Species Card of Copepod
Cyclopoida ( Order )
    Sapphirinidae ( Family )
        Sapphirina ( Genus )
Sapphirina scarlata  Giesbrecht, 1891   (F,M)
Syn.: Sapphirina escarlata : Candeias, 1926 (p.46, figs.F: ?);
? Sapphirina nigromaculata-scallata Björnberg, 1963 (p.88, Rem.);
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.620, 642, 775, figs.F,M, Rem. F,M); Esterly, 1905 (p.222, figs.F, Rem.F,M); A. Scott, 1909 (p.258, Rem.); Mori, 1929 (p.204, figs.F); Farran, 1929 (p.210, 289); Lehnhofer, 1929 (p.306, figs.F,M); Wilson, 1932 a (p.371, figs.F); Rose, 1933 a (p.313, figs.F,M); Farran, 1936 a (p.130); Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.130, figs.F); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.109, figs.F); Marques, 1958 a (p.138); Tanaka, 1964 (p.14); Chen & al., 1974 (p.48, figs.F,M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.671, figs.M); Marques, 1982 (p.774); Baessa de Aguiar, 1986 (1989) (p.62, fig.F, Rem. F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.991, Pl.229: F,M); Boxshall, 1998 (p.231); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.887, 973, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.242, figs.F,M, Rem.); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.655); Vives & Shmeleva, 2010 (p.387, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang & C.-s. Zhu in Studia Marina Sinica, 1974, 9. [Pl.11, Figs.4-10].
Female (from China Seas): 4, habitus (dorsal); 5, A2; 6, P2; 7, P4.

Male: 8, posterior part of body; 9, A2; 10, endopodite segment 3 of P2


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1905, 2 (4). [p.222, Fig.59].
Female (from San Diego Region): a, habitus (dorsal); b, P4 (ri = endopod).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.1].
Female (from Chosen Strait, Korea-Japan): 1, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in Zool. Mag. Tokyo, 1929, 41 (486-487). [Pl. IX, Fig.6-9].
Female: 6, A1; 7, P4; 8, P2; 9, A2.


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : T. Mori in The Pelagic copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan, 1937 (1964). [Pl. 71, Figs.10-14].
Female: 10, A1; 11, endopodite of P2; 12, P4; 13, A2; 14, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.306, Fig.42].
Female: 1, A2.

Male: 2, A2; 3, A1; 4, endopodite 3 of P2.


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.303, Fig.40, d].
Female: d, caudal rami.


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Fig.42].
Female: 42, habitus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.72].
Female: 72, Mx1.


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.52, Figs.60, 61].
Male: 60, habitus (dorsal); 61, caudal ramus (dorsal).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Fig.12].
Male: 12, A1.


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.53, Figs.39, 62].
Male: 39, A2; 62, P4 (endopod).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 13 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.25].
Male: 25, P2 (endopodite 3).


Species Sapphirina scarlata - Plate 14 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 19, 1892. Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.54, Fig.31].
Male: 31, Mxp.

Compl. Ref.:
Cleve, 1904 a (p.197); Wilson, 1942 a (p.206); Sewell, 1948 (p.394, 462, 468); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.324); King & Hida, 1955 (p.11); M-O. Soyer, 1965 (1966) (p.243: parasite); Mazza, 1966 (p.74); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Oyashio/Kuroshio transitional area, Table 7); Delalo, 1968 (p.139); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table I: vertical distribution vs day/night, Table II); Tranter, 1977 (p.596, 600); Dessier, 1979 (p.208); Rajaram & Krishnaswamy, 1980 a (p.154); Vives, 1982 (p.296); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.86); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 564, Table 1); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.108); Seguin & al., 1993 (p.23); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.77); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1997 (p.1525); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p.113); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Lopez-Salgado & al., 2000 (tab.1); Lo & al., 2004 (p.89, tab.1); Choi & al., 2005 (p.710: Tab.III); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Hwang & al., 2007 (p.25); Morales-Ramirez & Suarez-Morales, 2008 (p.525); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.429); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2, 3, Rem.); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2013 (p.1009, Table I, abundance vs environmental factors); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Zaafa & al., 2014 (p.67, Table I, occurrence); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Jerez-Guerrero & al., 2017 (p.1046, Table 1: temporal occurrence); Palomares-Garcia & al., 2018 (p.178, Table 1: occurrence)
NZ: 17

Distribution map of Sapphirina scarlata by geographical zones
Species Sapphirina scarlata - Distribution map 3issued from : C. Lehnhofer in Wiss. Ergebn. dt. Tiefsee-Exped. ''Valdivia'', 1929, 22 (5). [p.339, Fig.67].
Zoogeographical distribution of S. scarlata.
Loc:
sub-Antarct., South Africa (W), Angola, G. of Guinea, off Mauritania, Canary Is., S Brazil, Venezuela, Yucatan, G. of Mexico, Cuba, off Marthas Vineyard S, Medit. (M'Diq, Alboran Sea, Gulf of Annaba, G. of Lion, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, N-S Adriatic Sea), Red Sea, Madagascar, Indian, Australia (W, G. of Carpentaria), G. of Thailand, Indonesia-Malaysia, Philippines, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan (S, N: Mienhua Canyon), Japan, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (Great Barrier, New South Wales), off New Zealand, Bikini Is., Hawaii, Pacif. (equatorial central), E Pacif., Galapagos, Oregon (warm water intrusions), off Washington W, California, G. of California, La Paz (Mexico), W Costa Rica, G. of Panama, Bahia Cupica (Colombia), Peru
N: 64
Lg.:
(34) M: 3,6; (35) F: 3,6-2,55; M: 2,7; (45) F: 3,35-3; M: 3,8-3,4; (46) F: 3,32; M: 3,8-3,4; (91) F: 3,5-1,5; (104) F: 4,5; (109) F: 3,5-2,4; M: 2,8-2,4; (114) F: 2,25-1,95; (142) F: 3,3; (332) F: 3,06; 2,22; (458) F: 3,09; 3,05; M: 3,77; (618) F: 3,34; (648) F: 4,62-3,33; M: 4,85-3,97; (805) F: 2,39-1,2; M: 2,19-1,4; (866) F: 3,64-3,32; M: 3,8-3,56; (991) F: 1,5-4,65; M: 3,4-4,85; {F: 1,20-4,65; M: 1,40-4,85}
Rem.: epipelagic.
Observed in the ballast waters of ships in San Francisco.

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 13/11/2020
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