Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Gaetanus ( Genus )
Gaetanus robustus  Sars, 1905   (F,M)
Syn.: Gaidius validus Farran, 1908 b (p.32, figs. juv.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.96, figs.juv.F); Sewell, 1948 (p.499);
Gaidius maximus Wolfenden, 1906 (p.35, figs.F);
Mesogaidius maximus Wolfenden, 1911 (p.224, figs.F) ;
Pseudogaetanus robustus Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.169, figs.F,M); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.244); Homma & Yamaguchi, 2010 (p.965, Table 2); Homma & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, 3, abundance, feeding pattern: suspension feeders);
no Gaidius robustus Vervoort, 1949 (p.12, figs.F); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (figs.60-64: M);
Gaidius robustus : Tanaka & Omori, 1970 (p.122, figs.F, Rem.); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.24: Rem.); Park, 1975 a (p.11); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Bradford & Jillett, 1980 (p.58); Ref. compl.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1968 (tab.2); Björnberg, 1973 (p.323, 386); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, station "S"); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.204); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.1791, Table 2)
Ref.:
Sars, 1905 b (p.11, Rem.); 1925 (p.63, figs.F); 1925 (p.63, figs.F); Jespersen, 1934 (p.63, figs.F); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.17); Sewell, 1948 (p.500); Park, 1975 a (p.13); Markhaseva & Razzhivin, 1993 (p.611); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.217, figs.F); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.879, 922, figs.F,M)
Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.218, Fig.173].
Female (from N Atlant.). Ce: forehead (lateral); P.md: mandibular palp; Gntb Md: ganathobase (partial).

Nota: A1 reaching the end of caudal rami, or slightly shorter.


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.219, Fig.174].
Female. CP4: coxopod of P4 (partial).
Male: fifth legs made by K.A. Brodsky after specimen from the Pacific Ocean.


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XIX, figs.1-2].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side).


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.170, Fig.86]. As Pseudogaetanus robustus.
Female (from NW Pacif.): ADO, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); ALa (idem (lateral right side); RDo, forehead (dorsal); RLa, idem (lateral); Mp2, Mxp; S1, P1; S2, P2.

Male: S5, P5.


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Die Marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 1911. [p.225, Fig.13]. As Mesogaidius maximus.
Female (from off E Cape of Good Hope): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively).


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II [1908]. [Pl. II, Figs.11-17]. As Gaidius validus.
Female (from 55°1'N, 10°45'W): 11, 5th thoracic segment (lateral); 12, A2; 13, Mxp; 14, Mx1 (inner lobe omitted); 15, P1; 16, P2; 17, habitus (dorsal).


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresGaetanus robustus female:
1 - Anterior part of cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with long spines.
3 - Exopodal segment 1 of A2 with 1 seta; segment 2 with 3 setae. 2nd internal lobe of Mx1 with 5 setae. Exopod of P1 3-segmented with 3 external spines.
4 - Exopodal segment 2 of A2 with 3 setae. Lateral plate of Mxp protopodite well developed.
5 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with large spine each, spines slightly curved dorsally. Endopodal segment 1 of Md with 2 setae; segment 2 with 9 terminal and 2 posterior setae.


Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresGaetanus robustus male:
1 - Cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Cephalon without crest in anterior part.
3 - Exopodal segment 3 of left P5 bilobated. Body size large (≥ 7 mm).

Compl. Ref.:
Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.108); Holmes, 2001 (p.49); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.)
NZ: 11 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Gaetanus robustus by geographical zones
Loc:
off Tristan da Cunha E, off W Canary Is., Azores, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Davis Strait, off W Ireland, ? W Indian, Japan (Izu,) NE, Kuril-Kamchatka, Bering Sea, S Aleutian Basin, S Aleutian Is., Vancouver Is., W Baja California , S Pacif., off Juan Fernandez Is., Chile.

Type locality: N Atlantic (off Azores Islands)
N: 25
Lg.:
(1) F: 8; (10) F: 8-7,5; (22) F: 9-7,5; M: 7; (37) F: 9,2-7,5; M: 7; (70) F: 9,1-8,4; (113) F: 9,65-8,95; {F: 7,50-9,65; M: 7,00}
Rem.: meso-abyssopelagic. Sargasso Sea (Station "S"): 1500-2000 m.br>Grice & Hulsemann (1967, p.24) do not mention, sensu stricto , the identification of females, hence a doubt concerning the presence of this species in the Indian Ocean.
Last update : 05/01/2015
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 18, 2021]

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