Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Gaetanus ( Genus )
Gaetanus latifrons  Sars, 1905   (F,M)
Syn.: Gaetanus holti Farran, 1905 (p.33); Wolfenden, 1908 (p.31); 1911 (p.232, fig.F);
G. longispinus Wolfenden, 1905 a (p.7);
Gaetanus pileatus : Sars, 1925 (Pl.17, fig.6)
Ref.:
Sars, 1905 b (p.11, Rem.F); Farran, 1908 b (p.36, Rem.); A. Scott, 1909 (p.49, figs.F, Rem.); With, 1915 (p.108, figs.F, juv.M); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.14); Sars, 1925 (p.57, figs.F); Farran, 1926 (p.251); Rose, 1929 (p.18, figs. juv.M, Rem.); Sewell, 1929 (p.102); Rose, 1933 a (p.101, figs.F); Jespersen, 1940 (p.20); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.16); Sewell, 1947 (p.58, 69, juv.); Vervoort, 1952 e (n°46, p.3, fig.F); 1957 (p.6, 61, Rem.); 1963 b (p.133, Rem.); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.44, fig.F); Tanaka & Omori, 1970 (p.138, figs.F, Rem.); Park, 1975 a (p.15, Descr.M, figs.M, Rem.F,M); 1978 (p.144); Bradford & Jillett, 1980 (p.51, figs.F,M, Rem., distribution chart); Markhaseva, 1980 (p.628); Baessa de Aguiar, 1987 (p.45, fig.juv.M, Rem.); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.201, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.579, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.202, Fig.159].
Female (from SW Pacif.): CP4: coxopod of P4; Gntb Md: gnathobase of P4 (partial). Ce: forehead (from Sars, 1924)


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Mar. Sci., 1975, 25 (1). [p.17, Fig.3].
Male: A, B, habitus (dorsal, lateral); C, forehead (lateral); D, last metasomal and first two urosomal segments; E, A2; F, Mx1; G, Mxp; H, P1; I, P2, J, P3; K, P5 (posterior); L, last two exopodal segments of left P5 (madial). P1-P3: legs (anterior), P5: fifth legs.


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 86, 1980. [p.52, Fig.33].
Female: A, habitus (lateral left side); B, basopod 1 of Mxp; C, exopod of P1; D, inner edge of basipod 1 of P4.

Male: E, habitus (lateral right side); F, P5 (r = right; l = left).


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1970, 4 (4). [p.353, Figs 15-16].
Female (off Kaikoura, New Zealand): 15, forehead (lateral right side); 16, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bar represents 1.0 mm.


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from: G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XVII, figs.7-9].
Female: 7, habitus (dorsal); 8, idem (lateral left side); 9, forehead (lateral).


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate X, Figs.10-17].
Female (from Banda Sea): 10, habitus (dorsal); 11, forehead (lateral left side); 12, last thoracic and genital segments (left side); 13, rostrum; 14, Mxp (basal portion); 15, P1; 16, P2; 17, P4 (basal portion only).


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Die Marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 1911. [p.233, Fig.19]. As Gaetanus holti.
Female: habitus (lateral right side).


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Plankton Studies Part I. Copepoda. 1905 [Pl.III, 3]. As Gaetanus longispinus.
Female: 3, forehead (lateral).


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 9 of morphological figuresGaetanus latifrons female:
1 - Anterior part of cephalon with frontal spine.
2 - Exopodal segment 1 of A2 with 1 seta, exopodal segment 2 with 3 setae. 2nd internal lobe of Mx1 with 5 setae. Exopod of P1 with 3 external spines.
3 - Exopod of P1 clearly 3-segmented. Lateral plate of Mxp protopodite well developed.
4 - Spines of last thoracic segment curved and removed ventrally (lateral view).
5 - Frontal spine long, directed backward from rostrum in its proximal part, and curved to rostrum distally.


Species Gaetanus latifrons - Plate 10 of morphological figuresGaetanus latifrons male:
1 - Cephalon with frontal spine.
2 - Exopodal segment 3 of P5 bilobated. It is 1.5-2.2 shorter than exopodal segment 2.
3 - Spines on last thoracic segment long, exceeding the posterior border of genital segment. Exopodal segment 3 of P5 bilobated with incomplete subdivision into lobes.
4 - Endopod of left P5 significantly shorter than 1/3 of exopodal segment 1 length. Exopodal segment 3 of left P5 significantly longer than half of exopodal segment 2 length.

Compl. Ref.:
Pearson, 1906 (p.14); Wilson, 1942 a (p.187); Sewell, 1948 (p.329, 500, 520, 545, 556); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.231); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.15); 1968 (tab.2); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table III: occurrence); Björnberg, 1973 (p.323, 386); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Dessier, 1979 (p.204); Vives, 1982 (p.291); Roe, 1984 (p.356); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Heinrich, 1990 (p.17); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.101); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p108); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); d'Elbée, 2001(tabl. 1); Holmes, 2001 (p.49); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 5, Appendix 1, biogeography);
NZ: 15

Distribution map of Gaetanus latifrons by geographical zones
Species Gaetanus latifrons - Distribution map 3
Loc:
sub-Antarct. (Indian, SW & SE Pacif.), South Africa (E), Atlant. (tropical), Angola, off E Sao Tomé Is., G. of Guinea, off Lagos, Ghana, off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., off Madeira, Azores, Caribbean Sea, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda: Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Portugal, off W Cabo Finisterre, Bay of Biscay, Greenland, S Iceland, Faroe Is., off Ireland (S & W), off W Scotland, North Sea, Maldive Is., Laccadive Is., Indian, off Sri Lanka (E & SW), Bay of Bengal, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, Japan (Izu), Tasman Sea, S Tasmania, New Zealand, Pacif. (tropical), Hawaii, Galapagos, off Peru, Pacif. (SE tropical), off Juan Fernandez Is., Chile.

Type locality: North Atlantic.
N: 50
Lg.:
(1) F: 5 ; (5) F: 5,4; (7) F: 5,1; (10) F: 4-3,75; (31) F: 5,4-4,4; M: 4; (32) F: 4,74; (38) F: 4,8; (40) F: 4,8-4,56; M: 4,24; (113) F: 4,75; 4,6; (199) F: 4,79-4,56; (201) F: 4,7-4,4; M: 3,6-3,3; (313) F: 5; {F: 3,75-5,40; M: 4,00-4,24}
Rem.: Meso-bathypelagic. Sargasso Sea: 500-1500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, station "S");
Sampling depth (sub-Antarct.) : 0-750 m.
Tanaka & Omori (1970) consider Gaetanus paracurvicornis Brodsky, 1950 as a junior synonym of this species, position not followed by Markhaseva (1996).
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is omnivorous.
R. Stephen: Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line).
Last update : 30/06/2016
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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. et Desreumaux N., 2005-2019. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed April 19, 2019]

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