g, Mx2; h, Mxp; i, P1; j, basipodite 2 of P1; k, P2; l, P3; m, P4; n, P5.

Species Miracia efferata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.41, 45].
Male: 41, habitus (lateral); 45, same (dorsal).


Species Miracia efferata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.40, 42].
Male: 40, A1; 42, A2.


Species Miracia efferata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.46, 47].
Male: 46, Mxp; 47, Md.


Species Miracia efferata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.43, 44].
Male: 43, P1; 44, P2.


Species Miracia efferata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.45, Figs.39, 48].
Male: 39, P5; 48, abdominal segments 1 and 2.

Compl. Ref.:
Hensen, 1911 (p.281); Wilson, 1942 a (p.194); Oliveira, 1945 (p.191); Wilson, 1950 (p.266); Yamazi, 1958 (p.154, Rem.); Fagetti, 1962 (p.41); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.11, 16); Björnberg, 1963 (p.68, Rem.); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.742, 887, figs.51-53, geographic distribution, Rem.); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II: %); Binet & al., 1972 (p.73); Palet, 1975 (p.660); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Madhu Pratap & al., 1977 (p.138, Table 3: abundance vs. stations); Dessier, 1979 (p.207); Sreekumaran Nair & al., 1981 (p.493), Vives, 1982 (p.295); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); De Decker, 1984 (p.318); Greze & al., 1985 (p.8); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); O'Neil & Roman, 1994 (p.235); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.75); Webber & al., 1996 (tab.1); Padmavati & Goswami, 1996 a (p.85, fig.3); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.3,4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.13); Pusch & al., 2004 (251, tab.3); Kazmi, 2004 (p.230); Riandey & al., 2005 (p.2029, Table 2: abundance vs transects); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.79, Rem., chart); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); McKinnon & al., 2008 (p.844: Tab.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Raybaud & al., 2008 (p.1765, Table A1); Muelbert & al., 2008 (p.1662, Table 1); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Dias & al., 2015 (p.483, Table 2, abundance, biomass, production);
NZ: 15

Distribution map of Miracia efferata by geographical zones
Species Miracia efferata - Distribution map 3issued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.79].
Chart of occurrence in Brazilian waters (sampling between 22°-23° S).
Nota: sampling only 1 specimen.
Loc:
South Africa (W), off Namibia, off Ascension Is., Congo, G. of Guinea, Lagos, Ivorian shelf, Cape Verde Is., Morocco-Mauritania, Great Meteor Seamount, Canary Is., off Madeira, off SW Portugal, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, NW Basin, G. of Lion, Algerian Basin, Tyrrhenian Sea, Adriatic Sea), off Azores (S & W), Uruguay (continental shelf), Brazil (S, off Rio de Janeiro, Campos Basin, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Macaé, off Natal), off Amazon, Barbados Is., Carribean Sea, Caribbean Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia), Yucatan, Jamaica, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), off Woods Hole, off E Nova Scotia, Arabian Sea, Laccadives Is., Maldives Is., off SE Madagascar, Seychelles, Kavaratti Is., Indian, India (Saurashtra coast, Goa, Lawson's Bay), E India, Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is., China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), S Korea, Japan (Kuchinoerabu Is., Honshu, Tanabe Bay), Australia (North West Cape, New South Wales), N New Zealand, Hawaii, off S Tuamotu Is., off Chile
N: 90
Lg.:
(45) F: 1,6-1,4; (46) M: 1,5; (138) F: 1,45; M: 1,6-1,4; (188) F: 2-1,75; M: 1,5; (237) F: 1,9; (336) F: 1,97-1,61; M: 1,58-1,54; (530) F: 2,2; M: 2; (651) F: 1,75-1,48; M: 1,84-1,46; (719) F: 2-1,45; M: 1,6-1,4; (721) F: 1,85-1,55; M: 1,65-1,3; (722) F: 1,81-1,45; M: 1,53-1,21; (991) F: 1,55-1,85; M: 1,3-1,65; {F: 1,40-2,20; M: 1,21-2,00}
Rem.: epipelagic. Sargasso Sea: 0-500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
For Björnberg (1963, p.70) this species is registered for the first time off Brazil in oceanic and tropical waters.
The original findings in the Adriatic Sea not recovered.

After Ehrhardt (1967, p.888, 893) the species is found in the southwest Tyrrhenian Sea in water salinity between 37.75-38.11 p.1000 (mainly between 37.75- 37.91).

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 04/07/2020
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2020. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed December 03, 2020]

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