Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Arietelloidea ( Superfamily )
        Augaptilidae ( Family )
            Centraugaptilus ( Genus )
Centraugaptilus horridus  (Farran, 1908)   (F,M)
Syn.: Augaptilus horridus Farran, 1908 b (p.78, Descr.F, fig.F); Sewell, 1913 (p.354);
? Augaptilus pyramidalis Esterly, 1911 (p.334, figs.F);
? Centraugaptilus pyramidalis : Brodsky, 1950 (1967) (p.389, figs.F, Rem.); Mauchline, 1998 (p.68: F)
Ref.:
Sars, 1925 (p.307, figs.F,M); Sewell, 1932 (p.326, figs.M); Rose, 1933 a (p.233, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.114); 1940 (p.62); Sewell, 1947 (p.232, Rem.); Tanaka, 1964 b (p.83, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1965 (p.147, Rem.); Krishnaswamy & al., 1967 (p.331, Rem.: Mx2); Owre & Foyo, 1967 (p.88, figs.F,M); Tanaka & Omori, 1967 (p.258); Minoda, 1971 (p.41); Matthews, 1972 (p.56); Boxshall, 1985 (p.348, figs.); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.359, fig.); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.882, 939, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve,1999 b (p.45, figs.F,M, figs.171, 190); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.179, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (1). [p.83, Fig.215].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal); b, forehead (left lateral side); c, last thoracic segment and urosome (left lateral side); d, rostrum (frontal view); e, exopod of P1; f, P5.
Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 42:13:29:16 = 100. A1 reaches back to the posterior margin of the 3rd thoracic segment.

Male: g, P5. Nota: The urosome segments and furca are in the proportional lengths as 32:13:13:10:26:16 = 100. Grasping of A1 on the left side.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 2 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.CVII, figs.11-18].
Female: 11, habitus (dorsal); 12, rostrum; 13, distal portion of Mxp; 14, terminal segment of Mxp (enlarged); 15, P1; 16, P5.

Male: 17, forehead (lateral); 18, P5.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1932, X (continued). [p.327, Fig.107].
Male (from off SE Sri Lanka): a, A2; b, Md; c, Mx1; d, Mx2; e, Mxp; f, P1; g, P5.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.19, Fig.65].
Female: 65, terminal setae of Mx2.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : G.A. Boxshall inPhil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 1985, B 311. [Plate 1, 47-49].
47, button seta on Mx2, showing zone of transition between normal setule and button; 48, back and side views of button setae; 49, detail of buttons.
Scale bars: 0.010 mm (47-48; 0.002 mm (49).
The transition from normal setule to stalked button occurs over a short distance and shows that the buttons are modified setules. Their paired arrangement and stalks are also shown in figures 48 and 49. Itis assumed that the button setae are involved in prey capture and holding. Their position on the distal portions of the raptorial limbs also suggests a role in the grasping action. There are 11 button setae, only 4 on the maxilliped, here interpreted as evidence of the dominant role of the maxillae in prey capture. The role of the buttons themselves is unclear. It is probably to increase the surface area of the seta that comes into contact with the prey and to protect these primary feeding setae from damage. The stalked buttons may act as buffers, absorbing some ofthe energy generated by the struggling prey, thereby protecting the seta, which cannot be replaced once damaged as adult copepods do not moult. The prey is grasped directly by the button setae.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1911, 6 (14). [Pl.26, Figs.1, 9]. As Augaptilus pyramidalis. With doubt.
Female (from San Diego Region):1, habitus (dorsal); 9, habitus (lateral).
Nota: In side view the forehead is pyramidal in shape and overhangs the rostrum, which is very strong and heavy. Cephalothorax 5-segmented and the abdomen 3-segmented; the former is six and one-half times as long as the urosome. Genital segment as long as the rest of the urosome. A1 reach the posterior border of the 2nd thoracic segment. Exo and endopod of A2 of equal lengths. Bristles of Mxp well equiped with augaptiloid cups.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1911, 6 (14). [Pl.30, Fig.69]. As Augaptilus pyramidalis. With doubt.
Female: 69, exopod of P1.
Nota: Rami of P1 2-segmented and the 1st segment of exopod has an unusually long and heavy spine; rami of the other pairs of feet 3-segmented and the end segments of endopod with 7, 8, 8, 7, 6, bristles in the P1 to P5.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : C.O. Esterly in Univ. Calif. Publs Zool., 1911, 6 (14). [Pl.32, Fig.106]. As Augaptilus pyramidalis. With doubt.
Female: 106, exopod of P5.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 9 of morphological figures issued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II [1908]. [Pl. VIII, Fig.20]. As Augaptilus horridus.
Female (from W Ireland): 20, cephalon (lateral).


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 10 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.92, Fig.649].
Female (23°36'N, 83°06'W): 649, P5.


Species Centraugaptilus horridus - Plate 11 of morphological figuresissued from : H.B. Owre & M. Foyo in Fauna Caribaea, 1, Crustacea, 1: Copepoda. Copepods of the Florida Current. 1967. [p.19, Fig.64, 65].
Female: 64, Mx2; 65, terminal setae of Mx2.

Compl. Ref.:
Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.40); Sewell, 1948 (p.505, 522, 538, 548, 558, 561); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.185); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.11); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.18); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Björnberg, 1973 (p.348, 385); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Vives, 1982 (p.294); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Lozano Soldevilla & al., 1988 (p.60); Heinrich, 1990 (p.18); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Holmes, 2001 (p.10); Galbraith, 2009 (pers. comm.); Schnack-Schiel & al., 2010 (p.2064, Table 2: E Atlantic subtropical/tropical); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.)
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Centraugaptilus horridus by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E), Atlant. (tropical), G. of Guinea, Canary Is., Morocco, off Madeira, Azores, Caribbean Sea, Florida, off Bermuda: Station ‘’ S’’ (32°10’N, 64°30’W), Bay of Biscay, off W Ireland, off W Scotland, S Iceland, S Denmark Strait, Indian (G. of Oman, Arabian Sea, SW Madagascar, Natal, Bay of Bengal), S Indian (subtropical convergence), Philippines, Japan (Izu), Bering Sea, Vancouver Is., California (San Diego), Pacif. (tropical) , off Panama, off Peru, Pacif. (SE tropical), Chile, Pacif. (W equatorial), New Zealand (South Island SE)
N: 32
Lg.:
(1) F: 9,6; (11) F: 7-6; M: 8,4; (16) F: 8,55-5,6; (24) F: 10; (44) M: 8,4; (49) F: 7,5; (69) F: 9,45; M: 8,33; (70) F: 10,1-8,8; (143) F: 6,68; (199) F: 7,2-6,24; (208) F: 9,5; {F: 5,60-10,10; M: 8,33-8,40}
Rem.: Bathypelagic. Overall Drpth Range in Sargasso Sea: 500-2000 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S");
This species appears to exhibit a considerable variation in size.
After Esterly (1991, p.334) the shape of the head recalls that of A. (= Centraugaptilus) horridus Farran (1908, p.78, pl.8, fig.29). For Brodsky (1950) this species is not a synonym because the exopodite of P1 2-segmented. [But, it is posible to overlooked the line of separation between the the sgments 2 and 3].
Last update : 31/12/2014
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