Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina angusta  Dana, 1849   (F,M)
Syn.: Saphirina fulgens Claus, 1863 (part., p.151, fig.M);
? S. opaca Lubbock, 1856; Brady, 1883 (p.127, figs.F); Thompson, 1888 d (p.149); T. Scott, 1894 b (p.124);
S. clausi Haeckel, 1864 (p.104, figs.M)
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.619, 641, 774, figs.F,M); Esterly, 1905 (p.221, figs.F,M); A. Scott, 1909 (p.253, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.360); Pesta, 1912 a (p.60, fig.F); 1920 (p.637, fig.F); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 288); Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.273, figs.F,M); Rose, 1929 (p.59); Wilson, 1932 a (p.364, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.308, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1933 (p.210); Farran, 1936 a (p.130); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.125, figs.F); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.107, figs.F,M); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.43); Sewell, 1947 (p.265); Pucher, 1952 (p.102); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.310); 1957 a (p.12); Tanaka, 1960 (p.72, Rem.F); Fish, 1962 (p.24); Fagetti, 1962 (p.46); Tanaka, 1964 (p.14); Mazza, 1964 (p.3, figs.F, Rem.: 2 forms); Crisafi & Mazza, 1966 (p.570, figs.F,M, Rem.); Crisafi, 1966 (p.653, figs.F,M, Juv., Rem.: anomaly); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.103); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.114, figs.F,M); Vilela, 1968 (p.34, fig.F); Ramirez, 1969 (p.93, fig.F, Rem., Rem.); Marino & Onesto, 1970 (p.355, nutrition, gut structure); Paiva, 1971 (p.34); Chen & al., 1974 (p.46, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.671, figs.F,M); Marques, 1982 (p.772); Zheng Zhong & al., 1989 (p.264, figs.F,M); Chae & Nishida, 1994 (p.205, 208, fig.M, integumental structure, color pattern); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.989, Pl.228: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.229); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 972, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.231, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Avancini & al., 2006 (Pl. 108, figs.F,M); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.365, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.94, Lam. XIX, figs. 167].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 167, A2.
Scale bar in mm: 0.05.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : F.C. Ramirez in Contr. Inst. Biol. mar., Buenos Aires, 1969, 98. [p.90, Lam. XVIII, figs. 151, 155, 156, 158].
Female (from off Mar del Plata): 151, habitus (dorsal); 155, caudal ramus.

Male: 153, habitus (dorsal); 156, A2; 158, terminal part of endopodal segment 3 of P2.
Scale bars in mm: 0.5 (151); 0.05 (155); 0.4 (153); 0.1 (156); 0.05 (158).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.9, Figs.4-8].
Female (from China Seas): 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, A2; 6, P2.

Male: 7, posterior part of body (dorsal); 8, endopodite segment 3 of P2.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mazza in Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 1964, 61, n°1284. [p.4, Figs. 1-2, Table 2]. Female (from Tyrrhenian Sea: off E Corsica): 1, habitus (dorsal): Form A; 2, idem: Form B.
Table 2: Comparative sizes (in mm) of 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th abdominal segments from the two forms A and B.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mazza in Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 1964, 61, n°1284. [p.5, Figs. 3-6].
Female: Urosome and caudal rami (dorsal): 3, Form A; 4, Form B; 5, posterior portion of urosme: Form A (enlarged); 6, Form B (enlarged).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mazza in Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 1964, 61, n°1284. [p.7, Fig.7].
Female: A2 from two forms A and B.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : J. Mazza in Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 1964, 61, n°1284. [p.3, Table 1].
Female: Comparative sizes (in mm) from two forms A and B. (Longueur = Length, Largeur = wide).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.572, Fig.1].
Female (from Strait of Messina): A-B, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi & J. Mazza in Atti Soc. pelorit. Sci. fis. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.573, Fig.2].
Male: habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : P. Crisafi in Atti Soc. pelor. Sci. fif. mat. nat., 1966, XII (3/4). [p.653, Figs.1, 2].
Female: 1, caudal rami with anomaly; 2, abdominal portion with malformation.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.221, Fig.58].
Female (from San Diego Region): a, habitus (dorsal; caudal rami omitted); b, P4 (re = exopodite); c, A2 (b2 = basipodal segment 2; ri.2 = 2nd segment of endopod).

Male: d, caudal ramus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 68, Figs.1-5].
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, A1; 3, A2; 4, P2; 5, P4.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 13 of morphological figuresissued from : K. Lehnhofer in wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 22 (5). [p.274, Fig.2].
Female: 2, A1.

Male: Male: 1, caudal ramus (dorsal); 3, A2; 4, A1; 5, P2 (endopodite 3).
A = apical point; Se = outer seta; Si = inner seta; St = terminal seta.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.6, 20 ].
Female: 6, habitus (dorsal); 20, caudal ramus.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 15 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.55].
Female: 55, Mxp (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 16 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.58 ].
Female: 58, Mx2 (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 17 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.5 ].
Male: 5, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 18 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.53, 66 ].
Male: 53, Mx2 (posterior view); 66, Mxp (posterior view).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 19 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.29 ].
Male: 29, A2.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 20 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.2 ].
Male: 2, P2.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 21 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.8 ].
Male: 8, P2 (endopodite 3).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 22 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.17 ].
Male: 17, P3 (endopodite 3).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 23 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Figs.6, 17 ].
Female: 6, A1 (ventral view); 17, Md (anterior view).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 24 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Figs.30, 55 ].
Female: 30, A2; 55, P4.


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 25 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.20 ].
Female: 20, P2 (endopodite 3).


Species Sapphirina angusta - Plate 26 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.61 ].
Female: 61, Mx1.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.196); Rose, 1925 (p.152); Wilson, 1942 a (p.205); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.104, Rem.); Sewell, 1948 (p.346, 461); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.319); Yamazi, 1958 (p.155,Rem.); V.N. Greze, 1963 a (tabl.2); Duran, 1963 (p.26); Giron-Reguer, 1963 (p.59); Björnberg, 1963 (p.88, Rem.); Unterüberbacher, 1964 (p.35); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.13); Pavlova, 1966 (p.45); Mazza, 1966 (p.73); 1967 (p.367); Dowidar & El-Maghraby, 1970 (p.269); Salah, 1971 (p.320); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Binet & al., 1972 (p.71); Björnberg, 1973 (p.369, 389); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Boxshall, 1977 b (p.558); Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 599); Dessier, 1979 (p.208); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Jansa, 1985 (p.108, Tabl.I, II, III, IV); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.61); Cervantes-Duarte & Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Lozano, 1991 (p.173); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Chae & al., 1996 (p.20); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.104); Alvarez-Cadena & al., 1998 (t.3,4); Suarez-Morales, 1998 (p.345, Table 1); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, Appendix); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Vukanic, 2003 (p.139, tab.1); Bode & al., 2003 (p.85, Table 1: as Shapphirina, abundance); Rezai & al., 2004 (p.490, tab.2); Daly Yahia & al., 2004 (p.366, fig.4); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.485, tab.1); Berasategui & al., 2005 (p.313, fig.2); Berasategui & al., 2006 (p.485: fig.2); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.153, tab.2, Rem.); Mageed, 2006 (p.168, Table 4); Valdés & al., 2007 (p.104: tab.1); Lopes & al., 2007 (p.145, egg production); Cabal & al., 2008 (289, Table 1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); Muelbert & al., 2008 (p.1662, Table 1); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % hydrographic conditions); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Andersen N.G. & al., 2011 (p.71, Fig.3: abundance); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance); Uysal & Shmeleva, 2012 (p.909, Table I); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Chaouadi & Hafferssas, 2018 (p.913, Table II: occurrence); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence); Acha & al., 2020 (p.1, Table 3: occurrence % vs ecoregions).
NZ: 19 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Sapphirina angusta by geographical zones
Species Sapphirina angusta - Distribution map 4issued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.317, Fig.48].
Zoogeographical distribution of S. angusta.
Loc:
sub-Antarct. (Kerguelen Is.), South Africa (off Cape of Good Hope, E), Namibia, Congo, off Trindade Is., G. of Guinea, Ivorian shelf, Dakar, Cape Verde Is., Canary Is., off Madeira, Lisbon, off Coruña, Iberian Shelf, Azores, Argentina (off C. San Antonio, southern shelfbreak), Uruguay (continental shelf), Brazil (S-N), Barbados Is., Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia (Guajira, Tayrona), Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Florida, Sargasso Sea, off Bermuda (Station "S", Woods Hole, off E Newfoundland, NW Spain, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (Alboran Sea, Habibas Is., Baleares, Sidi Fredj coast, Algiers, G. of Lion, Ligurian Sea, Napoli, Messina, N & S Adriatic Sea, ? Malta, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Lebanon Basin, Alexandria, Bardawill Lagoon), Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Indian, W Australia, Straits of Malacca, G. of Thailand, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, Viet-Nam, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (E, SW, N: Mienhua Canyon), Japan, Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), New Zealand, Bikini, Hawaii, Galapagos-Ecuador, California, W Baja California, La Paz (Mexico), Peru, N Chile
N: 152
Lg.:
(34) M: 4,92-3,36; (35) F: 3,65-3,24; M: 5,1-4,8; (45) F: 4-3,25; M: 5,15-3,75; (46) F: 4-3,25; M: 5,15-3,8; (66) F: 2,82; (91) F: 4-3; (104) F: 3,2; M: 5,8; (109) F: 3,7-3,5; M: 4,7-3,95; (114) F: 3,5-2,63; (142) F: 5-2,5; M: 5-3; (237) M: 5,2; (254) F: 3,8; M: 6; (310) F: 3,79-2,5; M: 6,11-4,92; (327) F: 3,78-3,07; (332) F: 3,53-1,48; (432) F: 5-3,8; M: 7,3-5,2; (449) F: 4-3,25; M: 5,15-3,8; (530) F: 3,5-3; (648) F: 4,6-2,81; M: 7,6-3,4; (705) F: 4,035-3,206; M: 5,79-4,129; (706) F: 3,72-3,32; (785) F: 2,45; 2; (794) F: 3,2-1,4; M: 4; (805) F: 3,19-2; M: 3,16; (866) F: 3,36-2,96; M: 6,95-4,1; (991) F: 3-4; M: 3,75-5,15; (1035) F: 2,20-2,45; {F: 1,40-5,00; M: 3,00-6,95}
Rem.: epiplagic. Overall Depth Range in Sargasso Sea: 0-1000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S").
After Tanaka (1960, p.72) the specimes from the South Africa had the proportional lengths of the anterior and posterior regions of the body female as 72 to 28. The anterior region is slender, about 2.5 times as long as broad. The dorsal lenses are set closely together. The posterior region of the body has the segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths : 14 : 21 : 10 : 9 : 11 : 35 = 100. The distal border of the 2nd to 4th abdominal segments is finely serrated on the posterior surface. The caudal rami 2 times as long as broad (33 : 17); the median dorsal seta is situated at the distal 1/3 of the ramus. The A1 5-segmented; segments in the proportional lengths 18 : 42 : 17 : 10 : 13 = 100. In the P2 the endopod is about as long as the exopod; the 3rd segment of the endopod carries 3 apical. In P4 the endopod is slightly shorter than the exopod. spines
According to Chae & Nishida (1994, p.205, table 2) the color observed with reflected (R) and transmitted light (T): Monotonic dark blue (R) and yellow, occasionally brown (T).

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Last update : 13/11/2020
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