Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Gaetanus ( Genus )
Gaetanus minor  Farran, 1905   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Aetidius armiger : T. Scott, 1894 (p.71)
Ref.:
Farran, 1905 (p.34, Descr.F, figs.F); 1908 b (p.37); Wolfenden, 1908 (p.32); A. Scott, 1909 (p.47, figs.F, Rem.); Farran, 1926 (p.250); 1929 (p.233); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.233, figs.F); With, 1915 (p.103, fig.F); Sars, 1925 (p.60, figs.F); Farran, 1929 (p.208, 233); Sewell, 1929 (p.102); Rose, 1933 a (p.101, figs.F); Jespersen, 1934 (p.62); Farran, 1936 a (p.89); Tanaka, 1937 (p.257, figs.F juv.); Jespersen, 1940 (p.21); Sewell, 1947 (p.56, 57, 59); Vervoort, 1952 e (n°46, p.4, fig.F); 1957 (p.6, 61, Rem.); Tanaka, 1957 b (p.172, figs.F); Grice, 1962 (p.192, figs.F, juv.M); Paiva, 1963 (p.31, figs.F); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (p.52, figs.F); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.45, fig.F); Vilela, 1968 (p.17, figs.juv.); Tanaka & Omori, 1970 (p.140); Bradford, 1972 (p.38, figs.F); Bradford, 1972 (p.32, figs.F); Park, 1975 a (p.25, Descr.F,M, figs.M); 1978 (p.144, figs.F); Bradford & Jillett, 1980, fig.F, vertical distribution, chart); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.630, figs.F,M); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.205, figs.F); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.687, Pl.43,44: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.879, 922, figs.F) ; Conway & al., 2003 (p.176, figs.F,M, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.58, figs.F, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.581, figs.F, Rem.)
Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarctic Res. Ser. Washington, 1978, 27. [p.145, Fig.27].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal view); B, idem (left lateral side); C, forehead (dorsal view); D, idem (left lateral side); E, posterior part of metasome and urosome (dorsal view); F; idem (left lateral side); G, last metasomal and geital segments (dorsal).


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Antarctic Res. Ser. Washington, 1978, 27. [p.146, Fig.28].
Female: A, A2; B, Mx1; C, Mxp; D, P1; E, P2; F, P3; G, medial part of coxa of P4 (posterior view). P1-3: legs (anterior view).


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.208, Fig.164].
Female (from Pacific: Uzu-Bonin Trench). Ce: forehead (lateral); P.md: mandibular palp.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Park in Bull. Mar. Sci., 1975, 25 (1). [p.26, Fig.9].
Male: A, B, habitus (dorsal, lateral); C, forehead (lateral); D, A2; E, mandibular palp; F, Mx1; G, Mxp; H, P1 (anterior); I, P5 (posterior); J, distal part of left P5 (medial). P1, P5: legs.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 86, 1980. [p.56, Fig.36].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, idem (lateral right side); C, basipod 1 of Mxp; D, exopod of P1; E, inner edge of basipod 1 of P4.
Nota: Generally the posterior metasomal points diverge slightly in south-west Pacific specimens, but in some specimens feom one station these points were directed straight posteriorly.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.13, 13-17].
Female (from E China Sea): 13, habitus (dorsal); 14, forehead (lateral); 15, basal portion of 2nd segment of Mxp; 16, 1st basipodal segment of P4 (posterior).


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from: G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XVIII, figs.3-4].
Female: 3, habitus (dorsal); 4, idem (lateral left side).


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : A. Scott in Siboga-Expedition, 1909, XIX a. [Plate IX, Figs.1-8].
Female (from Eastern Indonesian waters): 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, forhead (lateral); 3, last thoracic and genital segments (left side); 4, rostrum; 5, Mxp (basal portion only); 6, P1; 7, P2 (basal portion); 8, P4 (basal portion).


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Ann. Rep. Fish. Brch., Ireland, 1902-1903, II, App. 2, 1905. [Plate V, Figs.1-11].
Female (from W ireland): 1-2, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively); 3, A1; 4, A2; 6, Mx2; 7, Mxp; 8-11, P1 to P4.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Ann. Rep. Fish. Brch., Ireland, 1902-1903, II, App. 2, 1905. [Plate V, Fig.5].
Female: 5, Mx1.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Die Marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 1911. [p.234, Fig.20].
Female: a, forehead (lateral); b-c, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (lateral and dorsal, respectively); d, basal segment of Mxp; e, P1.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in Mem. N. Z. Oceonogr. Inst., 1972, 54. [p.39, Fig.7, (5-7].
Female (from Kaikoura, New Zealand): 5, basipod segment 1 of P4; 6-7, habitus (lateral and dorsal, respectively).
Scale bars: 1 mm (6, 7); 0.1 mm (5).


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in Published by Res. Center Biol., Indonesia Inst. Sci. Bogor, 2004. [p.58, Fig.32].
Female (from Flores Sea): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, posterior end of last thoracic segment and urosome (lateral right side); d, Mxp; e, P3; f, P4.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 14 of morphological figuresGaetanus minor female:
1 - Anterior part of cephalon with frontal spine.
2 - Exopodal segment 1 of A2 without seta, segment 2 with 2 setae. 2nd internal lobe of Mx1 with 4 setae. Exopod of P1 always with 2 external sopines.
3 - Mxp protopodite with lateral plate.
4 - Exopodal segment 2 of A2 with 2 setae.
5 - Spines on last thoracic segment directed straight backward (lateral view).
6 - Exopod of P1 2-segmented. Endopod of P2 1-segmented.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : O. Tanaka in Japanese J. Zool., 1937, VII, 13. [p.257, Fig.8].
Immature Female, copepodid stage V (from coast of Heda, Japan): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c; abdomen (lateral); d, Mxp.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 16 of morphological figuresissued from : Tanaka O. in Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1957, 6 (2). [p.174].
Female A1: proportional lengths of segments.
- A1 23-segmented, reaches back to distal end of 3rd abdominal segment.
- Segments 19 and 22 of about equal lengths.


Species Gaetanus minor - Plate 17 of morphological figuresissued from : Tanaka O. in Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1957, 6 (2). [p.173, Fig.42, e-g].
Female (from Sagami): e, habitus (dorsal); f, last thoracic segment and abdomen (lateral); g, 1st basal segment of Mxp.

Nota Female:
- Cephalothorax about 4.44 times the abdomen length (1.82 : 0.41).
- Last thoracic segment with lateral spines reaching about the end of genital segment.
- Abdomen 4-segmented; segments and caudal rami with proportional lengths 44 : 17 : 13 : 9 : 17 = 100.
- Caudal rami as long as wide.
- Genital segment a little wider than long.
- A1 23-segmented.
- A2 exopod about 1.2 times as long as endopod.
- Mx1 2nd inner lobe carries (as With) 2 strong setae and short spine-like setae.
- Mxp with a lamellous process on 1st basal segment about the middle of posterior margin.
- P1 exopod 2-segmented.
- Number of teeth on terminal spine of P2 to P4 are 13, 15 and 13.

Compl. Ref.:
Pearson, 1906 (p.14); Wilson, 1942 a (p.188); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.16); Sewell, 1948 (p.330, 500, 520, 529, 545, 556, 566); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.233); Řstvedt, 1955 (p.15: Table 3, p.63); Fagetti, 1962 (p.19); Gaudy, 1963 (p.22, Rem.); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.22); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Grice & Hulsemann, 1965 (p.223); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution vs mixing Oyashio/Kuroshio region, Table 9, 10); Mazza, 1966 (p.70); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.15); Vinogradov, 1968 (1970) (p.256, 261, 268); De Decker, 1968 (p.45); Morris, 1970 (p.2300); Park, 1970 (p.476); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); 1972 a (p.336); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table III: occurrence); Björnberg, 1973 (p.324, 386); Harding, 1974 (p.141, tab. 3, gut contents); Vives & al., 1975 (p.42, tab.II, III, XII); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.35); Dessier, 1979 (p.204); Pipe & Coombs, 1980 (p.223, figs. 1, 2, table 1, vertical distribution); Vives, 1982 (p.291); Kovalev & Schmeleva, 1982 (p.83); Brenning, 1983 (p.3, Rem.); Cummings, 1984 (p.163, Table 2); Roe, 1984 (p.356); De Decker, 1984 (p.316); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Tremblay & Anderson, 1984 (p.3, Rem.); Brenning, 1985 a (p.28, Table 2); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Chen Y.-Q., 1986 (p.205, Table 1: abundance %, Table 2: vertical distribution); Rudyakov, 1986 (tab.1); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.58); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1990 (p.305, fig.5: vertical distribution night/day; fig.7: cluster); Suarez & al., 1990 (tab.2); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Suarez, 1992 (App.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.67); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.347); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p108); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl. 3, 4); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Haury & al., 2000 (p.69, Table 1); Holmes, 2001 (p.49); Sameoto & al., 2002 (p.12); Bradford-Grieve, 2003 (p.96, tab.1); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Pusch & al., 2004 (251, tab.3); Dias & Araujo, 2006 (p.29, Rem., chart); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.144, tab.2, 4, Rem.); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.103: tab.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.517); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 5, Appendix 1, biogeography); Williamson & McGowan, 2010 (p.273, Table 3, Pacific central gyres: N and S); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); Dias & al., 2010 (p.230, Table 1); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Teuber & al., 2013 (p.1, Table 1, abundance vs. oxygen minimum zone); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Tseng & al., 2013 (p.507, seasonal abundance); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker); Lidvanov & al., 2013 (p.290, Table 2, % composition); Bonecker & a., 2014 (p.445, Table II: frequency, horizontal & vertical distributions); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones)
NZ: 21

Distribution map of Gaetanus minor by geographical zones
Species Gaetanus minor - Distribution map 4issued from : C. de O. Dias & A.V. Araujo in Atlas Zoopl. reg. central da Zona Econ. exclus. brasileira, S.L. Costa Bonecker (Edit), 2006, Série Livros 21. [p.29].
Chart of occurrence in Brazilian waters (sampling between 22°-23° S).
Nota: sampling only 3 specimens.
Species Gaetanus minor - Distribution map 5Issued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in New Zealand Ocean. Inst. Memoir, 86, 1980. [p.87, Figs.63].
Distribution of several species of Gaetanus in the Tasman Sea and around New Zealand.
Species Gaetanus minor - Distribution map 6Issued from : M. Madhupratap & P. Haridas in J. Plankton Res., 12 (2). [p.312, Fig.5].
Vertical distribution of calanoid copepod (mean +1 SE), abundance No/100 m3. 40- Gaetanus minor.
Night: shaded, day: unshaded.
Samples collected from 6 stations located off Cochin (India), SE Arabian Sea, November 1983, with a Multiple Closing Plankton Net (mesh aperture 300 µm), in vertical hauls at 4 depth intervalls (0-200, 200-400, 400-600, 600-1000 m).
Loc:
sub-Antarct. (Indian, SE Pacif.), South Africa (E & W), Namibia, off N Tristan da Cunha, Angola, off Trinidade Is., Congo, G. of Guinea (off Lagos), off NE St. Paul Is., Cape Verde Is., off Mauritania-NW Cape Verde Is., off Morocco-Mauritania, Great Meteor Seamount, Canary Is., off Madeira, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Portugal, off W Cabo Finisterre, Azores, Brasil (off Rio de Janeiro, off Vitoria-Cabo de Sao Tomé, off Macé, off Amazon), Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, G. of Mexico, Sargasso Sea, Florida, off Bermuda: Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Flemish Cap, off E Nova Scotia, Bay of Biscay, W Ireland, English Channel, SW Iceland, Wyville Thompson Ridge (60°N), Faroe Is., Norwegian Sea, Medit. (Alboran Sea, G. of Lion, Ionian Sea), Arabian Sea, S Laccadive Is., Natal, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Indian, S Indian (subtropical convergence), Indonesia-Malaysia, Flores Sea, Philippines, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (E, NE), S Korea, Japan (Izu), Izu-Bonin Trench, Fosse des Mariannes, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (Great Barrier), New Zealand (Kaikoura, North Island SE), Hawaii, Pacif. (N central subtropical), Pacific (central gyres: N & S), Vancouver Is., Seattle, California, W Baja California, off E Malpelo Is., W Costa Rica , off Galapagos, off Peru, N Chile, off Valparaiso.
Type locality: Atlantic (Ireland Slope)
N: 130
Lg.:
(1) F: 2,1; (5) F: 2,3; (7) F: 2,3; (10) F: 2-1,75; (20) F: 2,4-2,32; (32) F: 2,4; (34) F: 2,1; (35) F: 2,16; (37) F: 2,4-1,7; (38) M: 2,4-2,34 ; (40) F: 2,34-1,88; M: 2,12-1,86; (56) F: 2,23; (73) F: 2,26-2,23; (101) F: 2,24-2; (113) F: 2,3-2,1; (116) F: 2,35; (199) F: 2,28-1,82; (201) F: 2,4-1,90; (202) F: 2,1-2,4; (290) F: 2,1-2,15; (432) F: 2,45-2,3; (991) F: 1,7-2,4; (1109) F: 2,05; 2,26; (1122) F: 2,23; {F: 1,70-2,45; M: 1,86-2,40}
Rem.: epi-bathypelagic. Sargasso Sea: 0-1000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, station "S"); In vertical tow 4000-3000 m, Rem.: possible contaminant species from higher up the water column). Considered as vertical migrator.
Sampling depth (sub-Antarct.) : 0-1000 m.

According to Řstvedt (1955) this species have not previously been taken from this northern latitude of the Norwegian Sea.
For Vervoort (1957, p.61) campbell (1930) described a species as G. intermedius from Vancouver Island region, , this species may be identical with G. minor.
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is omnivorous.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
R. Stephen: Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line).
Last update : 15/01/2021
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