Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Clausocalanoidea ( Superfamily )
        Aetideidae ( Family )
            Gaetanus ( Genus )
Gaetanus robustus  Sars, 1905   (F,M)
Syn.: Gaidius validus Farran, 1908 b (p.32, figs. juv.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.96, figs.juv.F); Sewell, 1948 (p.499);
Gaidius maximus Wolfenden, 1906 (p.35, figs.F);
Mesogaidius maximus Wolfenden, 1911 (p.224, figs.F) ;
Pseudogaetanus robustus Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.169, figs.F,M); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.244); Homma & Yamaguchi, 2010 (p.965, Table 2); Homma & al., 2011 (p.29, Table 2, 3, abundance, feeding pattern: suspension feeders);
no Gaidius robustus Vervoort, 1949 (p.12, figs.F); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (figs.60-64: M);
Gaidius robustus : Tanaka & Omori, 1970 (p.122, figs.F, Rem.); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.24: Rem.); Park, 1975 a (p.11); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Bradford & Jillett, 1980 (p.58); Ref. compl.: Grice & Hulsemann, 1968 (tab.2); Björnberg, 1973 (p.323, 386); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.256, Table 2, station "S"); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.204); Ikeda & al., 2006 (p.1791, Table 2)
Sars, 1905 b (p.11, Rem.); 1925 (p.63, figs.F); 1925 (p.63, figs.F); Jespersen, 1934 (p.63, figs.F); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.17); Sewell, 1948 (p.500); Park, 1975 a (p.13); Markhaseva & Razzhivin, 1993 (p.611); Markhaseva, 1996 (p.217, figs.F); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.879, 922, figs.F,M)
Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.218, Fig.173].
Female (from N Atlant.). Ce: forehead (lateral); P.md: mandibular palp; Gntb Md: ganathobase (partial).

Nota: A1 reaching the end of caudal rami, or slightly shorter.

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : E.L. Markhaseva in Proc. Zool. Inst. RAN, St. Petersburg, 1996, 268. [p.219, Fig.174].
Female. CP4: coxopod of P4 (partial).
Male: fifth legs made by K.A. Brodsky after specimen from the Pacific Ocean.

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.XIX, figs.1-2].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side).

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresIssued from : K.A. Brodskii in Calanoida of the Far Eastern Seas and Polar Basin of the USSR. Opred. Fauna SSSR, 1950, 35 (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1967) [p.170, Fig.86]. As Pseudogaetanus robustus.
Female (from NW Pacif.): ADO, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); ALa (idem (lateral right side); RDo, forehead (dorsal); RLa, idem (lateral); Mp2, Mxp; S1, P1; S2, P2.

Male: S5, P5.

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in Die Marinen Copepoden der Deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903, 1911. [p.225, Fig.13]. As Mesogaidius maximus.
Female (from off E Cape of Good Hope): a-b, habitus (dorsal and lateral, respectively).

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II [1908]. [Pl. II, Figs.11-17]. As Gaidius validus.
Female (from 55°1'N, 10°45'W): 11, 5th thoracic segment (lateral); 12, A2; 13, Mxp; 14, Mx1 (inner lobe omitted); 15, P1; 16, P2; 17, habitus (dorsal).

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresGaetanus robustus female:
1 - Anterior part of cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with long spines.
3 - Exopodal segment 1 of A2 with 1 seta; segment 2 with 3 setae. 2nd internal lobe of Mx1 with 5 setae. Exopod of P1 3-segmented with 3 external spines.
4 - Exopodal segment 2 of A2 with 3 setae. Lateral plate of Mxp protopodite well developed.
5 - Posterior corners of last thoracic segment with large spine each, spines slightly curved dorsally. Endopodal segment 1 of Md with 2 setae; segment 2 with 9 terminal and 2 posterior setae.

Species Gaetanus robustus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresGaetanus robustus male:
1 - Cephalon without frontal spine.
2 - Cephalon without crest in anterior part.
3 - Exopodal segment 3 of left P5 bilobated. Body size large (≥ 7 mm).

Compl. Ref.:
Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.108); Holmes, 2001 (p.49); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.)
NZ: 11 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Gaetanus robustus by geographical zones
off Tristan da Cunha E, off W Canary Is., Azores, Sargasso Sea, Station "S" (32°10'N, 64°30'W), Davis Strait, off W Ireland, ? W Indian, Japan (Izu,) NE, Kuril-Kamchatka, Bering Sea, S Aleutian Basin, S Aleutian Is., Vancouver Is., W Baja California , S Pacif., off Juan Fernandez Is., Chile.

Type locality: N Atlantic (off Azores Islands)
N: 25
(1) F: 8; (10) F: 8-7,5; (22) F: 9-7,5; M: 7; (37) F: 9,2-7,5; M: 7; (70) F: 9,1-8,4; (113) F: 9,65-8,95; {F: 7,50-9,65; M: 7,00}
Rem.: meso-abyssopelagic. Sargasso Sea (Station "S"): 1500-2000 m.br>Grice & Hulsemann (1967, p.24) do not mention, sensu stricto , the identification of females, hence a doubt concerning the presence of this species in the Indian Ocean.
Last update : 05/01/2015
    to add your remark

 Any use of this site for a publication will be mentioned with the following reference :

Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2024. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed May 25, 2024]

© copyright 2005-2024 Sorbonne University, CNRS

CNRS   Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls sur Mer - Laboratoire Arago
Sorbonne Université


Version française
English version



On the WEB of CNRS


Marine Planktonic Copepods

Marine Planktonic Copepods


Imprimer Contact Accueil Plan du site Accès restreint Retour Une du Labo Imprimer Contact Plan du site Crédits Téléchargez les Plug-Ins