Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Copilia ( Genus )
Copilia quadrata  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Copilia recta (M) Giesbrecht, 1891; 1892 (p.648, 658, figs.M); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.139, figs.M); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2);
Copilia denticulata (F) : Giesbrecht, 1892 (part., p.657, figs.F); Corral-Estrada, 1970 (p.233, figs.F, no M); Corral Estrada Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (p.11: tab.I)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.647, 658, 771, figs.F,M); A. Scott, 1909 (p.261, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.358); Pesta, 1920 (p.644); Lehenhofer, 1926 (p.130, 140, figs.F,M); Farran, 1929 (p.211, 291); Rose, 1933 a (p.323, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.134); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.140, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.109, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.44); Sewell, 1947 (p.271); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.310); 1957 a (p.12); Gregory & Ross, 1964 (p.1166, figs.F); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.119, figs.F,M); Marques, 1968 a (p.397); Ramirez, 1969 (p.95, figs.M); Downing, 1972 (p.247, fig.F, lenses function v.s. behaviour); Razouls, 1972 (p.95, Annexe: p.126); Marques, 1975 (p.53); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.673, figs.F); Marques, 1982 (p.775); Corral Estrada, 1970 (p.233, Rem.); Zheng & al., 1982 (p.132, figs.F); Baessa de Aguiar, 1986 (1989) (p.64, fig.M, Rem. M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.992, Pl. 231, 232: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.228); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 972, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.227, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.653); Avancini & al., 2006 (p.142, Pl. 110, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.359, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.94, Lam. XIX, figs. 164, 165, 166].
Male (from off Mar del Plata): 164, A2; 165, Mxp; 166, habitus (dorsal).
Scale bars in mm: 0.6 (164); 0.1 (165); 1 (166).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.57, fig.6]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female (from Canarias Is.): 6, distal segments of urosome.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Corral Estrada in Tesis Doct., Univ. Madrid, A-129, Sec. Biologicas, 1970. [Lam.58, fig.1]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female: 1, A2.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : Z. Zheng, S. Li, S.J. Li & B. Chen in Marine planktonic copepods in Chinese waters. Shanghai Sc. Techn. Press, 1982 [p.133, Fig.82].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, urosome (ventral); c, A2; d, P4.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig. 33].
Female: A2.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.13 ].
Female: posterior of body (dorsal).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.22].
Female: exopod of P1 (outer portion).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.16 ].
Female: endopod of P3.
Se = outer seta; Si = inner seta; Ri1 = endopodal segment 1.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.1 ].
Male: habitus (dorsal).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.10 ].
Male: posterior part of body (ventral).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.28].
Male: 8exopod of P1 (outer part)..


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Figs.36, 41 ].
Male: 36, A2; 41, Mxp.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Fig.14 ]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female: 14, habitus (lateral).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Fig.48 ]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female:48, A1 (ventral view).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Fig.145]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female:45, A2.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Figs.49-52 ]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female: 49, Mx2 ( (posterior view); 50, Mx1; 51, Mxp; 52, Md.
B1 = basipodite 1 (= coxa); B2 = basipodite 2 (= basis).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Fig.9 ]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female: urosome.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Fig.11]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female: 11, posterior portion of urosome (ventral view).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.50 , Fig.15]. As Copilia denticulata.
Female: 15, distal portion of caudal ramus (ventral view).
Si = inner seta; Se = outer seta.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.4 ]. As Copiliarecta.
Male: 4, habitus (dorsal).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. - Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf. 50, Fig.32 ]. As Copilia recta.
Male: 32, A2.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 22 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.79, Figs.1-3].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, A2; 3, endopodite 2 of A2 (distal portion).


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 23 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.78, Fig.11].
Female: 11, P4.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 24 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl.78, Figs.7-10].
Male: 7, A2; 8, P4; 9, habitus (dorsal); 10, Mxp.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 25 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1926, 23 (1). [p.140, Textfig.16].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal; 2, urosome (dorsal); 3, A2 (segment 3-4); 4, processes on segment 4 of A2; 5, P4.


Species Copilia quadrata - Plate 26 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1926, 23 (1). [p.131, Textfig.10].
Male: 1, A2 (segment 2); 2, A2 and detail of segment 3; 3, detail of distal part of segment 4 of A2; 4, Mxp.

Compl. Ref.:
Rose, 1925 (p.153); 1925 a (p.8); Wilson, 1942 a (p.179); Sewell, 1948 (p.346); C.B. Wilson 1950 (p.191); Yamazi, 1958 (p.155, Rem.); Wickstead, 1962 (p.549, food & feeding); Fagetti, 1962 (p.48); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.10, 16); V.N. Björnberg, 1963 (p.90, Rem.); Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.12); Shmeleva, 1965 b (p.1350, lengths-volume -weight relation); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Kuroshio region, Table 9);Neto & Paiva, 1966 (p.35, Table III); Mazza, 1966 (p.74); Pavlova, 1966 (p.45); Ehrhardt, 1967 (p.743, geographic distribution, Rem.); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Apostolopoulou, 1972 (p.329, 381); Corral Estrada & Pereiro Muñoz, 1974 (p.11: tab.I); Palet, 1975 (p.660); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.557); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 599); Dessier, 1979 (p.208); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.795); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (p.1044); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Longhurst, 1985 (tab.2); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl.I, II, III, IV); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Lozano, 1991 (p.175); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.107); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1991 (1993) (tab.I); Kim & al., 1993 (p.270); Webber & Roff, 1995 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Böttger-Schnack, 1995 (p.93); Kotani & al., 1996 (tab.2); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1, 2); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.4); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.112); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Zerouali & Melhaoui, 2002 (p.91, Tableau I); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Shimode & Shirayama, 2004 (tab.2); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.490, tab.2); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.139, tab.2, Rem.); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tabl. I); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.25); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Williamson & McGowan, 2010 (p.273, Table 3, Pacific central gyres: N and S); Hernandez-Trujillo & al., 2010 (p.913, Table 2); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Tseng L.-C. & al., 2011 (p.47, Table 2, occurrences vs mesh sizes); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); Belmonte & al., 2013 (p.222, Table 2, abundance vs stations); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, pers. comm.); Zakaria & al., 2016 (p.1, Table 1); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Benedetti & al., 2018 (p.1, Fig.2: ecological functional group)
NZ: 17

Distribution map of Copilia quadrata by geographical zones
Species Copilia quadrata - Distribution map 3issued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1926, 23 (1). [p.168, Textfig.32].
Zoogeographical distribution of C. quadrata.
Species Copilia quadrata - Distribution map 4issued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.119, Table 59].
Vertical distribution of Copilia quadrata at the ''40-Mile Station'' in the Florida Current ( E Miami: ± 25°35'N, 79°27'W; depth 738 m).
SL 55: 21 VII 1958. A: during midday; B: during midnight.
Loc:
South Africa (E), off N Angola, Baia Farta, off S St. Helena Is., off S Ascension Is., off Trinidade Is., G. of Guinea, off NE St. Paul Is., Cape Verde Is. (S & N), Canary Is., off Madeira, Portugal, Argentina (off C. San Antonio), Brazil, off Natal, off Amazon, Barbada Is., Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, Jamaica, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Cuba, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Azores, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Alger, El Kala shelf, Castellon, Baleares, Banyuls, Marseille, Monaco, Napoli, Tyrrhenian Sea, Messina, Gulf of Taranto, N & S Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, W Egyptian coast, Lebanon Basin), Red Sea, Arabian Sea, off SE Madagascar, Nosy Bé, Indian, India (Saurashtra coast, Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, Nicobar Is. (Nankaurie Harbour), Straits of Malacca, G. of Thailand, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, Viet-Nam, Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (E, S, NW, N: Mienhua Canyon), S Korea, Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, Pacif. (W equatorial), Pacific (central gyres: N and S), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), off N New Zealand, Fidji Is., Bikini Is., Hawaii, W Baja California (Bahia Magdalena), Gulf of California, Clipperton Is., off W Guatemala, Galapagos, Peru, off N Chile
N: 135
Lg.:
(46) F: 3,65-3,35; 4,45-3,85; M: 5,6-4,5; 4,8-4,1; (104) F: 4; M: 4,5; (180) F: 3,37-2,3; 4,22-3,42; (254) M: 5,3; (332) F: 4,1; (458) M: 4,81; (651) F: 4,58-4,42; (703) F: 4,4-2,2; M: 5,7-3,5; (794) F: 4,2-1,4; M: 2,8; (866) F: 3,48-3,2; M: 4,48; (1023) F: 2,21-3,13; {F: 1,40-4,58; M: 2,80-5,70}
Lozano (1991) note des individus femelle et mâle de dimensions inférieures à celles généralement observées.
Rem.: epiplagic. Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-1000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S"). 0-217 m at Station T-1 (E Tori Is., E middle Japan) from Furuhashi (1966 a).
After Benedetti & al. (2018, p.1, Fig.2) this species belonging to the functional group 1 corresponding to large sac-spawning carnivorous.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 02/05/2019
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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. and Desreumaux N., 2005-2020. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 20, 2020]

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