Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Candaciidae ( Family )
            Candacia ( Genus )
Candacia maxima  Vervoort, 1957   (F,M)
Syn.: ? Candacia sp Mckintosh, 1934 (p.92, fig.F)
Ref.:
Vervoort, 1957 (p.142, figs.F,M); Grice, 1963 (p.178); Bradford, 1971 b (p.27, fig.M); Séret, 1979 (p.155, figs.F,M, Rem.); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.655, figs.F,M, Rem.); Razouls, 1994 (p.178, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.171, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.183,193); Park & Ferrari, 2009 (p.143, Table 3, Appendix 1, biogeography from Southern Ocean)
Species Candacia maxima - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.172, Fig.122].
Female (from 62° S, 170° E): A, urosome (dorsal); B, idem (ventral); C, idem (right side); D, P5 (on one side); E, P5 (idem (on other side).

Male (from Ross Sea): F, urosome (dorsal); G, idem (left side); H, segments 14-19 of right A1; I, P5 (L = left leg; R = right leg).


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III. Copepods. 1957 [Fig.133].
Female (from 47°43'S, 48°E): a, habitus (dorsal); b, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (dorsal); c, frontal part of cephalothorax (lateral); d, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (lateral).


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III. Copepods. 1957 [Fig.134].
Female: a, Mx1; b-c, right A1; d, left Md.


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III. Copepods. 1957 [Fig.135].
Female: a, P5; b, right A2; c, left Mx2; d, right Mxp.


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III. Copepods. 1957 [Fig.136].
Female: a-d, P1 to P4 (posterior aspects).


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III. Copepods. 1957 [Fig.137].
Male: a, habitus (dorsal); b, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (dorsal); c, P5 (rt = right leg; lt = left leg).


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Report Ser. B, Vol. III. Copepods. 1957 [Fig.138].
Male: a-b, right A1 (segments 18 and 19 indicated); c, posterior part cephalothorax and urosome (lateral)


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford in N.Z. Oceanogr. Inst., 1971, 206, Part 8, No 59. [p.27, Fig.125].
Male (from 75°09'S, 171°00'W): 125, P5.
Scale bar: 100 µm.


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle, UPMC, Paris 6. 1979 [Pl. XLI, Figs.272-275].
Female (from off Kerguelen Is.): 272, habitus (dorsal); 273, last thoracic segùent and urosome (ventral): 274, same (lateral); 275, P5.


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle, UPMC, Paris 6. 1979 [Pl. XLI, Figs.276-279].
Male: 276, habitus (dordal); 277, last thoracic segment and urosome (venyral); 278, same (lateral); 279, P5.


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle, UPMC, Paris 6. 1979 [p.156, Tableau XV].
Body length (L.T) and mean cephalothorax length (L.Cth) in Candacia maxima at three stations from Kerguelen Islands: 5 (50°5, 70°E), 15 (46°S, 64°E) and 12 (56°S, 70°E) in April 1974.


Species Candacia maxima - Plate 12 of morphological figuresIssued from : C. Razouls in Ann. Inst. océanogr., Paris, 1994, 70 (1). [p.178]. Caractéristiques morphologiques de Candacia maxima femelle et mâle adultes.
Terminologie et abbréviations: voir à Calanus propinquus.

Compl. Ref.:
Rudyakov, 1972 (p.886, Table 1: sinking rate); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Ward, 1989 (tab.2); Errhif & al., 1997 (p.422); Mauchline, 1998 (tab.64); Voronina & Kolosova, 1999 (p.71); Razouls & al., 2000 (p.343, tab. 3, 5, Appendix); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Takahashi & al., 2010 (p.317, Table 3, 4)
NZ: 5 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Candacia maxima by geographical zones
Species Candacia maxima - Distribution map 4issued from : W. Vervoort in B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Reseach Expedition, Reports - Ser. B, Vol. III, 1957 [Fig.132]
Chart showing the geographical distribution (white triangle) in the seas surrounding the Antarctic continent.
Nota: In this chart the area frequented by whaling vessels has been hatched. The Antarctic circle (66°.5 S) has been drawn as a broken line. The numbers I to VI refer to the sectors into which the Antarctic seas are divided according to Mackintosh (1942) (after Vervoort, 1951).
Species Candacia maxima - Distribution map 5Issued from : C. Séret in Thesis 3ème Cycle, UPMC, Paris 6. 1979, Annexe. [p.51].
Geographical occurrences of Candacia maxima in the Indian Ocean and Antarctic zone. [after publications from: Brady, 1883, 1918; Thompson, 1900; Wolfenden, 1908, 1911; With , 1915; Rosendorn, 1917; Farran, 1929; Sewell, 1929, 1947; Brady & Gunther, 1935; Steuer, 1929, 1392, 1933; Ommaney, 1936; Vervoort, 1957; Tanaka, 1960; Brodsky, 1964; Seno, 1966; Andrews, 1966; Grice & Hulsemann, 1967; Seno, 1966; Frost & Fleminger, 1968; Voronina, 1970; Zverva, 1972].

Nota: C. Séret notes the occurrence at stations 49.9°, 75°E; 50.5°, 70°E; 51°S, 65°E; 46°S, 64°E; 56°S, 70°E.
Loc:
Antarct. (Peninsula, SW Atlant., Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, Indian, Ross Sea), sub-Antarct. (S Indian (convergence subtropical), Kerguelen Is., SW Atlant., South Africa (Natal), SW Pacif., W Medit. (Gulf of Annaba)
N: 15 (Antarct., Sub-Antarct.: 11; Indian: 4; ? W Medit.)
Lg.:
(25) F: 3,96-3,78; M: 3,87-3,74; (102) M: 3,6; (246) F: 3,99-3,45; M: 3,99-3,46; (909) F: 3,84; {F: 3,45-3,99; M: 3,60-3,99}

The mean female size is 3.804 mm (n = 5; SD = 0.2157), and the mean male size is 3.732 mm (n = 5; SD = 0.2104). The size ratio (male : female) is about 0.98.
Rem.: Mesopelagic.
Sampling depth (Antarct., sub-Antarct.) : 300-600 m.
For Vervoort (1957) this species would preferentially be sub-Antarctic.
The occurrence of this species in the Gulf of Annaba (W Mediterranean Sea) by Khelifi-Touhami & al. (2007) needs confirmation.
Last update : 29/01/2017
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Razouls C., de Bovée F., Kouwenberg J. and Desreumaux N., 2005-2020. - Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Marine Planktonic Copepods. Sorbonne University, CNRS. Available at http://copepodes.obs-banyuls.fr/en [Accessed October 20, 2020]

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