Species Card of Copepod
Calanoida ( Order )
    Diaptomoidea ( Superfamily )
        Centropagidae ( Family )
            Centropages ( Genus )
Centropages gracilis  (Dana, 1849)   (F,M)
Syn.: Hemicalanus gracilis Dana, 1849
Ref.:
Giesbrecht, 1892 (p.305, 321, 771, figs.F,M); Giesbrecht & Schmeil, 1898 (p.57, Rem. F,M); Thompson & Scott, 1903 (p.234, 247); Wolfenden, 1905 (1906) (p.1013, figs.F); A. Scott, 1909 (p.114, Rem.); Wolfenden, 1911 (p.356); Sewell, 1914 a (p.223); Rose, 1929 (p.32: Rem.); Farran, 1936 a (p.108): Mori, 1937 (1964) (p.62, figs.F,M); Dakin & Colefax, 1940 (p.92, figs.F); Pesta, 1943 (p.24, figs.F,M); Sewell, 1947 (p.163, Rem.); C.B. Wilson, 1950 (p.187, fig.M); Chiba, 1956 (p.57, figs.F,M); Chiba & al., 1957 (p.308); 1957 a (p.11); Tanaka, 1960 (p.46); Grice, 1962 (p.218, figs.F,M, Rem.); Brodsky, 1962 c (p.126, figs.F,M); Tanaka, 1963 (p.8, Rem.F,M); Kasturirangan, 1963 (p.33, 35, figs.F,M); Vervoort, 1964 b (p.309); Chen & Zhang, 1965 (part., p.75, figs.F,M); Saraswathy, 1966 (1967) (p.78); Vidal, 1968 (p.37, figs.F,M); Marques, 1976 (p.994, fig.M); Björnberg & al., 1981 (p.644, figs.F,M); Chihara & Murano, 1997 (p.766, Pl.83,86: F,M); Mulyadi, 1998 (p.62, figs.F,M); Bradford-Grieve & al., 1999 (p.884, 950, figs.F,M); Conway & al., 2003 (p.118, figs.F,M, Rem.); Mulyadi, 2004 (p.130, figs.F,M, Rem.); Phukham, 2008 (p.70, figs.F,M);
Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 1 of morphological figuresissued from : Brodsky K.A. in Issled. dal'nevost. Morei SSSR, 1962, 8. [Fig.30, p.129].
Female: a, habitus (dorsal view); b, idem (lateral view); c, urosome (ventral view); d, urosome (left lateral view); e, P5.

Male: f, habitus (dorsal view); P5 (L: left; R: right).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 2 of morphological figuresissued from : Grice G.D. in Fishery Bull. Fish Wildl. Serv. U.S., 1962, 61 (186). [Plate 23, Figs. 1-3].
Female: 1, P5.

Male: 2, habitus (dorsal view); 3, P5.


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 3 of morphological figuresissued from : Mulyadi in The Raffles Bull. Zool., 1998, 46 (1). [Fig.5, p.63].
Female (from 07°29'S, 121°05'E): a, habitus (dorsal view); b, genital complex (ventral view); c, P5.
Nota: Genital complex with spinules on lateral margin of right side; urosomal segment 2 with distinct knob-like projection on lateral margins, surface of each knob covered with fine short spinules, ventral surface bearing a rounded process. Caudal rami symmetrical, about 3 times longer than wide.

Male: d, habitus (dorsal view); e, Th5 and urosome (dorsal view); f, P5.
Nota: Left A1 reaching distal end of caudal rami by last 3 segments, middle part of right A1 slender. Caudal rami about 4 times as long as wide.


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 4 of morphological figuresissued from : Chen Q.-C. & Zhang S.-Z. in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Plate 26, p.75].
Female: 8, habitus (dorsal view); 9, 1st and 2nd segment of the urosome (ventral view); 10, P5 (posterior view).

Male: 11, habitus (dorsal view); 12, P5 (anterior view).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 5 of morphological figuresissued from : Mori T. in The pelagic Copepoda from the neighbouring waters of Japan. S. Shirai ed., Tokyo, 1937; 2nd edit. 1964. [Pl. 31, Figs.1-7].
Female: 5, urosome (ventral view); 6, P5; 7, habitus (dorsal view).

Male: 1, habitus (dorsal view); 2, right A1; 3, P5; 4, exodal segments 2 & 3 of right P5.


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 6 of morphological figuresissued from: Q.-c Chen & S.-z. Zhang in Studia Marina Sinica, 1965, 7. [Pl.26, 8-12].
Female (from E China Sea): 8, habitus (dorsal); ; 9, 1st and 2nd urosomal segments (ventral); 10, P5 (posterior).

Male: 11, habitus (dorsal); 12, P5 (anterior).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 7 of morphological figuresissued from : G.D. Grice in Fish. Bull. Fish and Wildl. Ser., 1962, 61. [p.219, Pl.23, Figs.1-3].
Female (from equatorial Pacific): 1, P5.
Nota: Spines on the sides on the 2nd abdominal segment.
Short spine-like protrusions on the inner sides of the 2nd exopodal segments of P5.

Male: 2, habitus (dorsal); 3, P5.
Nota: The thumb of the chela of right P5 has a pronounced triangular protrusion.


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 8 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.17, Fig.46].
Female: 46, exopod of P5 (posterior view).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 9 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.17, Figs.31, 32].
Male: 31, exopod of left P5 (posterior view); 32, exopod of right P5 (posterior view).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 10 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.38, Fig.4].
Male: 4, habiyus (dorsal).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 11 of morphological figuresIssued from : W. Giesbrecht in Systematik und Faunistik der Pelagischen Copepoden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. – Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel, 1892, 19 , Atlas von 54 Tafeln. [Taf.38, Fig.13].
Female: uosome (ventral).


Species Centropages gracilis - Plate 12 of morphological figuresissued from : N. Phukham in Species diversity of calanoid copepods in Thai waters, Andaman Sea (Master of Science, Univ. Bangkok). 2008. [p.152, Fig.26].
Female (from W Malay Peninsula): a, habitus (dorsal); b, P5; c, urosome (dorsal); d, same (lateral, left side).

Male: e, habitus (dorsal); f, P5.

Body length after the drawings: F = 1.978 mm; M = 1.733 mm.

Compl. Ref.:
Sewell, 1932 (p.229); Yamazi, 1958 (p.149, Rem.); Ganapati & Shanthakumari, 1962 (p.8, 15); Gaudy, 1963 (p.26, Rem.); De Decker, 1964 (p.15, 20, 28); De Decker & Mombeck, 1964 (p.11); Furuhashi, 1966 a (p.295, vertical distribution in Kuroshio region, Table 9); Grice & Hulsemann, 1967 (p.17); Fleminger, 1967 a (tabl.1); Delalo, 1968 (p.138); Timonin, 1971 (p.281, trophic group); Deevey, 1971 (p.224); Björnberg, 1973 (p.385); Carter, 1977 (1978) (p.36); Chen Q-c, 1980 (p.794); Dessier, 1983 (p.89, Tableau 1, Rem., %); De Decker, 1984 (p.316, 341: carte); Guangshan & Honglin, 1984 (p.118, tab.); Madhupratap & Haridas, 1986 (p.105, tab.1); Brinton & al., 1986 (p.228, Table 1); M. Lefèvre, 1986 (p.33); Renon, 1987 (tab.2); Hernandez-Trujillo, 1989 a (tab.1); Othman & al., 1990 (p.561, 563, 565, Table 1); Hirakawa & al., 1990 (tab.3); Yoo, 1991 (tab.1); Shih & Young, 1995 (p.69); Ohtsuka & al., 1996 b (p.153, Rem.: p.166, diet); Park & Choi, 1997 (Appendix); Padmavati & al., 1998 (p.349); Noda & al., 1998 (p.55, Table 3, occurrence); Hwang & al., 1998 (tab.II); Suarez-Morales & Gasca, 1998 a (p109); Lavaniegos & Gonzalez-Navarro, 1999 (p.239, Appx.1); Neumann-Leitao & al., 1999 (p.153, tab.2); Fernandez-Alamo & al., 2000 (p.1139, Appendix); Suarez-Morales & al., 2000 (p.751, tab.1); Lo & al., 2001 (1139, tab.I); Shimode & Shirayama, 2004 (tab.2); Hsiao & al., 2004 (p.325, tab.1); Lan & al., 2004 (p.332, tab.1); Lo & al.*, 2004 (p.218, fig.6); Gallienne & al., 2004 (p.5, tab.3); Zuo & al., 2006 (p.162: tab.1); Hwang & al., 2006 (p.943, tab.I); Lavaniegos & Jiménez-Pérez, 2006 (p.138, tab.2, 3, Rem.); Rakhesh & al., 2006 (p.93, Table 2, spatial distribution); Dur & al., 2007 (p.197, Table IV); Khelifi-Touhami & al., 2007 (p.327, Table 1); Jitlang & al., 2008 (p.65, Table 1); Lan Y.C. & al., 2008 (p.61, Table 1, % vs stations); Neumann-Leitao & al., 2008 (p.799: Tab.II, fig.6); Fernandes, 2008 (p.465, Tabl.2); Ayon & al., 2008 (p.238, Table 4: Peruvian samples); C.-Y. Lee & al., 2009 (p.151, Tab.2); Lan Y.-C. & al., 2009 (p.1, Table 2, % vs hydrogaphic conditions); W.-B. Chang & al., 2010 (p.735, Table 2, abundance); Hsiao S.H. & al., 2011 (p.475, Appendix I); Maiphae & Sa-ardrit, 2011 (p.641, Table 2); Tutasi & al., 2011 (p.791, Table 2, abundance distribution vs La Niña event); Mulyadi & Rumengan, 2012 (p.202, Rem.: p.204); in CalCOFI regional list (MDO, Nov. 2013; M. Ohman, comm. pers.); Hirai & al., 2013 (p.1, Table I, molecular marker)
NZ: 16

Distribution map of Centropages gracilis by geographical zones
Loc:
South Africa (E & W), off Tristan da Cunha NE, Congo, ? Azores, Brazil, off Natal, off Bermuda, Medit. (N Tunisia), Red Sea, Indian, Arabian Sea, G. of Aden, Is. Laquedive, Maldive Is., Sri Lanka, Mascarene Basin, Natal, Madagascar (Nosy Bé), Rodrigues Is. - Seychelles, India (Lawson's Bay), Bay of Bengal, W Malay Peninsula (Andaman Sea), Indonesia-Malaysia, Flores Sea, Philippines, Hong Kong, China Seas (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea), Taiwan Strait, Taiwan (E, SW, NW), S Korea, Japan (Kuchinoerabu Is., Tanabe Bay), California, W Baja California, Pacif. (W equatorial), Australia (G. of Carpentaria, Great Barrier, New South Wales), Moorea Is., Bikini, Hawaii, Galapagos-Ecuador, W Mexico, G. of Tehuantepec, Clipperton Is., Ecuador, Peru, N Chile
N: 102 (Atlant. S: 7; Atlant. N: 2; W Medit.: 1; Red Sea: 1; Indian: 33; Indonesia-Malaysia: 6; Pacif.: 51)
Lg.:
(26) F: 2,07-1,93; M: 1,95-1,79; (34) F: 2,04-1,92; (47) F: 1,85; M: 1,8; (66) F: 2,05; (78) F: 1,8-1,7; M: 1,7; (101) F: 2,01-1,9; M: 2,04; 1,84; (104) F: 2; (150) F: 1,92-1,87; M: 1,9; (187) F: 2,16; M: 2,03; (290) F: 1,95-1,85; M: 1,8-1,7; (333) F: 1,85; M: 1,81; (530) F: 2; (776) F: 1,85; M: 1,8-1,75; (786) F: 1,88-1,85; (991) F: 1,85-2; M: 1,81-2,04; (1122) F: 1,85; M: 1,75; {F: 1,70-2,16; M: 1,70-2,04}
Rem.: epiplagic. Coastal.
Timonin (1971, p.282) considers the trophic interrelations in the equatorial and tropical Indian Ocean, and divides the plankters into 6 trophic groups from the litterature and the results of studies of mouth-parts structure and intestine content. This species is omnivorous.
Khelifi-Touhami & al. (2007) note the occurrence of this species for the first time in the western Mediterranean Sea (El Kala shelf, Tunisia);

See in DVP Conway & al., 2003 (version 1)
Last update : 17/12/2016
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