Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Gaetanus ( Genus )
Gaetanus pungens  (Giesbrecht, 1895)   (F,M)
Syn.: Gaidius pungens Giesbrecht, 1895 c (p.249, Descr.F, figs.F); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.32, Rem. F); Fowler, 1903 (p.125, Rem.); Esterly, 1905 (p.146, figs.F); Pearson, 1906 (p.12); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.223, Rem.); Esterly, 1916 (p.171, 180, nutrition); Campbell, 1929 (p.312, Rem.); Sewell, 1948 (p.348, 556); Davis, 1949 (p.27); Vervoort, 1949 (p.10, figs.F); 1952 d (n°45, p.3, figs.F); Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.163, figs.F); Vervoort, 1957 (p.58, Rem.: p.59, Rem.); Tanaka, 1957 (p.60, figs.M); Tanaka & Omori, 1970 (p.119, Descr.M, figs.M, Rem.); Morris, 1970 (p.2300, 2303, Descr.M, figs.M); Shih & al., 1971 (p.143); Park, 1978 (p.127, 130, Rem.); Dawson & Knatz, 1980 (p.5, figs.F); Bradford & Jillett, 1980 (p.61, figs.F, no M, vertical distribution, chart, Rem.); Gardner & Szabo, 1982 (p.220, figs.F,M); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Rudyakov, 1986 (tab.1); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); He & al., 1992 (p.250); Gowing & Wishner, 1992 (tab.1); Voronina & Kolosova, 1999 (p.71);
Ref. compl.: C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.234); Ahlstrom & Thrailkill, 1963 (p.57, Table 5, abundance); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Björnberg, 1973 (p.328, 386); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.67); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1999 (p.284, tab.1); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl. 3, 4); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 5, Appendix); Haury & al., 2000 (p.69, Table 1); Rebstock, 2002 (p.71, Table 3, Fig.5, climatic variability); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.144, tab.2, 4, Rem.); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.1791, Table 2);
Gaidius tenuispinus : Tanaka, 1957 a (p.60, Descr.M, figs.M, no F); ? Bradford, 1972 (p.38, figs.F);
no Gaidius pungens: Razouls & Durand, 1991 (p.75);
Park, 1975 a (p.13); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.214, figs.F,M, Rem.); Lapernat, 2000 (tabl.3, 4); no Wolfenden, 1904 (p.131: Rem., fig.M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.585, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.216, Fig.171].
Female (from NE Indian). R: rostrum (anterior); P.md: mandibular palp; CP4: coxopod of P4.

Nota: Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with spines exceeding the midlength of genital segment and covering about 3/5 of its length.
Endopod of P2 1-segmented [2segments on figure), but 1-segmentd on the figure from Giesbrecht]

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in Mem. N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 86, 1980. [p.62, Fig.41, A-E]. As Gaidius pungens.
Female: A, habitus (dorsal, B, idem (lateral right side); C, genital segment (lateral right side); D, basipod 1 of Mxp; E, endopod of P2.

Nota: Endopod of P2 is one-jointed althrough the fusion line is obvious, especially on the posterior surface.

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Vervoort in Zool. Verh., Leiden, 1949, 5. [p. 11, Fig.4]. As Gaidius pungens.
Female (from Arafura Sea): a, forehead (lateral); b, idem (dorsal); c, last thoracic segments and urosome (lateral left side); d, idem (dorsal); e, 1st basal segment of Mxp.

Nota: The proportional lengths of the cephalothorax and urosome 42:10. The abdominal segments and furca in the proportional lengths 34:17:15:15:10 = 100. A1 (24-free segments) reaches the end of the cephalothorax. The 1st basal segment of Mxp shows no trace of a lamella.

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1957, VI (1). [p.61, Fig.37]. As Gaidius tenuispinus.
Male (from Sagami, Japan): f, habitus (dorsal); g, forehead (lateral); h, rostrum (anterior aspect); i, last thoracic segment (lateral); j, P1: k, P5.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 19:30:19:19:2:11 = 100. Furcal rami about as long as wide. A1 (21-segmented) extends to distal margin of 2nd urosomal segment. A2: 1st basal segment has rows of hairs on posterior surface, and a strong inner marginal seta. mx1: outer lobe with 7 setae, exopod with 11 setae, endopod with 9 setae.

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.146, Fig.15]. As Gaidius pungens.
Female (from San Diego Region): a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (lateral); c, tube-like processes on inner distal portion of 2nd basipodite of P4; d, P1 (ri : endopod).

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Giesbrecht in Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harv., 25 (12). [Taf. I, Figs.1-4]. As Gaïdius pungens.
Female (from 35°N, 125°W): 1, P2; 2, urosome (ventral); 3, P1; 4, forehead (lateral).

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Morris in J. Fish. Res. Bd Canada, 1970, 27 (12). [p.2303, Fig.2]. As Gaidius pungens.
Male (from NW Gulf of Alaska): A, forehead (lateral); B, posterior prosome and 1st urosomal segment (right side); C, P1 (posterior); D, P5 (posterior); E, exopodite segment 3 of left P5 (posterior); F, endopodal segment of left P5.

Nota : Terminal spines acutely pointed of the thoracic segment 5 slightly shorter than in the female, extending to the distal margin of the urosomal segment 1.
Rostrum short, wider than long, an its blunt apex minnutely notched.
Exopod of P1 2-segmented, endopod 1-segmented.
Exopod of P2 3-segmented, endopod 1-segmented.
P3 and P4 have both rami 3-segmented.
P5 biramous and asymmetrical. The left exopod 3-segmented, the segments of proportional lengths 20 : 10 : 11. The inner distal edgeof the left exopodal segment 2 bears 2 slender spinules. The left exopodal segment 3 spiniform. The left endopod unisegmented, slender, and terminates in a small hooked point. The left endopod is 0.6 the length of the left exopodal segment 1. The right exopod with 2 equal segments. The right exopodal segment 2 curved, with 2 small internal swellings (a smaller one proximally and a larger one at about 2/3 the length of the segment ; this segment ends in a recurved point. The right endopod uniramus and club-shaped, it overreaches the distal edge of the basipodite 2 of the left P5.

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 8 of morphological figures
Gaetanus pungens female:
1 - Cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with moderate spines.
3 - Exopodal segment 1 of A2 without setae; segment 2 with 2 setae. 2nd internal lobe of Mx1 with 4 setae. Exopod of P1 3-segmented with 2 external spines.
4 - Mxp protopodite without lateral plate.
5 - Md palp base with 1 seta.

Species Gaetanus pungens - Plate 9 of morphological figuresGaetanus pungens male:
1 - Cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Cephalon without crest in anterior part.
3 - Exopodal segment 3 of left P5 stylet-like. Body size < 5 mm.
4 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with spines.
5 - Spines significantly shorter than the border of genital segment.
6 - Exopodal segment 3 of P5 with stylet-like narrow.
7 - Body size < 4 mm.
8 - Exopodal segment 2 of left P5 with uneven internal border with excavation near base of exopodal segment 3; exopodal segment 2 longer than exopodal segment 3.

Compl. Ref.:
Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.108); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.)
NZ: 13 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Gaetanus pungens by geographical zones
Species Gaetanus pungens - Distribution map 3Issued from : J.M. Bradford & J.B. Jillett in New Zealand Ocean. Inst. Memoir, 86, 1980. [p.86, Figs.62].
Distribution of Gaidius pungens ( = Gaetanus pungens) in the Tasman Sea and around New Zealand.
Antarct. (SE Pacif., Drake Passage), sub-Antarct. (Indian, Sw & SE Pacif.), W Sargasso Sea (in C.B. Wilson, 1950), off NW Cape Verde Is., N Ireland (in Pearson, 1906); E Indian, Indonesia-Malaysia, NE Marquesas Is., S Korea , China Seas (East China Sea, South China Sea), Japan (Izu), Aleutian Is., Pacif. (central subarctic), Strait of Georgia, Vancouver Is., San Diego, W California, BaJa California, off W Mexico, Pacif. (W equatorial), New Zealand, off Ecuador, off Peru, Chile (N & S, sub-Antarct.)

Type locality: 35°N, 125°W.
N: 55 ?
(37) F: 3,2-2,65; M: 2,28; (39) M: 2,07; (41) F: 2,65; (47) F: 3,2; (59) F: 3,8-3; M: 2; (92) F: 3,4-3,21; M: 3,04; (113) M: 2,28-2,08; (142) F: 3,5-3; (201) F: 3,32-2,6; {F: 2,60-3,80; M: 2,00-3,04}
Rem.: Bathypelagic. Considered as vetical migrator.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 0-500 m.
Certain authors (Wolfenden, 1904, p.114; Bradford & Jillett, 1980, p.61) consider the fact that a synonymy exists between this species and Gaidius tenuispinus (= Gaetanus tenuispinus) contrary to Vervoort (1957), Park (1978) and Markhaseva (1996). For Park (1978, p.130) this species is closely related to G. tenuispinus but the metasomal processes are shorter in the former than in the latter. In G. pungens the first two exopodal segments of P1 are completely fused, and the endopod of P2 is one segmented; In the female the basis of the mandibular palp has a single seta. In the male the endopod of left reaches only slightly beyond the middle of the 1st exopodal segment. P5.
A doubt subsists concerning the occurrence of this species from 55°N, 12°W after Pearson (1906)
R. Stephen: Data sheets of NIO, Kochi, India (on line as Gaidius pungens).
Last update : 08/05/2016
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