Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Candaciidae ( Family )
            Candacia ( Genus )
Candacia elongata  (Boeck, 1872)   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace elongata Boeck,1872; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.425);
Candace robusta Wolfenden,1904 (p.140);
? C. inermis Cleve, 1904 a (p.200); Sewell, 1948 (p.431, 443, 460);
C. rotunda Wolfenden, 1904 (p.118, figs.F); van Breemen, 1908 a (p.148); T. Scott, 1911 (p.119); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.28);
C. rotundata : Farran, 1908 b (p.85, fig.M); 1926 (p.291); Sars, 1924 (p.46, Pl 125: F,M); Farran, 1926 (p.291); Sewell, 1948 (p.477, 479);
C. obtusa Sars, 1905 (p.23); Sewell, 1948 (p.468)
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.130); Sars, 1925 (p.346, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.250, figs.F,M); ? Jespersen, 1934 (p.117); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.41); Farran, 1948 b (n°13, p.3, figs.F,M); Grice, 1963 (p.176, figs.F,M, Rem.); Vervoort, 1965 (p.161, Rem.); Morris, 1970 (p.2301, 2319, figs.M, Rem.); Bradford, 1970 a (p.361, figs.F); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.655, figs.F,M); Roe, 1984 (p.359); Baessa De Aguiar, 1991 (1993) (p.102, figs.M); Hure & Krsinic, 1998 (p.102); Lapernat, 1999 (p.11, 55, figs.F); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 956, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.168, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.182, 193); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.448, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Candacia elongata - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.169, Fig.119].
Female: A, urosome (dorsal); B, idem (right lateral side); C, P5.

Male: D, urosome (dorsal); E, P5.

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Jl Mar. Freshw. Res., 1970, 4 (4). [p.361, Figs 73-74].
Female (off Kaikoura, New Zealand): 73, urosome (dorsal); 74, P5.
Scale bars represent 0.1 mm.

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 3 of morphological figuresIssued from : G.O. Sars in Résult. Camp. Scient. Prince Albert I, 69, pls.1-127 (1924). [Pl.CXXV, figs.1-17]. As Candacia rotundata.
Female: 1, habitus (dorsal); 2, idem (lateral left side); 3, rostrum; 4, A2; 5, Md; 6, Mx1; 7, Mx2; 8, Mxp; 9, distal segments of Mxp (enlarged); 10, P1; 11, P3; 12, P5.

Male: 13, habitus (dorsal); 14, right A1; 15, P5; 16, urosome (dorsal); 17, last thoracic segment and three urosomal segments (lateral right side).

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : R.N. Wolfenden in J; mar. biol. Ass. U.K., 1904, VII (N.S.). [Plate IX, Figs.10-11]. As Candace rotunda.
Female (from NE Atlantic): 10, habitus (dorsal); 11, P5.

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 5 of morphological figures issued from : G.P. Farran in Fish. Ire. Sci. Invest., 1906, II [1908]. [Pl. IX, Fig.15].
Male (from W Ireland): 15, P5.

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : B. Morris in J. Fish. Res. Bd Canada, 1970, 27 (12). [p.2318, Fig.11, K-N];
Male (from 34°49'N, 160°19'W): K, urosome (dorsal); L, Md (biting edge of gnathobase); M, Mx2; N, P5 (posterior).

Nota: The male differs from previous descriptions of C. elongata (Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898; Sars, 1925; Rose, 1933); Farran, 1948, and Grice, 1963) in having 1- a deeper bifurcation of the basal tooth of the Md gnathobase: 2 - 4 small spines on the right 4th segment of P5 instead of 2; 3 - no spine on the right 3rd segment of P5; 4 - somewhat differently shaped processes on the right corner at the posterior prosome, and on the right sides of the urosomal segments 1 and 2 (that of the urosomal 2 being most different). Grice (1963) synonymized Candacia inermis Cleve, 1904, of which only the female has been described, with C. elongata, but he does regard inermis as a distinct type within the species. His report of one female of the inermis type from the tropical west Pacific. The male recorded here may be the inermis type male.

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from P.E. Lapernat & C. Razouls in Vie Milieu, 2002, 52 (1). [p.23, Pl.VI).
Female (from off Malta; Mediterranean Sea): 14, masticatory edge of Md.
Nota: The Itoh's index: 4473.7 (number of teeth: 2).

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 8 of morphological figuresissued from : P.E. Lapernat & C. Razouls in Vie Milieu, 2002, 52 (1). [p.23, Pl. III, Fig.5].
Biting edge of Md gnathobase female (from off Malta, Mediterranean Sea).

Species Candacia elongata - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva, C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999, Vol. 2, Copepoda; [p.1065, Fig. 7.366: Candacia elongata ]. Ur = urosome; B = basis; Pd = pedigerous segment.

Female characters (from key, p.956):
- P5 terminal segments end in one or more spine-like processes.
- Posterior corners of prosome broadly rounded.

Male characters (from key, p.956):
- P5 is chelate on right; right A1 has teeth on one or more segments in geniculate region.
- Left posterior corner of prosome rounded.

Compl. Ref.:
Pearson, 1906 (p.29); Massuti Alzamora, 1942 (p.111); Sewell, 1948 (p.506); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.181); Grice, 1963 a (p.496); Gaudy, 1963 (p.27, Rem.); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.19); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Vives & al., 1975 (p.52, tab.II, XII); Deevey & Brooks, 1977 (p.156, tab.2, Station "S"); Pipe & Coombs, 1980 (p.223, Table II, vertical occurrence); Vives, 1982 (p.294); Kovalev & Shmeleva, 1982 (p.85); Scotto di Carlo & Ianora, 1983 (p.150); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1984 (1043); Regner, 1985 (p.11, Rem.: p.37); Greze & al., 1985 (p.8); Heinrich, 1990 (p.19); Scotto di Carlo & al., 1991 (p.270); Gilabert & Moreno, 1998 (tab.1, 2); Lapernat & Razouls, 2001 (p.123, tab.1); Holmes, 2001 (p.30); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Licandro & Icardi, 2009 (p.17, Table 4); Mazzocchi & Di Capua, 2010 (p.424); Medellin-Mora & Navas S., 2010 (p.265, Tab. 2); Zaafa & al., 2014 (p.67, Table I, occurrence); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones)
NZ: 11 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Candacia elongata by geographical zones
? Afr. S (in Cleve, 1904 a), Sao Tomé, G. of Guinea, off Mauritania, Canary Is., Brazil, Caribbean Sea, Caribbean Colombia, off Bermuda (Station "S"), Sargasso Sea, Azores, Bay of Biscay, off W Cape Finisterre, off Lisbon, off W Gibraltar, Norway, Wyville Thomson Ridge, Faroe Is., ? S Strait of Davis, off S Iceland, off W Ireland, off W Scotland, North Sea, Ibero-moroccan Bay, Medit. (M'Diq, Alboran Sea, G. of Lion, Marseille, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, off Malta, Adriatic Sea Ionian Sea, Lebanon Basin), W & E Indian, Tasman Sea, New Zealand (Cook Strait), ? Philippines, ? Pacif. (N subtropical), Pacif. (SE tropical), Galapagos
N: 50 (Atlant. N: 21; Atlant. S: 4; Medit.: 17; Indian: 3; Pacif.: 5)
(1) F: 3,5; (16) F: 3,2-3; M: 3,3-3,15; (24) M: 3,8; (38) F: 3,44; (92) M: 3,54; (199) F: 3,19; M: 3,04; (202) F: 3,25-3; M: 3,3-3,15; (313) F: 3,5; (340) F: 2,2-2; (909) F: 3,35; {F: 2,00-3,50; M: 3,04-3,80}

The mean female size is 3.057 mm (n = 11; SD = 0.5058), and the mean male size is 3.326 mm (n = 7; SD = 0.2632). The size ratio (male : female) is is approximately 1.
Rem.: meso-bathypelagic. Sargasso Sea: 500-1500 m (Deevey & Brooks, 1977, Station "S"); 480-510 m (Pipe & Coombs, 1980 at 60°N, 07°W).
According to Grice (1963, p.176) a comparison of the description of C. elongata given by Sars (1924) from the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of C. inermis given by Cleve (1904) based on female specimens collected in the Indian Ocean off South Africa shows the following small differences: 1- the basal tooth of Md in is only slightly bifurcate, in C. inermis it is deeply bifurcate; 2- the distal segment of the female P5, although similar in both species, has spines in C. elongata and spine-like processes in C. inermis. The discovery of the male sex of C. inermis may result in the finding of specific differences between the two.
For Chad Walter (in WoRMS, 2012) Candacia inermis is a good species, not synonym from C. elongata.
Last update : 18/01/2021
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Razouls C., Desreumaux N., Kouwenberg J. and de Bovée F., 2005-2021. - Biodiversity of Marine Planktonic Copepods (morphology, geographical distribution and biological data). Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed May 11, 2021]

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