Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Candaciidae ( Family )
            Candacia ( Genus )
Candacia norvegica  (Boeck, 1864)   (F,M)
Syn.: Candace norvegica Boeck, 1864; Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.425)
Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.131); Sars, 1902 (1903) (p.134, figs.F,M); Farran, 1908 b (p.85); Lysholm, 1913 (p.6); Lysholm & Nordgaard, 1921 (p.27); Sewell, 1932 (p.336, Rem.); Wilson, 1932 a (p.138, figs.F,M); Rose, 1933 a (p.251, figs.F,M); Jespersen, 1934 (p.119); 1940 (p.66); Lysholm & al., 1945 (p.41); Farran, 1948 b (n°13, p.3, figs.F,M); Marques, 1953 (p.120, figs.F,M); Grice & Jones, 1960 (p.288, figs.F,M, Rem.); Grice, 1963 (p.178, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1964 c (p.246, figs.F,M, Rem.: variety); Silas, 1972 (p.649); Lawson, 1977 (p.71, tab.2,3,4, fig.4, 5); Huys & Boxshall, 1991 (p.66, fig.); Mazzocchi & al., 1995 (p.76, figs.F,M, Rem.); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.754, Pl.75,77: F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.885, 956, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve, 1999 b (p.172, figs.F,M, Rem., figs.183,193); Boxshall & Halsey, 2004 (p.85: fig.F); Vives & Shmeleva, 2007 (p.453, figs.F,M, Rem.)
Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : O. Tanaka in Publs Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 1964, XII (3). [p.247, Fig.228].
Female (from Izu region, Japan): a, habitus (dorsal); b, last thoracic segment and urosome (left lateral side); c, proximal portion of A1; d, P5. g, h, juvenile (urosome and P5, respectively).
Nota: Cephalothorax 2.81 mm; abdomen 0.82 mm.
Cephalothorax about 3 times as long as wide.
Lateral corner of the last thoracic segment produced into an acute process extending about to the middle of the genital segment.
Abdominal segments and caudal rami in the proportional lengths 52 : 17 : 9 : 22 = 100.
Genital segment armed with a small process on each side of the lateral margin; these spines are reported to be equal in size by Sars or Wilson but in the present specimen the spine on the left side is longer than that of the right.
There is a slight difference in the armature of P5 by comparison with Sars.

Male: e, last thoracic segment and urosome (dorsal); f, P5.
Nota: Cephalothorax 2.50 mm; abdomen 0.75 mm.
The 2nd, 3rd and 4th abdominal segments with each a tuft of hairs on the right distal corner.
In P5 the distal segment of the exopod of the right leg more voluminous than that figured by Sars. The distal segment of the left leg with a spine on the inner proximal margin.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Bradford-Grieve J.M. in The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pelagic Calanoid Copepoda. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 111, 1999. [p.173, Fig.123].
Female: A, last thoracic segments and urosome (dorsal); B, urosome (left side); C, exopod segment 3 of P2; D, P5.
Nota: The female genital somite of the Southwest Pacific specimens appears to differ slightly from the description by Sars (1903) in that the swollen anterior part is bordered by small hairs.

Male: E, last thoracic segments and urosome (dorsal); F, dorso lateral view of anterior urosome; G, right A1; H, P5.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl.LXXXIX].
Nota: R = rostrum; M = Md; m = Mx1.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : G.O. Sars in An Account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. IV. Copepoda Calanoida. Published by the Bergen Museum, 1903. [Pl.XC].
Female & Male.
Nota: mp1 = Mx2; mp2 = Mxp

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 5 of morphological figuresIssued from: M.G. Mazzocchi, G. Zagami, A. Ianora, L. Guglielmo & J. Hure in Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellan. Copepods. L. Guglielmo & A. Ianora (Eds.), 1995. [p.77, Fig.3.9.1].
Female: A, habitus (dorsal); B, urosome (dorsal).
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 48:21:15:16 = 100. In dorsal view, genital somite bears short bifid processes at midpoint of lateral margins (right process shorter than left; above bifid processes, genital somite bears tufts of hairs on either side.

Male: C, P5.
Nota: Proportional lengths of urosomites and furca 28:19:19:11:8:15 = 100.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 6 of morphological figuresIssued from: M.G. Mazzocchi, G. Zagami, A. Ianora, L. Guglielmo & J. Hure in Atlas of Marine Zooplankton Straits of Magellan. Copepods. L. Guglielmo & A. Ianora (Eds.), 1995. [p.78, Fig.3.9.2].
Female (SEM preparation): A, habitus (dorsal); B, genital somite (dorsal); C, urosome (lateral right side); D, detail of bifid process on genital somite (arrows in B and C); E, P5.
bars: A 0.200 mm; C 0.100 mm; B, E 0.050 mm; D 0.010 mm.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice & E.C. Jones in Pacific Science, 1960, XIV (3). [p.289, Figs.46-65].
Female: 46, habitus (lateral left side); 47, urosome (dorsal); 48, left genital spinous process (lateral view); 49, right genital spinous process (lateral view); 50, 51, edge biting of mandibular blades from one individual, showing unlike basal teeth; 52, Mx1; 53, Mx2; 54, P5 (with 2 external spinous processes on each foot); 55, P5 (showing 3 external spinous processes on one foot and 2 on the other); 63, urosome (dorsal); 64, 65, genital spinous process (left and right, respectively).

Male: 56, habitus (dorsal); 57, idem (lateral right side); 58, 4th and 5th thoracic segments and genital segment (dorsal); 59, genital segment (ventral); 60, 4th and 5th thoracic segments and genital segment (right lateral oblique view); 61, right A1 (segments 17 through 19); 62, P5.

Figures 46-62: Pacific specimens; 63-65: Atlantic specimen.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : R.B.S. Sewell in Mem. Indian Mus., 1932, X (continued). [p.337, Fig.110]. As Candacia norvegica var. tropica
Female (from Laccadive Sea): a, urosome (dorsal); b, proximal segments of A1; c, Mx2; d, P5.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 9 of morphological figuresissued from : R. Huys & G.A. Boxshall in Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, 1991, 159. [p.66, Fig.2.2.13, A].
From Norway: Christiana Fjord, Sars collection: A, A2.

Species Candacia norvegica - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : J.M. Bradford-Grieve, E.L. Markhaseva, C.E.F. Rocha & B. Abiahy in South Atlantic Zooplankton, edit. D. Boltovskoy. 1999, Vol. 2, Copepoda; [p.1065, Fig. 7.370: Candacia nprvegica ]. Gns = genital segment.

Compl. Ref.:
Pearson, 1906 (p.29); Wilson, 1942 a (part., p.175); Sewell, 1948 (p.350, 408, 496, 506); Mazza, 1966 (p.72); Roe, 1972 (p.277, tabl.1, tabl.2); Bainbridge, 1972 (p.61, Appendix Table III: occurrence); Falconetti & Seguin, 1977 (p.188); Pipe & Coombs, 1980 (p.223, Table II, vertical occurrence); Vives, 1982 (p.294); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Go & al., 1997 (tab.1, as Canadacia: lapsus calami); Holmes, 2001 (p.30); Beaugrand & al., 2002 (p.179, figs.5, 6); Gaard & al., 2008 (p.59, Table 1, N Mid-Atlantic Ridge); Benedetti & al., 2016 (p.159, Table I, fig.1, functional characters); Belmonte, 2018 (p.273, Table I: Italian zones)
NZ: 15 + 1 doubtful

Distribution map of Candacia norvegica by geographical zones
Angola, G. of Guinea, off Lagos, off Morocco-Mauritania, Canary Is., Caribbean, Sargasso Sea, Woods Hole, off E Newfoundland, Greenland Sea, S Strait of Davis, S Iceland, off Ireland (S & W), off W Sotland, Norway, Wyville Thomson Ridge (60°N), Lofoten Is., North Sea, Bay of Lübeck, ? W Medit. (Ligura & Tyrrhenian Seas), Indian (E Laccadive Is.), Pacif. (N central), Japan (Izu region), ? [Philippines, China Seas, Japon, Aleutian is., Hawaii, Central America, W Equador, S Galapagos , Chile (in Wilson, 1942 a , 1950, p.181) et (in Fagetti, 1962, p.33)], Straits of Magellan, SE Australia, New Zealand (SW North Island, E South Island)
N: 38 (Sub-Antarct.: 1; N Atlant.: 24; ? Medit.; S Atlant.: 3; Indian: 3; Pacif.: 6)
(36) F: 3,14-2,9; M: 2,96-2,82; (45) F: 3,35-3; M: 3,2-2,9; (65) F: 3,2; M: ±3,2; (120) F: 3,63; M: 3,25; (149) F: 3,24-2,28; M: 2,68; 3,23; (199) F: 2,74; (909) F: 2,75-3,1; M: 2,6; {F: 2,28-3,63; M: 2,60-3,25}

The mean female size is 3.121 mm (n = 11; SD = 0.2654), and the mean male size is 2.982 mm (n = 9; SD = 0.2497). The size ratio (male : female) is 0.95 (n = 6; SD = 0.0462).
Rem.: epi-mesopelagic. After Pearson (1906, p.29): vertical range down to 900 m. Pipe & Cvoombs (1980) note the occurrence at depths 480-550 m at 60°N, 07°W.
According to Tanaka (1964 c, p.248), the specimen might be regarded as a variety: C. norvegica intermedia.
Grice & Jones (1960, p. 290) point to differences in the details of the lateral spines of the female genital segment between Pacific and Atlantic forms. The Pacific females specimens agree with tropica Sewell (1932).
According to Mazzocchi & al. (1995) the females from the Straits of Magellan (Pacific area) belong to the variety tropica from Sewell (1932).
The occurrence of this species in the Mediterranean Sea requires confirmation.
Last update : 18/01/2021
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